Electronic Resources for Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

An annotated list of web sites and other electronic resources related to information covered in Great Events from History: The Seventeenth Century 1601-1700

Web Sites

The permanence of the URL’s for the sites listed below cannot be guaranteed. However, long-standing sites such as those of university departments, national organizations, and government agencies generally maintain links when sites move or upgrade their offerings.

General
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    Avalon Project at Yale Law School .

    http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/avalon.htm A collection of digitized documents that are relevant to the fields of law, history, economics, politics, diplomacy, and government. The documents are organized chronologically, with a separate page entitled “Pre-Eighteenth-Century Documents” that includes many digitized items from the seventeenth century. Among these items are charters and constitutions for American colonies, the Articles of Confederation of the United Colonies of New England, the English Bill of Rights, and the Treaty (or Peace) of Westphalia.

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    The Catholic Encyclopedia .

    http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/ The electronic version of this reference book contains more than eleven thousand alphabetically arranged articles exploring the entire range of Catholic interests. The encyclopedia is particularly good for information about religion, with articles about Puritans, Calvinists, Jansenists, Quakers, Huguenots, and other religious groups. It also contains an article about the Thirty Years’ War and information about Catholics who have played important roles in history, such as Louis XIV, Cardinal de Richelieu, and Cardinal Jules Mazarin, and other prominent seventeenth century figures.

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    Development of Western Civilization: World History, Baroque .

    http://history.evansville.net/baroque.html#Introduction This page about the Baroque era is part of a Web site that Nancy Mautz, a professor at the University of Evansville, designed for her Western Civilization course. The page contains links to relevant information on people, places, events, art, architecture, literature, drama, music, dance, and daily life.

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    History World International .

    http://history-world.org/ This recently revised site contains a wealth of historical information covering the Neolithic period to the present. Users can access the “Contents A-Z” page for a list of pages on the Americas; art and architecture; Asia and the Middle East; Africa, Australia, and the Sea Islands; Europe; science; world religions; and other general topics. The “Europe” section includes pages on European absolutism and power politics, Louis XIV, and the Iberian Golden Age; the science section includes pages about Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton, while the arts and architecture section contains a page about the Baroque era.

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    Internet Modern History Sourcebook .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html Paul Halsall of Fordham University has compiled a collection of primary source materials from various regions and eras. This site on modern history offers pages headed “Early Modern World,” “Everyday Life,” “Absolutism,” “Constitutionalism,” and “The Scientific Revolution,” which feature primary documents relevant to the seventeenth century.

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    Seventeenth Century Net.Net: Gateway to the Renaissance and Seventeenth Century on the Net .

    http://www.17thcenturynet.net/ This site is a collection of thousands of links to information about seventeenth century British literature and history, as well as Western art, music, architecture, philosophy, and witchcraft. There also are links to Web sites for e-journals, societies, and organizations.

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    WebChron: Web Chronology Project .

    http://campus.northpark.edu/history/webchron/ The Web Chronology Project was created by the History Department of North Park University in Chicago. It includes a series of hyperlinked time lines for use in history classes and chronologies of developments in Africa, China, India, East Asia, and Southern Asia, as well as in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Also, there are time lines for art, music, literature, and speculative thought in the Western tradition.

Africa
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    Internet African History Sourcebook .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.html This page of the Internet History Sourcebook features primary source materials about African history, including documents regarding African societies, the impact of slavery, and European imperialism.

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    Slavery @ the Cape .

    http://batavia.rug.ac.be/ This site about slavery at the Cape of Good Hope in Dutch and British South Africa is part of the Dutch East India Company Web site described in the “Trade and Commerce” section (below).

Art and Architecture
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    Art History Resources on the Web .

    http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTHLinks.html Chris Witcombe, a professor of art history at Sweet Briar College in Virginia, has compiled this extensive list of art history Web sites. One section specifically deals with seventeenth century Baroque art, and there are links to sites on Asian art and to art museums and galleries around the world.

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    A Digital Archive of Architecture .

    http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch/17arch_europe.html Professor Jeffery Howe of Boston College has designed this slide collection of architecturally significant buildings. The site contains five examples of seventeenth century European architecture, including Versailles, near Paris and the Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte near Melun, France. There are also photographs of Rembrandt’s house in Amsterdam, Peter Paul Rubens’s house in Antwerp, and the Church of St. Charles Borromeo in Antwerp, which Rubens helped esign.

