The Supreme Court introduced the public forum doctrine, which required that streets, parks, and other public places must be accessible for public assembly and the discussion of public issues.
A local ordinance of Jersey City, New Jersey, required a permit in order to hold public meetings or distribute literature in public areas. Mayor Frank Hague, an opponent of labor unions, had union members arrested for passing out pamphlets, and he refused to grant members the necessary permit for speaking on public property. By a 5-2 vote, the Supreme Court found that the city ordinance was unconstitutional. Speaking for a ruling plurality, Justice Owen J. Roberts
Assembly and association, freedom of
Due process, substantive
Privileges and immunities
Public forum doctrine