Authors: Françoise Sagan

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Bonjour Tristesse, 1954 (English translation, 1955) Un Certain Sourire, 1956 (A Certain Smile, 1956) Dans un mois, dans un an, 1957 (Those Without Shadows, 1957) Aimez-vous Brahms?, 1959 (English translation, 1960) Les Merveilleux Nuages, 1961 (Wonderful Clouds, 1961) La Chamade, 1965 (English translation, 1966) Le Garde du cæur, 1968 […]

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Authors: William Safire

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American journalist, novelist, and grammarian Author Works Nonfiction: The Relations Explosion, 1963 Plunging into Politics, 1964 (with Marshall Loeb) The New Language of Politics, 1968 (revised and enlarged as Safire’s New Political Dictionary: The Definitive Guide to the New Language of Politics, 1993) Before the Fall, 1975 (also known as Before the Fall: An Inside […]

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Authors: Marquis de Sade

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 French novelist, playwright, short-story writer, and essayist Born: June 2, 1740 Birthplace: Paris, France Died: December 2, 1814 Place of death: Charenton-Saint-Maurice (now Saint-Maurice), France Biography Donatien-Alphonse-François de Sade (sahd) was born in Paris in 1740, heir to the title of Count de Sade; in his family, the heir carried the title of […]

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Authors: Thomas Sackville

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright and poet Author Works Drama: Gorboduc, pr. 1561, authorized edition pb. 1570 (also known as The Tragedy of Ferrex and Porrex; with Thomas Norton) Poetry: “Induction” and “Complaint of Henry, Duke of Buckingham,” in A Mirror for Magistrates, 1563 (2d edition) Biography The overused term “Renaissance man” once had specific validity, signifying the […]

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Authors: Oliver Sacks

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English neurologist and essayist Author Works Nonfiction: Migraine: Evolution of a Common Disorder, 1970 (revised as Migraine: Understanding a Common Disorder, 1985, and as Migraine, 1992) Awakenings, 1973, revised 1983, 1987 A Leg to Stand On, 1984 The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, and Other Clinical Tales, 1985 Seeing Voices: A Journey […]

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Authors: Howard Sackler

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright, screenwriter, director, and record producer Author Works Drama: Uriel Acosta, pr. 1954 The Yellow Loves, wr. 1959, pr. 1960 A Few Enquiries, wr. 1959, pr. 1965 (4 one-acts: Sarah, The Nine O’Clock Mail, Mr. Welk and Jersey Jim, Skippy) Mr. Welk and Jersey Jim, pr. 1960 (one act) The Pastime of Monsieur Robert, […]

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Authors: Nelly Sachs

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 German-born Swedish Nobel Prize–winning poet and playwright. Born: December 10, 1891 Birthplace: Berlin, Germany Died: May 12, 1970 Place of death: Stockholm, Sweden Biography The major work of Nelly Sachs, written during and after World War II, is a witness to the Holocaust. In 1966, when she shared a Nobel Prize in Literature […]

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Authors: Hans Sachs

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

German playwright, poet, and composer Author Works Drama: Der Henno, pr. 1531 Der schwanger Bauer, pr. 1544 (The Pregnant Farmer, 1990) Der fahrende Schüler im Paradies, pr. 1550 (The Traveling Scholar, 1910) Der Nasentanz, pr. 1550 (The Nose Dance, 1990) Der böse Raunch, pr. 1551 Der fahrende Schüler mit dem Teufelsbannen, pr. 1551 Das haiss […]

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Authors: Ernesto Sábato

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Argentine novelist and essayist Biography Ernesto Sábato (SAH-bah-toh) emerged from the Argentine pampas to examine his nation’s character and to explore the existential crisis of modern humanity. He was born on June 24, 1911, in Rojas, Argentina, where his Italian immigrant parents owned the local flour mill. One of the searing events in Sábato’s life […]

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Authors: George Ryga

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Canadian playwright and critic Author Works Drama: Indian, pr. 1962 (televised), pb. 1962, pr. 1964 (staged) Nothing but a Man, pr., pb. 1966 The Ecstasy of Rita Joe, pr. 1967 Grass and Wild Strawberries, pr. 1969 The Ecstasy of Rita Joe, and Other Plays, pb. 1971 (includes Indian and Grass and Wild Strawberries) Captives of […]

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Authors: Viktor Rydberg

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Swedish novelist and poet. Born: December 18, 1828 Birthplace: Jönköping, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (now Sweden) Died: September 21, 1895 Place of death: Djursholm, United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (now Sweden) Biography Abraham Viktor Rydberg, born in Jönköping into a lower-class Swedish family on December 18, 1828, had a difficult […]

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Authors: Witold Rybczynski

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

British-born Canadian architect Author Works Nonfiction: Paper Heroes: A Review of Appropriate Technology, 1980 Taming the Tiger: The Struggle to Control Technology, 1983 Home: A Short History of an Idea, 1986 The Most Beautiful House in the World, 1989 Waiting for the Weekend, 1991 A Place for Art: The Architecture of the National Gallery of […]

