Authors: Frank R. Stockton

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer and novelist

Author Works

Short Fiction:

The Floating Prince, and Other Fairy Tales, 1881

Ting-a-Ling Tales, 1882

The Lady, or the Tiger?, and Other Stories, 1884

A Christmas Wreck, and Other Stories, 1886

Amos Kilbright: His Adscititious Experiences, with Other Stories, 1888

The Stories of the Three Burglars, 1889

The Rudder Grangers Abroad, and Other Stories, 1891

The Clock of Rondaine, and Other Stories, 1892

The Watchmaker’s Wife, and Other Stories, 1893

Fanciful Tales, 1894

A Chosen Few, 1895

New Jersey: From the Discovery of the Scheyichbi to Recent Times, 1896

Stories of New Jersey, 1896 (also known as New Jersey)

A Story-Teller’s Pack, 1897

Afield and Afloat, 1900

John Gayther’s Garden and the Stories Told Therein, 1902

The Magic Egg, and Other Stories, 1907

Stories of the Spanish Main, 1913

Best Short Stories, 1957

Long Fiction:

What Might Have Been Expected, 1874

Rudder Grange, 1879

A Jolly Fellowship, 1880

The Story of Viteau, 1884

The Transferred Ghost, 1884

The Late Mrs. Null, 1886

The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine, 1886

The Hundredth Man, 1887

The Dusantes: A Sequel to “The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine,” 1888

The Great War Syndicate, 1889

Personally Conducted, 1889

Ardis Claverden, 1890

The Squirrel Inn, 1891

The House of Martha, 1891

Pomona’s Travels, 1894

The Adventures of Captain Horn, 1895

Mrs. Cliff’s Yacht, 1896

Captain Chap: Or, The Rolling Stones, 1896

The Great Stone of Sardis: A Novel, 1898

The Girl at Cobhurst, 1898

The Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts, 1898

The Associate Hermits, 1899

The Vizier of the Two-Horned Alexander, 1899

The Young Master of Hyson Hall, 1899

A Bicycle of Cathay: A Novel, 1900

Kate Bonnet: The Romance of a Pirate’s Daughter, 1902

The Captain’s Toll-Gate, 1903

The Lost Dryad, 1912

The Poor Count’s Christmas, 1927


A Northern Voice Calling for the Dissolution of the Union of the United States of America, 1860

The Home: Where It Should Be and What to Put in It, 1872

Children’s/Young Adult Literature:

Ting-a-Ling, 1870

Roundabout Rambles in Lands of Fact and Fancy, 1872

Tales Out of School, 1875

The Bee-Man of Orn, and Other Fanciful Tales, 1887

The Queen’s Museum, 1887


The Novels and Stories of Frank R. Stockton, 1899-1904 (23 volumes)


Francis Richard Stockton was one of the most popular American humorists of the late nineteenth century, excelling in stories of whimsical fancy, in episodic novels of domestic comedy, and in tales of the occult and supernatural. A descendant of one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, Stockton was the third son of William Smith Stockton and his second wife, Emily Drean Stockton. Because his physique was generally frail and because he had been born with one leg shorter than the other, young Frank was severely limited in his childhood activities. On his daily walks to school, however, he began to develop his imaginative faculties by orchestrating dramas in his mind, plotting serial tales for his personal diversion. He later noted, “I caused the fanciful creatures who inhabited the world of fairy-land to act . . . as if they were inhabitants of the real world.” Such creative strategy later came to characterize Stockton’s most successful children’s literature and science fiction.{$I[AN]9810000751}{$I[A]Stockton, Frank R.}{$S[A]Fort, Paul;Stockton, Frank R.}{$S[A]Lewes, John;Stockton, Frank R.}{$I[geo]UNITED STATES;Stockton, Frank R.}{$I[tim]1834;Stockton, Frank R.}

Frank R. Stockton

(Library of Congress)

At Central High School in Philadelphia, Stockton won a short-story contest, an achievement which encouraged his aspirations toward an eventual career in writing. In 1852, though, when he graduated, Stockton was apprenticed to a wood engraver and for the next fourteen years worked for a living at this craft, accumulating rejection slips for his occasional forays into fiction. By 1859, he had published only two short stories. In 1860, Stockton married Mary Anne (or Marianne) Edwards Tuttle (her first name has also been spelled without the e). He then began to apply himself more vigorously to his writing, and he soon had a serialized tale accepted for publication in the prestigious Southern Literary Messenger, a journal at one time partially written and edited by Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849). A brief, uncharacteristic political posture manifested itself at this time in Stockton’s life: He published a pamphlet supporting the right of the South to secede from the Union. When Fort Sumter fell, however, Stockton, a genial, amiable gentleman who actually abhorred controversy, withdrew the slender publication and, for the rest of his life, happily avoided any social or political dispute.

When Stockton published “Ting-a-Ling,” a fairy tale about a giant and a dwarf, in Riverside Magazine in 1867, he came to the attention of Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905), soon to be recognized as a significant force in children’s literature. Dodge hired Stockton as her assistant editor on Hearth and Home, a periodical for the juvenile market. He was now able to focus his complete attention on the literary arena, and when five years later Dodge assumed the editorship of the classic St. Nicholas magazine, she took Stockton along to continue as her assistant editor. Stockton not only helped edit St. Nicholas but also contributed tales under his own name and under the pseudonyms Paul Fort and John Lewes.