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    A Digital Archive of American Architecture .

    http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/fa267.html Another Web site by Jeffery Howe, this one specializes in American architecture and features photographs of seventeenth century houses, churches, and industrial buildings.

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    Metropolitan Museum of Art: Time Line of Art History .

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/splash.htm The museum’s Web site describes itself as “a chronological, geographical, and thematic exploration of the history of art from around the world, as illustrated especially by the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection.” Time lines contain photographs of artworks, maps, and chronologies for specific eras and areas of the world. There also are numerous pages devoted to specific topics, including European art in the Baroque and Rococo, African art, Asian art, and Islamic art.

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    Renaissance and Baroque Architecture: Architectural History 102 .

    http://www.lib.virginia.edu/dic/colls/arh102/ This collection of images is a project of the University of Virginia Library Digital Image Center. The site contains photographs of art and architecture in Italy and other European countries from the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries.

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    World Art Treasures .

    http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/ A collection of more than 100,000 slides compiled by art historian Jacques-Édouard Berger. The site includes pages containing slides of seventeenth century art as well as slides of paintings by Rembrandt, Peter Paul Rubens, Jan van Eyck, Jan Vermeer, and other artists.

Asia
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    Internet East Asian History Sourcebook .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html One of the highly regarded “sourcebook” projects of Fordham University, maintained by Paul Halsall. This site has historical and cultural information on China, Japan, and Korea, and it also features information about European exploration of East Asia and the activities of the private European companies that mounted trade expeditions and exploited the region.

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    Manas .

    http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/index.html Vinay Lal, associate professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles, has created this Web site with a vast array of information about the history, politics, and culture of India. The section titled “British India” includes information about the origins of the East India Company and its activities in India. The section on architecture features photos and information about the Taj Mahal.

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    Tokugawa Japan, 1603-1868 .

    http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/TOKJAPAN/TOKJAPAN.HTM This Web site, created by Professor Richard Hooker of Washington State University for his world civilization course, describes Tokugawa Japan and covers Tokugawa Ieyasu, daily life during this period, Neo-Confucianism, and kabuki.

Colonial America
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    Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Colonial North America .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook07.html A collection of links to primary source materials, featuring documents from seventeenth century colonies in Quebec, Virginia, New England, and Maryland. Also includes a selection of documents written by John Winthrop, Anne Bradstreet, and William Penn.

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    The Pilgrim Story .

    http://www.pilgrimhall.org/museum.htm Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts, offers a Web site about the Puritans and the Plymouth Colony. This page of the site contains links with information about the Pilgrims’ history in Europe, their voyage on the Mayflower, and the founding and demise of their colony. The site also describes the colonists’ relations with the Native Americans, including a page about King Philip’s (Metacom’s) War.

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    The Plymouth Colony Archive Project .

    http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/users/deetz/ This collection of searchable texts is continually updated and contains a range of documents regarding the Plymouth Colony between the years 1620 and 1691. Court records, colony laws, seventeenth century journals and memoirs, probate inventories, wills, town plans, maps, and fort plans are among the documents included. There also are biographical profiles of some of the colonists and information about the colony’s architecture.

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    Salem Witch Trials: Documentary Archive and Transcription Project .

    http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/salem/home.html A compendium of primary sources and other information about the infamous witch trials, held from February, 1692, through April, 1693. The site provides transcriptions of court records of the trials, with an index of names that allows users to find specific references to people cited in the transcripts. There also are records and files of the quarterly courts of Essex County from 1636 through 1686, additional court records from various archives, and the record books from Salem Village and the Salem Village Church. In addition to these primary sources, the site contains maps and biographies of people associated with the trials.

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    U-S-History.Com .

    http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html#colonial An overview of American history, including information about the colonial era. There are pages about each of the original thirteen colonies, with information about Native Americans, exploration and settlement, and the colony’s role in the American Revolution. The site also contains information about the New England Confederation, the Dominion of New England, mercantilism, and Native American wars.

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    Virtual Jamestown .

    http://www.virtualjamestown.org/siteindex.html This history of the Jamestown colony includes an interactive flash map that allows users to re-create John Smith’s voyages to Chesapeake Bay. It also contains original maps of the colony, public records, and registers of indentured servants who were sent from England to foreign plantations between 1654 and 1686. These registers are searchable, allowing users to hunt for information about individual servants.