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Authors: W. Clark Russell

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Author Works Long Fiction: John Holdsworth, Chief Mate, 1875 The Wreck of the Grosvenor, 1877 My Watch Below, 1882 Round the Galley Fire, 1883 The Romance of a Midshipman, 1898 Poetry: The Turnpike Sailor, 1907 Nonfiction: Sailors’ Language: A Collection of Sea-Terms and Their Definitions, 1883 Biography William Clark Russell, though of English […]

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Authors: Bertrand Russell

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 British writer, philosopher, mathematician, social critic, and Nobel laureate in literature. Born: May 18, 1872 Place of birth: Trellech, Wales Died: February 2, 1970 Place of death: Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales Biography Bertrand Arthur William Russell, born the second son of Kingston Russell, Viscount Amberly, and Katherine, daughter of the second Baron Stanley of Alderly, […]

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Authors: Joanna Russ

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American novelist Born: February 22, 1937 Birthplace: Bronx, New York Died: April 29, 2011 Place of death: Tucson, Arizona Biography Joanna Russ successfully used science fiction to develop feminist alternatives to myths of male heroism and dominance. In both her fiction and her critical writing, she defended a strong feminist position. The daughter […]

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Authors: John Ruskin

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English critic and essayist Born: February 8, 1819 Birthplace: London, England Died: January 20, 1900 Place of death: Coniston, Lancashire, England Biography John Ruskin acted in several capacities as a man of letters, writing as an aesthetician, an art historian, a poet, a writer of a fairy tale, and as the author of […]

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Authors: Salman Rushdie

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Indian novelist Biography Ahmed Salman Rushdie (ROOSH-dee) may be the most famous novelist of the Indian diaspora, though for some unfortunate reasons. Born into an affluent Muslim family in India, Rushdie began his education in 1954 at Bombay’s Cathedral School. Rushdie’s family sent him to Rugby, one of England’s finest boys’ schools, when he was […]

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Authors: Juan Rulfo

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Mexican novelist and short-story writer Biography Juan Rulfo (REWL-foh) has been recognized as one of the greatest modern Mexican novelists, one of the forerunners of the “boom” in Latin American fiction of the 1960’s, and one of the initiators of Magical Realism. He was born to a landowner family impoverished by the Mexican Revolution. Both […]

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Authors: Muriel Rukeyser

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American poet and activist. Born: December 15, 1913 Place of birth: New York, New York Died: February 12, 1980 Place of death: New York, New York Biography The firstborn daughter of wealthy second-generation Jewish and politically conservative parents Myra Lyons and Lawrence Rukeyser, Muriel Rukeyser attended Vassar College for two years (1930–32); among […]

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Authors: Juan Ruiz de Alarcón

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Mexican playwright Author Works Drama: Los favores del mundo, pr. c. 1616-1618 Las paredes oyen, pr. 1617 (The Walls Have Ears, 1942) Algunas hazañas de las muchachas de don García Hurtado de Mendoza, marqués de Cañete, pb. 1622 (with Luis de Belmonte y Bermúdez, Guillén de Castro y Bellvís, Antonio Mira de Amescua, Luis Vélez […]

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Authors: Gabrielle Roy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Canadian novelist, short-story writer, and journalist Biography Gabrielle Roy (rah), a principal figure in twentieth century French Canadian literature, well known for her contribution to Canadian social realism and her probing psychological portraits, is one of the most widely read francophone authors in anglophone Canada.{$I[A]Roy, Gabrielle}{$I[geo]WOMEN;Roy, Gabrielle}{$I[geo]CANADA;Roy, Gabrielle}{$I[tim]1909;Roy, Gabrielle} Born March 22, 1909, in the […]

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Authors: Susanna Rowson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English-born American novelist, playwright, and educator Born: 1762 Birthplace: Portsmouth, Hampshire, England Died: March 2, 1824 Place of death: Boston, Massachusetts Biography Susanna Haswell Rowson (ROWZ-uhn), a prolific author and educator, lived during the years of the early American republic. She was the daughter of Susanna Musgrave Haswell, who died giving birth, and […]

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Authors: J. K. Rowling

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Author Born: July 31, 1965 Birthplace: Yate, England Biography Joanne Kathleen Rowling (ROHL-ihng) spent her early years living in various locations near the city of Bristol, where her father, Peter, worked for Rolls-Royce as an engineer, before moving to the village of Tuthill in the Forest of Dean in 1974. She was head […]

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Authors: William Rowley

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright and poet Author Works Drama: The Travels of the Three English Brothers, pr. 1607 (with John Day and George Wilkins) A Shoemaker a Gentleman, pr. c. 1608 Fortune by Land and Sea, pr. c. 1609 (with Thomas Heywood) A New Wonder, a Woman Never Vexed, pr. c. 1611-1614 Hymen’s Holiday or Cupid’s Vagaries, […]

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Authors: Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 French philosopher, dramatist, and novelist Born: June 28, 1712 Birthplace: Geneva (now in Switzerland) Died: July 2, 1778 Place of death: Ermenonville, France Biography Jean-Jacques Rousseau (rew-soh), French philosopher, novelist, and essayist, was born June 28, 1712, in Geneva. The fact that his mother died at his birth he referred to as the […]