In 1876, Stockton began experiencing eye difficulties, problems exacerbated by his increasingly heavy load of editorial work and his demanding writing schedule; by 1878, he was forced to resign his post at St. Nicholas. From then on, with his wife often acting as his amanuensis and reader, Stockton devoted himself to his own creative writing, with humor constituting his major orientation. He observed, “The discovery that humorous compositions could be used in journals other than those termed comic marked a new era in my life.” Sitting comfortably in his New Jersey home, Stockton dictated stories and novels which, he insisted, were without hidden philosophic meaning or deep, critical implications. Success as an entertainer was his simple aim.

His best-known works now began to appear in book form as well as in such popular magazines of the day as Cosmopolitan, Scribner’s, and the Ladies’ Home Journal. A resounding success was the episodic novel Rudder Grange, vignettes chronicling the misadventures of a newly married couple who, with their shrewd but often miscalculating maid Pomona, settle on a houseboat. The audience demanded sequels, and Stockton delivered more sketches of the hapless group in The Rudder Grangers Abroad, and Other Stories and Pomona’s Travels.

Financial success afforded the Stocktons opportunity to travel, and voyages abroad continued to energize the abundant imagination of the acclaimed humorist, particularly directing him to compose another renowned success, The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine, a tale of two widows from a small town in Pennsylvania who, along with a formal gentleman, are shipwrecked but, nevertheless, find themselves in enviable circumstances: They are castaways on a tropical island, yet living in a charming home with a full larder. The Dusantes became the sequel demanded by Stockton’s readership.

Stockton’s most memorable piece, however, the one for which succeeding generations of readers have remembered and will continue to remember his name is “The Lady, or the Tiger?” a tale originally appearing in Century’s Magazine for November, 1882. The story’s challenging conclusion spawned much speculation as intrigued readers endeavored to disentangle the verbal clues in pursuit of a solution to this literary cipher that is timelessly intriguing. From time to time, Stockton exploited occultist worlds and other spiritualist manifestations in his imaginative prose. “The Lady in the Box,” for example, a tale from John Gayther’s Garden and Stories Told Therein, is strongly reminiscent of Poe and the elements of gothic mystery as a woman’s cataleptic trance is controlled in history, a phenomenon enabling her to transcend forty years without aging. The Great Stone of Sardis, set in the New York of 1947, deals with materials virtually foreign to the pre-twentieth century sensibility: submarines, sophisticated communications systems, and the existence of a mammoth diamond located in the very center of the earth. The influence of Jules Verne (1828-1905) on Stockton’s science-fiction work is most clearly noticeable in this story.

The Stocktons retired to an estate they had purchased in West Virginia. In mid-April, 1902, Stockton attended the banquet of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. While there, he was taken ill and carried to his hotel room, where he died of a cerebral hemorrhage. Stockton was buried in Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia, not far from the spot where he had been born.

BibliographyGolemba, Henry L. Frank R. Stockton. Boston: Twayne, 1981. Part of Twayne’s United States Authors series, this extended examination of Stockton and his art includes an introductory bibliography and chronological investigation of Stockton’s works. Golemba also suggests reasons for Stockton’s neglect, in relation not only to the works themselves but also to the history of publishing and literary criticism over the last hundred years. Contains a select bibliography of primary and secondary sources.Griffin, Martin I. J. Frank R. Stockton. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1939. This biography gathers together details of Stockton’s life–many taken from original sources–and shows the relationship between his life and his works. In the discussion of Stockton’s work, however, plot summary dominates over critical interpretation. Includes a bibliography.Hall, Ernest Jackson. The Satirical Element in the American Novel. Reprint. New York: Haskell House, 1969. Brief monograph on American satire emphasizes Stockton’s place in the development of the satirical novel.Howells, William Dean. “Stockton’s Stories.” The Atlantic Monthly 59 (January, 1887): 130-132. Citing particular Stockton stories, Howells discusses Stockton’s influence on the short-story form, analyzing characteristics of both the author and the form that make them such a good match. This article, along with three others Howells wrote during Stockton’s lifetime, provides some of the best criticism of Stockton’s art.Johnson, Robert U. Remembered Yesterdays. Boston: Little, Brown, 1923. This memoir by a former editor in chief of The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine includes information about many men and women memorable in the fields of letters and publishing. His short chapter on Stockton, entitled “A Joyful Humorist,” gives a feeling for the man through personal recollections and anecdotes.May, Charles. The Short Story: The Reality of Artifice. New York: Twayne, 1995. Brief comment on Stockton’s best-known story, “The Lady or the Tiger?” as a so-called trick-ending story; suggests the story is not as open-ended as it is often claimed to be.Panek, LeRoy Lad. The Origins of the American Detective Story. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2006. Study of the beginnings and establishment of American detective-fiction conventions, focusing especially on the replacement of the police by the private detective and the place of forensic science in the genre. Provides perspective on Stockton’s writings.Vedder, Henry C. American Writers of Today. Boston: Silver Burdett, 1894. This analysis of American writers includes a twelve-page chapter on Stockton and his work. Offers interesting insights and a flavor of the times in which Stockton wrote. Vedder gives considerable attention to Stockton’s originality and droll humor.
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