The Supreme Court upheld a drug-testing program in the U.S. Customs Service that required urinalysis tests for employees who sought promotions to positions that involve drug interdiction, the carrying of firearms, or the handling of classified information.
A union of federal employees challenged the program as a violation of the Fourth Amendment because urine samples were taken without individualized suspicion, probable cause, or a search warrant. Writing for a narrow 5-4 majority, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy
Privacy, right to
Search warrant requirement
Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives Association