Economics
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    The History of Economic Thought Website .

    http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/ Created by the Department of Economics at the New School for Social Research, this site offers user-friendly information about economics. It features information about more than five hundred economists, including such seventeenth century natural law philosophers as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Samuel von Pufendorf, and Hugo Grotius. An alphabetical index of economists allows users to access bibliographies, selections from written works, and overviews of economic theory for a specific economist. The site also contains pages of information about schools of economic thought and links to other Web sites regarding economics.

Exploration
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    Age of Exploration .

    http://www.mariner.org//educationalad/ageofex/intro.php This collection of materials about exploration from ancient times through 1768 was compiled by The Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia. The site provides information on Henry Hudson, Samuel de Champlain, Sieur de La Salle, and other explorers.

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    European Discovery: South Pacific and Indo-West Pacific .

    http://www.muffley.net/pacific/default.htm An overview of European exploration in Australia and New Zealand, containing pages about the seventeenth century Dutch landfall discoveries of Australia and the voyages of Abel Janszoon Tasman and William Dampier.

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    Virtual Museum of New France .

    http://www.civilization.ca/vmnf/vmnfe.asp A project of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, this site focuses on French exploration and settlement of North America. It includes information on the expeditions of Samuel de Champlain, Jacques Marquette, Louis Jolliet, Sieur de La Salle, and other French explorers, as well as maps, glossaries, and information about the education of children in New France.

France
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    Château de Versailles .

    http://www.chateauversailles.fr/en/ The official site of the Château de Versailles provides a great deal of information about life in Louis XIV’s France. The site describes the château and other places related to it, including the Trianon and the park designed by André Le Nôtre. In addition, there is a description of life at Louis’s court, including his daily schedule, court politics, and entertainment. Additional pages provide biographies of Louis XIV and other historical figures. The information on the site is available in English, French, Spanish, and Japanese.

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    France 1610 to 1715 .

    http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/france_1610_to_1715.htm This is one of the pages contained in History Learning Site, a Web site created by British history teachers to provide students with Web-based materials. The page about seventeenth century French history includes information about Louis XIII, religion during Louis XIII’s reign, Marie de Médicis, and Cardinal de Richelieu.

Germany
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    Frederick William, the Great Elector .

    http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/frederick_william1.htm Another page from the History Learning Site, featuring information about Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia and his son, Frederick I. The site describes Frederick William’s attempts to modernize Brandenburg-Prussia, his army, and his foreign policy.

Great Britain
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    British Civil Wars, Commonwealth, and Protectorate, 1638-1660 .

    http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/ A Web-based overview of this period in British history, containing time lines, biographies, and military history. The site also has a useful list of links to other Web resources.

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    English Civil War .

    http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/CivilWar.htm Provides a wide range of information about the battles, events, and issues in the war, as well as biographies of military leaders. The site also places the war within the context of English society, with biographies of political and religious figures, writers, and artists, and information about social movements, such as the Diggers and the Levellers. A separate section of the site contains information about religious groups that were prominent in this period, including the Puritans, Quakers, and Anabaptists.

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    Monarchs of Britain .

    http://www.britannia.com/history/h6f.html This informative, easy-to-use site contains biographies and portraits of the queens and kings who have ruled England since 829. There are also pages of information about the governments of Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell.

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    The Oliver Cromwell Website .

    http://www.olivercromwell.org/ A wealth of Cromwelliana, compiled by the Cromwell Association and the Cromwell Museum. The site includes a time line of Oliver Cromwell’s life, a brief biography, quotations by Cromwell, and information about the Protectorate and the 1654 Union of Scotland with England.

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    Time Traveler’s Guide to Stuart England .

    http://www.channe14.com/history/microsites/H/history/guide17/part01.html An extremely comprehensive review of seventeenth century British history, compiled by British television’s Channel 4. The site includes an extensive time line of events occurring from 1603 until 1714, with a separate page of information about each event based on the book A Century of Troubles: England in the Seventeenth Century, by Stevie Davies. Other pages contain a time line of the Civil War; biographies of prominent political figures; and information about the arts, science, religion, and politics.