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Authors: Philip Roth

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American novelist and nonfiction writer Born: March 19, 1933 Birthplace: Newark, New Jersey Biography Along with Bernard Malamud and Saul Bellow, Philip Milton Roth is one of the most prominent of the American Jewish novelists who emerged after World War II. Most of his fiction focuses on figures who are recognizably second-or third-generation […]

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Authors: Joseph Roth

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Austrian novelist and essayist Identity: Jewish Biography Joseph Roth was born Moses Joseph Roth on September 2, 1894, in Brody, Austrian Galicia, which at that time was in the eastern part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and today is in the Ukraine. His parents were part of a large Orthodox Jewish community, not uncommon in that […]

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Authors: Henry Roth

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and short-story writer Identity: Jewish Author Works Long Fiction: Call It Sleep, 1934 Mercy of a Rude Stream, 1994–1996 (includes A Star Shines over Mt. Morris Park, 1994; A Diving Rock on the Hudson, 1995; From Bondage, 1996; and Requiem for Harlem, 1998) Short Fiction: “Broker,” 1938 “Somebody Always Grabs the Purple,” 1940 […]

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Authors: Edmond Rostand

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French playwright Author Works Drama: Le Gant rouge, pr., pb. 1888 (with Henry Lee) Les Romanesques, pr., 1894 (verse play; The Romantics, 1899; also known as The Romancers) La Princesse lointaine, pr. 1895 (verse play; The Far Princess, 1899) La Samaritaine, pr. 1897 (verse play; The Woman of Samaria, 1921) Cyrano de Bergerac, pr. 1897 […]

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Authors: Judith Rossner

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: To the Precipice, 1966 Nine Months in the Life of an Old Maid, 1969 Any Minute I Can Split, 1972 Looking for Mr. Goodbar, 1975 Attachments, 1977 Emmeline, 1980 August, 1983 His Little Women, 1990 Olivia: Or, The Weight of the Past, 1994 Perfidia, 1997 Biography Although she did […]

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Authors: Dante Gabriel Rossetti

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English poet and painter Author Works Poetry: Poems, 1870, 1881 Ballads and Sonnets, 1881 Collected Works, 1886 The Works of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1911 (William Michael Rossetti, editor) Nonfiction: Letters of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1965–1967 (4 volumes; Oswald Doughty and J. R. Wahl, editors) Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Jane Morris: Their Correspondence, 1976 (John Bryson […]

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Authors: Christina Rossetti

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English poet associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Born: December 5, 1830 Place of birth: London, England Died: December 29, 1894 Place of death: London, England Biography Christina Georgina Rossetti, born in London on December 5, 1830, to Frances Polidori and Gabriele Rossetti, a Neapolitan political refugee who had settled in England and later […]

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Authors: Sinclair Ross

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Canadian novelist and short-story writer Author Works Long Fiction: As for Me and My House, 1941 The Well, 1958 Whir of Gold, 1970 Sawbones Memorial, 1974 Short Fiction: The Lamp at Noon, and Other Stories, 1968 The Race, and Other Stories, 1982 Nonfiction: Just Wind and Horses, 1988 (memoir) Biography James Sinclair Ross was one […]

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Authors: Isaac Rosenfeld

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American critic and novelist Identity: Jewish Author Works Nonfiction: An Age of Enormity: Life and Writing in the Forties and Fifties, 1962 Long Fiction: Passage from Home, 1946 Short Fiction: Alpha and Omega, 1966 Miscellaneous: Preserving the Hunger: An Isaac Rosenfeld Reader, 1988 Biography The title of Isaac Rosenfeld’s only published novel, Passage from Home, […]

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Authors: Phyllis Rose

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American essayist Author Works Nonfiction: Woman of Letters: A Life of Virgina Woolf, 1978 Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages, 1983 Writing of Women: Essays in a Renaissance, 1985 Jazz Cleopatra: Josephine Baker in Her Time, 1989 Never Say Goodbye: Essays, 1991 The Year of Reading Proust: A Memoir in Real Time, 1997 Edited Text: The […]

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Authors: Richard Rorty

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American philosopher Author Works Nonfiction: Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, 1979 Consequences of Pragmatism: Essays, 1972–1980, 1982 Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, 1989 Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth, 1991 Essays on Heidegger and Others, 1991 Truth, Politics, and “Postmodernism,” 1997 Achieving Our Country: Leftist Thought in Twentieth-Century America, 1998 Truth and Progress, 1998 Against Bosses, Against […]

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Authors: Ned Rorem

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American composer and diarist Identity: Gay or bisexual Author Works Nonfiction: The Paris Diary of Ned Rorem, 1966 Music from Inside Out, 1967 The New York Diary of Ned Rorem, 1967 Music and People, 1968 Critical Affairs: A Composer’s Journal, 1970 Pure Contraption, 1973 The Final Diary, 1961-1972, 1974 (also known as The Later Diaries […]

