• Last updated on November 11, 2022

The Supreme Court banned sex discrimination in postsecondary schools receiving federal funds.

Justice Byron R. WhiteWhite, Byron R.;Grove City College v. Bell[Grove City College v. Bell] wrote the opinion for the Supreme Court for this 6-3 decision in which there was a wide, conflicting array of dissents and concurrences. This ruling declared that Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972Title IX of the 1972 Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act banned gender discrimination in postsecondary schools receiving federal funds. Although Grove City College did not receive federal funds, enough students attended the college under the Basic Educational Opportunity Grants to justify the school’s inclusion under Title IX. The Justice Department’s original position was that all Grove City’s programs needed to comply with Title IX before the school received any federal funds; however, when President Jimmy Carter was replaced by the more conservative Ronald Reagan, the government’s stance against Grove City softened. The 1984 Court ruling did not broadly cut off funds to all programs but only those that were discriminatory. Civil rights and women’s groups reacted strongly. Their efforts resulted in the passage of the 1987 Civil Rights Restoration Act over Reagan’s veto to correct the Grove City ruling. The act applied Title IX if any part of the institution received federal funding and mandated that all programs be free from discrimination.Discrimination, sex;Grove City College v. Bell[Grove City College v. Bell]

Bill of Rights

Due process, procedural

Fourteenth Amendment

Gender issues

Incorporation doctrine

Reversals of Court decisions by Congress

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