Literature
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    The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes .

    http://www.bartleby.com/cambridge/ An exhaustive examination of all forms of writing in Great Britain and the United States, including literature, legal and church writing, journalism, pamphlets, and philosophy. Volumes 4 through 8 contain articles about various aspects of seventeenth century literature and drama. Volume 7 includes an article about John Milton. Volume 15 focuses on literature from the colonial United States.

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    Luminarium: Early Seventeenth Century (1603-1660) .

    http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/ Created by Anniina Jokinen in 1996 and continually updated since, this site includes the literature of John Milton, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Lancelot Andrewes, and many others. A collection of essays and articles concerning the literature of this period, information about the Metaphysical and Cavalier poets, and links to Web sites about English literature and history are also included.

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    The Milton Reading Room .

    http://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/index.shtml Designed by Thomas Luxon and his students, of Dartmouth University’s English Department, this site contains the works of John Milton, including Paradise Lost, Paradise Regain’d, and shorter poems and prose. The site is fully annotated, including definitions of words and phrases and background about the works. There is also an extensive bibliography.

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    Voice of the Shuttle: Literatures (Other than English) .

    http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2719 This site is a page from Voice of the Shuttle, a collection of Web resources about the humanities compiled by professors at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The page links to a wide assortment of sites about world literature in general, as well as to more specific sites about literature in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Persian, Spanish, and other languages.

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    Voice of the Shuttle: Renaissance & Seventeenth Century .

    http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2749 Another page from the excellent Voice of the Shuttle, this site contains links to English-language essays, literary criticism, and examples of prose, poetry, and drama from a long list of authors.

Mathematics
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    The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive .

    http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/ A comprehensive Web site, created and maintained by the school of mathematics and statistics at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, that features biographies of prominent mathematicians. These can be accessed by either an alphabetical or a chronological index. The site also contains information about the history of mathematics, with separate pages explaining important mathematical discoveries and concepts.

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    Mathematicians of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries .

    http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/People/RBallHist.html This page, part of a Web site maintained by the school of mathematics at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, links to biographical information about prominent mathematicians of these two centuries. The biographies are adapted from A Short Account of the History of Mathematics by W. W. Rouse Ball (4th ed., 1908). René Descartes, Pierre de Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Christiaan Huygens, Marin Mersenne, Evangelista Torricelli, Sir Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, the Bernoulli family, and Colin Maclaurin are among the mathematicians covered.

Military History
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    Military History Encyclopedia on the Web .

    http://www.rickard.karoo.net/main.html Compiled by three British professors, this Web-based encyclopedia features articles about wars and battles throughout history. The information can be assessed with several indexes, including alphabetical listings of biographies; wars, campaigns, and treaties; battles; weapons, equipment, and units; and countries. The Thirty Years’ War and the three Anglo-Dutch Wars are included.

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    The Thirty Years’ War .

    http://www.pipeline.com/%7Ecwa/TYWHome.htm A narrative of the war, including information about its causes, the various phases and battles, and the Treaty (or Peace) of Westphalia. The site also features a bibliography and a listing of Web resources.

Music
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    Baroque Music: Composers .

    http://baroque-music.com/frames/info/composers.shtml This page from a Web site on Baroque music has biographical information on thirty-six composers, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Heinrich Schütz, Arcangelo Corelli, Claudio Monteverdi, and Henry Purcell.

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    The Classical MIDI Connection: The Baroque Period .

    http://www.classicalmidiconnection.com/cmc/baroque.html A collection of MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) files, which enable people to listen to music with most Web browsers. The site has an alphabetized list of composers with links to MIDI files of their music and a separate page devoted to music of Baroque era composers, including Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, Johann Pachelbel, and Henry Purcell.

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    Essentials of Music .

    http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/ Built around Sony’s Essential Classics music series, the site includes an overview of Baroque music from 1600 to 1750, and biographies of five Baroque composers: Claudio Monteverdi, Henry Purcell, Johann Sebastian Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, and Georg Frederick Handel. It also contains about two hundred musical excerpts from the classics music series in RealPlayer format.

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    Music at UCC: Web Resources for Research in Music .

    http://www.music.ucc.ie/wrrm/index.html University College, Cork, Ireland, has produced this comprehensive list of links to Web sites about music. There is a separate page about seventeenth century music, with links to sites about Heinrich Schütz, Henry Purcell, and other composers, as well as links to information about types of repertories, such as ballads, songs, and liturgical music. The site also contains a separate page with links to information about seventeenth and eighteenth century opera and theater music.