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Authors: Leon Rooke

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American-born Canadian short-story writer and novelist Author Works Short Fiction: Last One Home Sleeps in the Yellow Bed, 1968 The Love Parlour, 1977 The Broad Back of the Angel, 1977 Cry Evil, 1980 Death Suite, 1981 The Birth Control King of the Upper Volta, 1982 Sing Me No Love Songs, I’ll Say You No Prayers: […]

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Authors: Pierre de Ronsard

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French poet Author Works Poetry: L’Hymne de France, 1549 Odes, 1550 Les Amours, 1552 Cinquième Livre des odes, 1552 Le Bocage, 1554 Continuation des amours, 1555 Les Hymnes, 1555-1556 Nouvelle Continuation des amours, 1556 Discours des misères de ce temps, 1562 Résponce aux injures et calomnies de je ne sçay quels prédicans et ministres de […]

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Authors: José Rubén Romero

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Mexican novelist and poet Author Works Long Fiction: Apuntes de un lugareño, 1932 (Notes of a Villager, 1988) Desbandada, 1934 El pueblo inocente, 1934 Mi caballo, mi perro, y mi rifle, 1936 La vida inútil de Pito Pérez, 1938 (The Futile Life of Pito Pérez, 1966) Una vez fui rico, 1939 Rosenda, 1946 Short Fiction: […]

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Authors: John Romeril

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Australian playwright and director Author Works Drama: A Nameless Concern, pr. 1968 The Kitchen Table, pr. 1968 Scene One, pr. 1969 (with John Minter) The Man from Chicago, pr. 1969 The American Independence Hour, pr. 1969 Mr. Big, The Big, Big Pig, pr. 1969 In a Place Somewhere Else, pr. 1969 I Don’t Know Who […]

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Authors: Jules Romains

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French playwright, poet, novelist, and essayist Biography Louis-Henri-Jean Farigoule’s contribution to French literature is noteworthy for its varied genres, originality of thought, and constancy through nearly seven decades. As Jules Romains (roh-man), he wrote steadily for most of his eighty-seven years, producing more than one hundred titles, among them a novel of twenty-seven volumes, internationally […]

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Authors: O. E. Rölvaag

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Norwegian-born American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Amerika-breve, 1912 (as Paal Mørck; The Third Life of Per Smevik, 1971) Paa glemte veie, 1914 (as Mørck) To tullinger, 1920 (Pure Gold, 1930) Længselens baat, 1920 (The Boat of Longing, 1933) I de dage: Fortælling om Norske Nykommere i Amerika, 1924 I de dage: Riket grundlægges, 1925 […]

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Authors: Romain Rolland

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist and playwright Author Works Long Fiction: Jean-Christophe, 1904-1912 (includes the following 10 novels; John-Christopher, 1910-1913; better known as Jean-Christophe, 1913) L’Aube, 1904 Le Matin, 1904 L’Adolescent, 1904 La Révolte, 1906-1907 La Foire sur la place, 1908 Antoinette, 1908 Dans la maison, 1909 Les Amies, 1910 Le Buisson ardent, 1911 La Nouvelle Journée, 1912 […]

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Authors: Fernando de Rojas

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Spanish novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Comedia de Calisto y Melibea, 1499, revised edition 1502 as Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea (commonly known as La Celestina; first English translation, Celestina, 1631) Biography Fernando de Rojas (ROH-hahs) is believed to be the author of the Comedia de Calisto y Melibea, or La Celestina, an extended prose […]

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Authors: Theodore Roethke

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American poet and Pulitzer Prize winner. Born: May 25, 1908 Place of birth: Saginaw, Michigan Died: August 1, 1963 Place of death: Bainbridge Island, Washington Biography Theodore Huebner Roethke was born in Saginaw, Michigan, on May 25, 1908. Much of his childhood was spent in and around the greenhouse owned jointly by his […]

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Authors: Richard Rodriguez

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American journalist and essayist. Born: July 31, 1944 Place of birth: San Francisco, California Biography With the publication of his autobiography Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez in 1982, Richard Rodriguez rose to immediate national attention as a fine, if controversial, essayist. Born Ricardo Rodriguez in San Francisco, California, in 1944, […]

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Authors: Abraham Rodríguez, Jr.

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and short-story writer Identity: Puerto Rican Author Works Long Fiction: Spidertown, 1993 The Buddha Book, 2001 Short Fiction: Boy Without a Flag: Tales of the South Bronx, 1992 Biography Abraham Rodríguez (roh-DREE-gehs), Jr., is a contemporary Puerto Rican writer. Having been raised in the Bronx, he writes stories that depict the experiences of […]

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Authors: John Wilmot, earl of Rochester

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English poet Born: April 10, 1647 Birthplace: Ditchley Manor House, Oxfordshire, England Died: July 26, 1680 Place of death: Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Biography John Wilmot, the earl of Rochester, produced some of the finest lyrics and satires in English literature. He was born during the English Civil War to Anne Wilmot, who came […]

