Authors: Michel-Guillaume-Jean de Crèvecœur

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French-born American letter writer

Author Works

Nonfiction:

Letters from an American Farmer, 1782

Voyage dans la haute Pennsylvanie et dans l’état de New York, 1801 (Eighteenth Century Travels in Pennsylvania and New York, 1961)

Sketches of Eighteenth Century America, 1925

More Letters from the American Farmer: An Edition of the Essays Left Unpublished by Crèvecoeur, 1995 (Dennis D. Moore, editor)

Biography

One of the first and certainly one of the most artistic depicters of colonial America was a man who did not learn English until he was sixteen: Michel-Guillaume-Jean de Crèvecœur (krehv-kur), who published his first book in London under the pseudonym J. Hector St. John. Descended from an old Norman family, he was born at Lesches, near Caen, France, on January 31, 1735, and was educated by Jesuits. He came to America in 1754, married, and in 1769 settled on a farm in Orange County, New York. After three months in prison on suspicion of espionage during the American Revolution, he returned to France. There, François de La Rochefoucauld befriended him, arranged for the publication of the letters that made him famous, and got him a consulship in New York. On his return to America in 1783, Crèvecœur found his farm burned, his wife dead, his family scattered. He then threw himself zealously into developing Franco-American relationships.{$I[AN]9810000588}{$I[A]Crèvec{oelig}ur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de[Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de]}{$S[A]St. John, J. Hector[Saint John, J. Hector];Crèvec{oelig}ur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de}{$I[geo]FRANCE;Crèvec{oelig}ur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de[Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de]}{$I[geo]UNITED STATES;Crèvec{oelig}ur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de[Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de]}{$I[tim]1735;Crèvec{oelig}ur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de[Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de]}

His great work, Letters from an American Farmer, contains political philosophy, economics, agronomy, and colonial history, but it is chiefly marked by a visionary idealism, certitude that America could be the brave new world. Crèvecœur was one of the first writers to give a definition to the American character that has been incorporated into subsequent attempts to develop an American identity myth. The descriptions of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard are particularly idyllic. However, he strikes a dark note in describing the terrible institution of slavery in “Descriptions of Charles-Town.”

The picturesque Eighteenth Century Travels in Pennsylvania and New York pretends to be a translation from an early Oneida Indian manuscript, but the work is actually based on Crèvecœur’s own early travels with his friend Benjamin Franklin.

Ill health constantly interrupted his diplomatic work. Finally, in 1790, he returned to France, where he lived with his daughter and son-in-law until his death at Sarcelles on November 12, 1813.

Crèvecœur was one of the first writers to give a definition to the American character that has been incorporated into subsequent attempts to develop an American identity myth.

BibliographyAllen, Gay Wilson, and Roger Asselineau. Saint John de Crèvecoeur: The Life of an American Farmer. New York: Viking Press, 1987.Cutting, Rose Marie. John and William Bartram, William Byrd II, and St. John de Crèvecoeur: A Reference Guide. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1976.Fichtelberg, Joseph. “Utopia Disasters: Crèvecœur’s Letters and Revolution.” Studies in Literary Imagination 27 (Spring, 1994).Hanson, Victor Davis. The Land Was Everything : Letters from an American Farmer. New York: Free Press, 2000.Philbrick, Thomas. St. John de Crèvecoeur. New York: Twayne, 1970.Rice, Grantland S. “Crèvecœur and the Politics of Authorship in Republican America.” Early American Literature 28, no. 2 (1993).Robinson, David M. “Community and Utopia in Crèvecœur’s Sketches.” American Literature 62 (March, 1990).Robinson, David M. “The ‘Progressive Steps’ of the Narrator in Crèvecœur’s Letters from an American Farmer.” Studies in American Fiction 18 (Autumn, 1990).Sweet, Timothy. “American Pastoralism and the Marketplace: Eighteenth-Century Ideologies of Farming.” Early American Literature 29, no. 1 (1994).
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