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    Music History 102: A Guide to Western Composers and Their Music from the Middle Ages to the Present .

    http://www.ipl.org/div/mushist/#baro This site, part of the Internet Public Library’s authoritative collection of Web links, provides an overview of music in six eras, including the Baroque age. It features sound files that provide a sample of representative music for the era. The section on Baroque music includes information about harpsichord music, Claudio Monteverdi, Johann Sebastian Bach, and Antonio Vivaldi.

Philosophy
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    Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

    http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/ A collection of articles written by philosophy professors, including information about René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, and Thomas Hobbes. An alphabetical list of article subjects helps users find information quickly.

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    EpistemeLinks.com .

    http://www.epistemelinks.com EpistemeLinks.com contains about 16,500 cataloged links to philosophy Web sites. It links to pages describing the philosophy of specific historical eras, including a page about philosophy of the early modern era with links to information about René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Blaise Pascal, Marin Mersenne, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, and others.

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    Studia Spinoziana .

    http://www.mtsu.edu/~rbombard/RB/spinoza.new.html This page is part of the Web site that Professor Ron Bombardi created for his philosophy courses at Middle Tennessee State University. The page contains links to information about Baruch Spinoza’s life, times, and philosophy. In addition, there are numerous links to information about seventeenth and eighteenth century studies, including Web sites about Pierre Bayle, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Jan Vermeer, René Descartes, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

Religion
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    America as a Religious Refuge: The Seventeenth Century .

    http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/re101.html This information about the seventeenth century is contained in “Religion and the Founding of the American Republic,” a Web site accompanying an exhibit at the Library of Congress. The exhibit examined how the colonies that eventually became the United States of America were founded by deeply religious settlers, who emigrated to the New World in order to practice their faiths freely. The site describes religious persecution in Europe and colonial America and explains how Puritans, Jews, Quakers, Roman Catholics, and others established New World communities.

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    Divining America: Religion and National Culture .

    http://www.nhc.rtp.nc.us:8080/tserve/divam.htm TeacherServe, an organization that helps teachers design lesson plans, created this site to give students a better understanding of the role religion played in developing the United States. Although the site contains instructions for teachers, it also features a great deal of historical information and links to related Web sites. The section on the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries features pages on Native American religion, Puritanism, witchcraft in Salem, religious pluralism in the Middle Colonies, the role of the Church of England in colonial America, and American colonial women and family life.

Russia
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    E-Museum @ Minnesota State University, Mankato .

    http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/russia/timeoftroubles.html The university has created a collection of Web sites with information on a wide range of subjects, including Russian history. Two of the site’s pages describe the Time of Troubles and the origins and reign of the Romanov Dynasty.

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    E-Museum @ Minnesota State University, Mankato .

    http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/russia/romanov.htmlThe university has created a collection of Web sites with information on a wide range of subjects, including Russian history. Two of the site’s pages describe the Time of Troubles and the origins and reign of the Romanov Dynasty.

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    Peter the Great .

    http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/peter_the_ great.htm The History Learning Site’s pages about Peter the Great provide biographical information, as well as a discussion of his military, domestic, and government reforms.

Science, Technology, and Medicine
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    Eric Weisstein’s World of Science .

    http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/ This online reference source has been compiled by a research scientist and former professor of astronomy. It contains comprehensive encyclopedias of astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as well as brief biographies and pictures of noteworthy scientists.

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    The Galileo Project .

    http://galileo.rice.edu/ Created and maintained by Rice University, this site provides information about the life and work of Galileo and the science of his time. The site includes a searchable database with information about 631 prominent scientists from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, discussions of specific inventions and discoveries, a time line of Galileo’s life, maps, a glossary, a bibliography, and links to related Web pages.

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    History of Western Biomedicine .

    http://www.mic.ki.se/West.html#West3 Compiled by Sweden’s Karolinska Institutet, this site contains links to information about medical history. The section entitled “Modern Period, 1601-” offers links to sites about seventeenth century medicine, including information about blood circulation, optics, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, and the Jesuits and the sciences.

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    Seventeenth Century Inventions, 1600-1699 .

    http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/b11600’s.htm About.com has created a time line of inventions, with links to additional information about some of the inventions and inventors of the century. Hans Lippershey’s telescope, Otto von Guericke’s air pump, and Evangelista Torricelli’s barometer are among the inventions covered.