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Authors: Mary Robison

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer and novelist Author Works Short Fiction: Days, 1979 An Amateur’s Guide to the Night, 1983 Believe Them, 1988 Tell Me: Thirty Stories, 2002 Long Fiction: Oh!, 1981 Subtraction, 1991 Why Did I Ever, 2001 Biography The short fiction of Mary Robison (born Mary Reiss), a major voice in the American short-story renaissance […]

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Authors: Marilynne Robinson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Housekeeping, 1981 Nonfiction: Mother Country, 1989 The Death of Adam: Essays on Modern Thought, 1998 Biography Rarely has any novel, let alone a first novel, attracted such serious critical acclaim as did Marilynne Robinson’s Housekeeping, which won the Ernest Hemingway First Novel Award for 1982 as well as the […]

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Authors: Henry Crabb Robinson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English memoirist Author Works Nonfiction: Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence, 1869 (3 volumes; Thomas Sadler, editor) The Correspondence of Crabb Robinson with the Wordsworth Circle, 1927 (Edith Morley, editor) Henry Crabb Robinson in Germany, 1800-1805, 1929 (Morley, editor) Henry Crabb Robinson on Books and Their Writers, 1938 (3 volumes) Biography The son of a tanner, Henry […]

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Authors: Edwin Arlington Robinson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Author Works Poetry: The Torrent and the Night Before, 1896 The Children of the Night, 1897 Captain Craig, 1902, 1915 The Town Down the River, 1910 The Man Against the Sky, 1916 Merlin, 1917 Lancelot, 1920 The Three Taverns, 1920 Avon’s Harvest, 1921 Collected Poems, 1921, 1927, 1929, 1937 Roman Bartholow, 1923 The […]

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Authors: Thomas William Robertson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright Author Works Drama: A Night’s Adventure: Or, Highways and Byways, pr., pb. 1851 (adaptation of Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s novel Paul Clifford) David Garrick, wr. c. 1857, pr. 1864 (adaptation of Mélesville’s play Sullivan) The Cantab, pr., pb. 1861 (one act) Constance, pr. 1865 (libretto; music by Frederick Clay) Society, pr. 1865 Ours, pr. 1866 […]

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Authors: Kenneth Roberts

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Arundel, 1930 The Lively Lady, 1931 Rabble in Arms, 1933 Captain Caution, 1934 Northwest Passage, 1937 Oliver Wiswell, 1940 Lydia Bailey, 1947 Boon Island, 1956 The Battle of Cowpens, 1958 Nonfiction: Europe’s Morning After, 1921 Trending into Maine, 1938 The Kenneth Roberts Reader, 1945 I Wanted to Write, 1949 […]

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Authors: Elizabeth Madox Roberts

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist, short-story writer, and poet Author Works Long Fiction: The Time of Man, 1926 My Heart and My Flesh, 1927 Jingling in the Wind, 1928 The Great Meadow, 1930 A Buried Treasure, 1931 He Sent Forth a Raven, 1935 Black Is My Truelove’s Hair, 1938 Short Fiction: The Haunted Mirror, 1932 Not by Strange […]

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Authors: Alain Robbe-Grillet

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist and screenwriter Biography Alain Robbe-Grillet (rawb gree-yay) was the leading practitioner of the avant-garde movement in French fiction known as the New Novel. He was the son of Gaston and Yvonne Canu Robbe-Grillet. His father was an engineer, a profession that Robbe-Grillet later followed. The young Robbe-Grillet spent some time at a seaside […]

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Authors: Augusto Roa Bastos

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Paraguayan novelist and short-story writer Biography Augusto Antonio Roa Bastos (ROH-ah BAHS-tohs) is undoubtedly the most prominent figure in modern Paraguayan literature and one of the leading novelists of Latin America. He spent his childhood in Iturbe, a small village in the Guaitá region, where he learned both Spanish and Guaraní, which is the dominant […]

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Authors: Tomás Rivera

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Identity: Mexican American Author Works Long Fiction: … y no se tragó la tierra/… and the earth did not part, 1971 (also pb. as This Migrant Earth, 1985; … and the earth did not devour him, 1987) Short Fiction: The Harvest: Short Stories, 1989 (bilingual) Poetry: Always, and Other Poems, 1973 The Searchers: […]

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Authors: Yannis Ritsos

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Greek poet Author Works Poetry: Trakter, 1934 Pyramides, 1935 Epitaphios, 1936 To tragoudi tes adelphes mou, 1937 Dokimasia, 1943 Agrypnia, 1954 Romiosyne, 1954 (Romiossini: The Story of the Greeks, 1969) E sonata tou selenophotos, 1956 (The Moonlight Sonata, 1975) Poiemata A’, 1961 Poiemata B’, 1961 To nekro spiti, 1962 (The Dead House, 1974) Martyries, A’ […]

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Authors: Alberto Ríos

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet and short-story writer Identity: Mexican American Author Works Poetry: Elk Heads on the Wall, 1979 Whispering to Fool the Wind, 1982 Five Indiscretions, 1985 The Lime Orchard Woman, 1988 The Warrington Poems, 1989 Teodoro Luna’s Two Kisses, 1990 The Smallest Muscle in the Human Body, 2002 Short Fiction: The Iguana Killer: Twelve Stories […]

