The freedom from prosecution conferred upon members of the judiciary when they act in their official capacity.
While acting within the scope of official duties and official jurisdiction, judges must be able to act according to the dictates of conscience, free from the threat of civil damages, even though decisions that are rendered may later be proved erroneous.
In the case of Bradley v. Field
Judicial immunity was reaffirmed several times. In 1967 it was held to be unaffected by federal civil rights laws, which allowed damages against any person depriving another of rights while acting under the color of law. In Stump v. Sparkman
In Pulliam v. Allen
Nies, Robert E., and Ross G. Greenberg. “The Liability of Mediators Is Unsettled.” National Law Journal 17, no. 41 (June 12, 1995): B9. Olowofoyeku, Abimbola A. Suing Judges: A Study of Judicial Immunity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Judicial codes and rules