Sweden
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    Sweden from 1611 to 1718 .

    Http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sweden_1611_ to_1718.htm This History Learning Site page focuses on seventeenth and early eighteenth century Swedish history, with information about Gustavus II Adolphus, Axel Oxenstierna, Queen Christina, Sweden and the Thirty Years’ War, and the Great Northern War.

Theater
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    Renaissance Drama from Its Medieval Origins to the Closing of the Theatres .

    http://athena.english.vt.edu/~jmooney/renmats/drama.htm A brief overview of English theater from the Middle Ages until the Puritans closed the theaters in 1642, compiled by a professor of English at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. The site includes information about the plays and lives of Ben Jonson, Francis Beaumont, and John Fletcher.

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    Theatre Database: Seventeenth Century Theatre .

    http://www.theatredatabase.com/17th_century/ A comprehensive set of links to information about theater history, this site features a page devoted to the seventeenth century. Included are links to information about Lope de Vega Carpio, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Pierre Corneille, John Dryden, Ben Jonson, Molière, and Jean Racine. The site also offers articles about Spanish drama, the origins of opera, the closure of the English theaters in 1642, and theater in Restoration England.

Trade and Commerce
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    Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindishe Compagnie) .

    http://batavia.rug.ac.be/ This site, in English and Dutch, offers valuable information about the history of the Dutch East India Company, including a virtual tour with images of Europe and the East Indies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most impressive is its lengthy section titled “Slavery @ the Cape,” containing information about slavery at the Cape of Good Hope in Dutch and British South Africa. Included here is a copy of the Cape Slave Code, a time line of developments in South African history, demographic statistics about slavery, and a list of archival information on the slave trade in South Africa.

Women
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    A Celebration of Women Writers: Writers Living Between 1601 and 1700 .

    http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/_generate/1601-1700.html Mary Mark Ockerbloom has spent years compiling this compendium of women’s literature. The site includes a separate page listing women writers of the seventeenth century, with links to works by some of the writers, including Anne Bradstreet, Margaret Cavendish, Marie-Catherine Hortense Desjardins, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. The site can be searched by an author’s name, type of literature, country, and the authors’ ethnicity.

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    Seventeenth Century Women Poets .

    http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/englisch/kurse/17c/index.htm Created for a course at the University of Köln (Cologne), Germany, this site features biographical information and poetry from several women, including Anne Bradstreet and Aphra Behn. The site also contains articles, essays, and links to other resources about this period.

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    The Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz Project .

    http://www.dartmouth.edu/~sorjuana/ This site, sponsored by the department of Spanish and Portuguese at Dartmouth College, is a self-described celebration of “the greatest poet the American continent produced in the seventeenth century.” It contains the full texts of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz’s plays, poetry, and prose, as well as a chronology of her life and a bibliography.

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    Women Artists: Renaissance and Baroque Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers .

    http://womenshistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa021230a.htm This page, part of About.com’s Women’s History Guide, contains brief biographies of seventeenth century women artists. The site also provides links to other Web resources.

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    Women Artists: Self-Portraits & Representations of Womanhood from the Medieval Period to the Present .

    http://www.csupomona.edu/%7Eplin/women/womenart.html California State University, Pomona, sponsors this Web site about women artists and their depiction of women. The site features portraits, brief biographies, and bibliographies of women artists. The information is arranged chronologically, with two pages devoted to the sixteenth and seventeenth century and to the seventeenth and eighteenth century artists.

Subscription Web Sites

The following sites are Web based but are available to paying subscribers only. Many public, college, and university libraries subscribe to these sources. Readers are encouraged to ask reference librarians if these resources are available at their local or school libraries.

General
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    Oxford Reference Online .

    http://www.oxfordreference.com A virtual reference library of more than one hundred dictionaries and reference books published by Oxford University Press, Oxford Reference Online contains information about a broad range of subjects, including art, architecture, military history, science, religion, philosophy, political and social science, and literature. The site also features English-language and bilingual dictionaries, as well as collections of quotations and proverbs.

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    Oxford Scholarship Online .

    www.oxfordscholarship.com

    Oxford Scholarship Online currently contains the electronic versions of more than 750 books about economics, finance, philosophy, political science, and religion that are published by Oxford University Press. The site features advanced searching capabilities and links to other online sources.