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Authors: Arthur Rimbaud

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 French Symbolist poet Born: October 20, 1854 Birthplace: Charleville, France Died: November 10, 1891 Place of death: Marseilles, France Biography The life of Jean-Nicolas-Arthur Rimbaud (ram-boh) was brief, lasting a scant thirty-seven years, and his life as a poet was briefer still, ending with the completion of A Season in Hell in 1873, […]

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Authors: Rainer Maria Rilke

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 German poet Born: December 4, 1875 Birthplace: Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now in Czech Republic) Died: December 29, 1926 Place of death: Valmont, Switzerland Biography Rainer Maria Rilke (RIHL-kuh) is the most important and influential German poet of the twentieth century; along with the Anglo-Irish William Butler Yeats and the French Paul Valéry, […]

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Authors: Lynn Riggs

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright Identity: American Indian (Cherokee) Author Works Drama: Knives from Syria, pr. 1925 (one act) Big Lake, pr., pb. 1927 Rancor, pr. 1927 A Lantern to See By, pb. 1928 Sump’n Like Wings, pb. 1928 Roadside, pr., pb. 1930 Green Grow the Lilacs, pr., pb. 1931 Russet Mantle, pr., pb. 1936 The Cherokee Night, […]

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Authors: Laura Riding

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Biography Laura Riding was born Laura Reichenthal. Her father, Nathan, a Polish Jew, was largely a self-educated man who had emigrated in 1884 when he was fifteen years old. He was a founding member of the American Socialist Party, and he hoped Laura was destined for a political career. She was the daughter […]

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Authors: Conrad Richter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and short-story writer Author Works Long Fiction: The Sea of Grass, 1936 The Trees, 1940 Tacey Cromwell, 1942 The Free Man, 1943 The Fields, 1946 Always Young and Fair, 1947 The Town, 1950 The Light in the Forest, 1953 The Lady, 1957 The Waters of Kronos, 1960 A Simple Honorable Man, 1962 The […]

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Authors: Mordecai Richler

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Canadian novelist, essayist, and critic Born: January 27, 1931 Birthplace: Montreal, Quebec, Canada Died: July 3, 2001 Place of death: Montreal, Quebec, Canada Biography Mordecai Richler (RIHK-lur) was a major Canadian novelist who treated contemporary mores with a mixture of amusement and censure. One of two sons of Moses Isaac Richler and Lily […]

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Authors: Samuel Richardson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English novelist Born: August 19, 1689 (baptized) Birthplace: Mackworth, Derbyshire, England Died: July 4, 1761 Place of death: London, England Biography Samuel Richardson was born in 1689, the son of a Derbyshire joiner and a pious mother. As a boy, his thoughtful and serious nature would have recommended him for the church, but […]

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Authors: Henry Handel Richardson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Australian novelist Biography When Sinclair Lewis said in 1941 that The Fortunes of Richard Mahony was “a truly major work of fiction of the twentieth century,” he was giving belated recognition to one of the most neglected novelists of modern times. Henry Handel Richardson was the pseudonym of Ethel Florence Lindesay Robertson (also known as […]

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Authors: Dorothy Richardson

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography Dorothy Miller Richardson, born on May 17, 1873, was the third of four daughters. Her father, Charles Richardson, worked in the prosperous grocery business that his father had established, but he wanted to be a gentleman. He abandoned Nonconformity for the Church of England and, in 1874, sold the family business to […]

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Authors: I. A. Richards

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English critic Author Works Nonfiction: The Foundations of Aesthetics, 1922 (with C. K. Ogden and James Wood) The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism, 1923 (with Ogden) Principles of Literary Criticism, 1924 Science and Poetry, 1926, revised 1935 Practical Criticism: A Study of […]

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Authors: Adrienne Rich

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Identity: Jewish, gay or bisexual Author Works Poetry: A Change of World, 1951 The Diamond Cutters, and Other Poems, 1955 Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law, 1963 Necessities of Life, 1966 Selected Poems, 1967 Leaflets, 1969 The Will to Change, 1971 Diving in to the Wreck, 1973 Poems: Selected and New,1950-1974, 1975 Twenty-one Love Poems, […]

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Authors: Elmer Rice

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright Identity: Jewish Biography Elmer Rice, one of the major dramatists of the first half of the twentieth century, was instrumental in the emergence of American drama as an influential force in world theater. Born Elmer Leopold Reizenstein, he grew up in Manhattan, living with his parents Jacob and Fanny Lion Reizenstein. The family […]

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Authors: Anne Rice

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Biography Anne Rice, the second of Howard and Katherine Allen O’Brien’s four daughters, was christened Howard Allen O’Brien but began to use the name Anne when she started school. She, like her sisters, showed an early interest in writing, her postal worker father’s avocation. One of her sisters, Alice O’Brien Borchardt, has published […]

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Authors: Ronald Ribman

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright Author Works Drama: Harry, Noon and Night, pr. 1965 The Journey of the Fifth Horse, pr. 1966 (based in part on Ivan Turgenev’s short story “The Diary of a Superfluous Man”) The Ceremony of Innocence, pr. 1967 Passing Through from Exotic Places, pr. 1969 (includes 3 one-acts, The Son Who Hunted Tigers in […]