Art
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    Grove Art Online .

    www.groveart.com This authoritative and comprehensive site provides information about the visual arts from prehistory to the present. In addition to its more than 130,000 art images, the site contains articles on fine arts, architecture, China, South America, Africa and other world cultures, as well as biographies and links to hundreds of museum and gallery Web sites.

History
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    Greenwood Daily Life Online .

    http://dailylife.greenwood.com/ The site focuses on what its creator, Greenwood Publishing Group, describes as “the billions of anonymous men and women too often forgotten by historical studies, but without whose lives human history would be meaningless.” It contains information from The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Daily Life and other sources describing religious, domestic, economic, intellectual, and educational life. Maps, illustrations, time lines, and teacher lesson plans are also included.

Music
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    Classical Music Library .

    http://www.classical.com/ This streaming music service contains more than thirty-five thousand music tracks, with about two thousand tracks added monthly. It also features program notes, images, playlists, and links to biographical and humanities databases.

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    Grove Music Online .

    www.grovemusic.com This online version of the highly regarded The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians features thousands of articles on musicians, instruments, musical techniques, genres, and styles. In addition to its articles and biographies, the site provides more than five hundred audio clips of music, and links to images, sound, and related Web sites.

Science
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    Access Science: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online .

    http://www.accessscience.com This site, an online version of McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, contains all articles found in the most recent edition of that reference book. The site includes biographies of scientists, definitions of scientific terms, bibliographies, and links to related Web sites.

Electronic Databases

Electronic databases usually do not have their own URLs. Instead, public, college, and university libraries subscribe to these databases and add them to their Web sites, where they are available only to library card holders or specified patrons. Readers can check library Web sites to see if these databases are available, or they can ask reference librarians about database availability.

General
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    Gale Virtual Reference Library The database contains more than eighty-five reference books, including encyclopedias and almanacs, allowing users to find information about a broad range of subjects.
Biography
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    Biography Resource Center The database includes biographies of more than 320,000 prominent people from throughout the world and from a wide range of disciplines.
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    Wilson Biographies Illustrated This database offers more than ninety-five thousand biographies and obituaries, and more than twenty-six thousand photographs, of prominent people.
History
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    History Reference Center The History Reference Center is a comprehensive world history database. It contains the contents of more than 650 encyclopedias and other books, the full text of articles published in about sixty history periodicals, and thousands of historical documents, biographies, photographs, and maps.
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    MagillOnHistory Set to launch in 2006 on the EBSCO platform, Salem Press’s MagillOnHistory will offer the full contents of its Great Lives from History series as well as its ongoing Great Events from History series and entries from its many history and social science encyclopedias, such as Ready Reference: American Indians and its decades series, The Fifties, The Sixties, and The Seventies. Full-length essays numbering in the thousands are designed to cross-link coverage of events and biographies of history’s movers and shapers, from ancient times to the twenty-first century.
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    World History FullTEXT This database provides a global view of history with information on a wide range of topics, including anthropology, art, culture, economics, government, heritage, military history, politics, regional issues, and sociology.
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    World History Online This reference database of world history features biographies, time lines, maps, charts, and other information.
Literature
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    Literature Resource Center The Literature Resource Center includes biographies, bibliographies, and critical analyses of authors from a wide range of literary disciplines, countries, and eras. The database also features plot summaries, the full text of articles from literary journals, critical essays, plot summaries, and links to Web sites.
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    MagillOnLiteraturePlus Containing more than 160 volumes of information, Salem Press’s comprehensive integrated literature database incorporates the full contents of its many title- and author-driven sets, and is growing as new titles are added. As of spring, 2005, these included Masterplots (series I and II), Cyclopedia of World Authors, Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Cyclopedia of Literary Places, Critical Surveys of Literature, Magill’s Literary Annual, World Philosophers and Their Works, and Magill Book Reviews. Updated quarterly, the database examines more than thirty-five thousand works and more than ten thousand writers, poets, dramatists, essayists, and philosophers. Most essays are several pages in length, and nearly all feature annotated bibliographies for further study. Essays feature critical analyses as well as plot summaries, biographical essays, character profiles, and authoritative listings of authors’ works and their dates of publication.

Categories: History Content