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Authors: Jean Rhys

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography In his introduction to The Left Bank by Jean Rhys (rees), Ford Madox Ford captured the essence of all Rhys’s work when he wrote that she had a “passion for stating the case of the underdog.” Rhys was born Ella Gwendolen Rees Williams in Roseau, in the West Indies, on August 24, […]

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Authors: Yasmina Reza

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French playwright and actor Author Works Drama: Conversations après un enterrement, pr., pb. 1987 (Conversations After a Burial, 2000) La Traversée de l’hiver, pr., pb. 1989 (Winter Crossing, 2000) “Art,” pr., pb. 1994 (English translation, 1996) L’Homme du hasard, pr. 1995 (The Unexpected Man, 1998) Trois versions de la vie, pr., pb. 2000 (Life × […]

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Authors: Władysław Reymont

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Polish novelist and short-story writer Author Works Long Fiction: Komediantka, 1896 (The Comedienne, 1920) Fermenty, 1897 Ziemia obiecana, 1899 (The Promised Land, 1927) Chłopi, 1904-1909 (4 volumes; The Peasants, 1924-1925) Marzyciel, 1910 Wampir, 1911 Rok 1794, 1913-1918 (3 volumes) Short Fiction: “Pielgrzymka do Jasnej Góry,” 1895 Spotkania, 1897 “Lili,” 1899 Burza, 1907 Z ziemi chełmskiej, […]

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Authors: Alfonso Reyes

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Mexican poet and critic Biography “The art of expression,” wrote Alfonso Reyes (RAY-yays), “did not appear to me as a rhetorical function, independent of conduct, but a means of realizing human feeling.” Thus this Mexican writer defined and justified his literary vocation, so faithfully and completely fulfilled during the fifty years of his writing that […]

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Authors: Kenneth Rexroth

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Author Works Poetry: A Prolegomenon to a Theodicy, 1932 In What Hour, 1940 The Phoenix and the Tortoise, 1944 The Signature of All Things, 1949 The Dragon and the Unicorn, 1952 The Art of Worldly Wisdom, 1953 Thou Shalt Not Kill, 1955 A Bestiary, 1955 In Defense of the Earth, 1956 Natural Numbers, […]

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Authors: Ruth Rendell

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography Ruth Rendell (REHN-duhl) was born Ruth Barbara Grasemann, the only child of a Swedish mother and an English father, both schoolteachers in London. Her early years appear to have been lonely and reflective. Having discovered a talent for writing in childhood, her first work was as a journalist. Following that trade, she […]

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Authors: Mary Renault

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography Mary Renault (rehn-OHLT) is the pseudonym used by a British novelist who acquired popularity in the United States through her skillful and artistic reconstruction of Hellenic civilization and her biography of Alexander the Great. Born Mary Challans on September 4, 1905, in London, England, where her father was a doctor, Mary Renault […]

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Authors: Erich Maria Remarque

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 German-born Swiss novelist Born: June 22, 1898 Birthplace: Osnabrück, Germany Died: September 25, 1970 Place of death: Locarno, Switzerland Biography Erich Maria Remarque, author of All Quiet on the Western Front, an outstanding novel of modern war, was from a Roman Catholic family of French descent. His father was a bookbinder; the family […]

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Authors: Forrest Reid

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Irish novelist Author Works Long Fiction: The Kingdom of Twilight, 1904 The Garden God, 1905 The Bracknels, 1911 Following Darkness, 1912 (reissued as Peter Waring, 1937) The Gentle Lover, 1913 At the Door of the Gate, 1915 The Spring Song, 1916 Pirates of the Spring, 1919 Pender Among the Residents, 1922 Uncle Stephen, 1931 Brian […]

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Authors: Ishmael Reed

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American poet, playwright, anthologist, and writer of novels and nonfiction. Born: February 22, 1938 Birthplace: Chattanooga, Tennessee Biography Ishmael Scott Reed is recognized as an important American satirist, an innovative poet, and a major part of the antirealist countertradition in black American fiction that includes authors such as Clarence Major, James Alan McPherson, […]

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Authors: Henry Reed

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English poet and playwright Author Works Poetry: A Map of Verona: Poems, 1946 Lessons of the War, 1970 Collected Poems, 1991 Drama: Island of Goats, pr. 1955 (adaptation of Ugo Betti; also known as Crime on Goat Island) The Queen and the Rebels, pr. 1955 (adaptation of Betti) The Burnt Flower-Bed, pr. 1955 (adaptation of […]

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Authors: John Rechy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American novelist; pioneer of LGBT and Chicano literature Born: March 10, 1931 Birthplace: El Paso, Texas Biography When City of Night was published, novels featuring gay men were still considered somewhat unusual, despite earlier appearances of works containing gay themes such as Radclyffe Hall’s The Well of Loneliness (1928), Lillian Hellman’s play The […]

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Authors: James Reaney

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Canadian playwright, short-story writer, essayist, and poet Author Works Drama: Night-Blooming Cereus, wr. 1952, pr. 1959 (radio play), pr. 1960 (staged), pb. 1962 (libretto; with John Beckwith) The Sun and the Moon, wr. 1959, pb. 1962 The Killdeer, pr. 1960, revised pr. 1970 One-Man Masque, pr. 1960 The Easter Egg, pr. 1962 Names and Nicknames, […]

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Authors: Charles Reade

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English novelist and playwright. Born: June 8, 1814 Place of birth: Ipsden House, Oxfordshire, England Died: April 11, 1884 Place of death: London, England Biography A dramatist and novelist who enjoyed great popular acclaim in his lifetime, Charles Reade was born at Ipsden House in Oxfordshire on June 8, 1814. He was the […]

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Authors: Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Blood of My Blood, wr. 1928, pb. 2002 South Moon Under, 1933 Golden Apples, 1935 The Yearling, 1938 The Sojourner, 1953 Short Fiction: When the Whippoorwill, 1940 Short Stories, 1994 (Rodger L. Tarr, editor) Poetry: Poems by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings: Songs of a Housewife, 1997 (Rodger L. Tarr, editor) […]

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Authors: Terence Rattigan

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright Identity: Gay or bisexual Author Works Drama: First Episode, pr. 1933 (with Philip Heimann) French Without Tears, pr. 1936 Flare Path, pr., pb. 1942 While the Sun Shines, pr. 1943 Love in Idleness, pr. 1944 (also known as O Mistress Mine, pr., pb. 1946) The Winslow Boy, pr., pb. 1946 Playbill: “The Browning […]

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Authors: Rudolf Erich Raspe

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

German novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Baron Münchausen’s Narrative of His Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Russia, 1785 (also known as The Adventures of Baron Münchausen) Biography While most people have heard of the mendacious Baron Münchausen, the author of the book bearing his name is practically a forgotten man. Little is known about the […]

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Authors: Raja Rao

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

India-born English novelist Biography Raja Rao (row), with Mulk Raj Anand and R. K. Narayan, is considered one of the most important twentieth century Indo-English novelists. The eldest in a Brahman family of nine children, he was born in Hassan, Mysore State, South India, on November 8, 1908 (although official records list his date of […]

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Authors: John Crowe Ransom

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet and critic Author Works Poetry: Poems About God, 1919 Armageddon, 1923 Chills and Fever, 1924 Grace After Meat, 1924 Two Gentlemen in Bonds, 1927 Selected Poems, 1945, revised and enlarged 1963, 1969 Poems and Essays, 1955 Nonfiction: I’ll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition, by Twelve Southerners, 1930 (with others) […]

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Authors: Dudley Randall

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet and publisher Identity: African American Author Works Poetry: Poem Counterpoem, 1966 (with Margaret Danner) Cities Burning, 1968 Love You, 1970 More to Remember: Poems of Four Decades, 1971 After the Killing, 1973 A Litany of Friends: New and Selected Poems, 1981, revised 1983 Nonfiction: Broadside Memories: Poets I Have Known, 1975 Edited Texts: […]

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Authors: Ayn Rand

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Russian American author and philosopher Born: February 2, 1905 Birthplace: St. Petersburg, Russia Died: March 6, 1982 Place of death: New York, New York Biography Alisa (Alice) Rosenbaum was born into a middle-class Russian Jewish family. When her father’s pharmacy was nationalized following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, Alisa, who had been writing […]

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Authors: Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Swiss novelist Author Works Long Fiction: La Vie de Samuel Belet, 1913 (The Life of Samuel Belet, 1951) Le Règne de l’esprit malin, 1917 (The Reign of the Evil One, 1922) Présence de la mort, 1922 (The End of All Men, 1944) La Grande Peur dans la Montagne, 1926; (Terror on the Mountain, 1967) La […]

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Authors: Graciliano Ramos

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Brazilian novelist Biography Graciliano Ramos (RAH-mohs) was a central figure in Brazil’s Northeast literary movement of 1930’s and 1940’s fiction. Through his writing, Ramos sought to depict accurately that region of Brazil collectively referred to as the Northeast. He and other “1930’s Generation” writers shared several characteristics: leftist political sympathies, expression of political beliefs in […]

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Authors: Sir Walter Ralegh

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English explorer and poet Author Works Poetry: The Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh, with a Biographical and Critical Introduction, 1813 The Poems of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1962 (Agnes Latham, editor) Nonfiction: A Report of the Fight About the Iles of Açores, 1591 The Discoverie of the Large, Rich, and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana, 1596 The […]

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Authors: Carl Rakosi

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Author Works Poetry: Two Poems, 1933 Selected Poems, 1941 Amulet, 1967 Ere-VOICE, 1971 Ex Cranium, Night, 1975 My Experiences in Parnassus, 1977 Droles de Journal, 1981 History, 1981 Spiritus I, 1983 Meditation, 1985 The Collected Poems of Carl Rakosi, 1986 Poems, 1923-1941, 1995 The Earth Suite, 1997 Nonfiction: The Collected Prose of Carl […]

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