Authors: Ray Lawler

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Australian playwright

Author Works


Cradle of Thunder, pr. 1949

Summer of the Seventeenth Doll, pr. 1955 (commonly known as The Doll)

The Piccadilly Bushman, pr. 1959, revised pb. 1998

The Unshaven Cheek, pr. 1963

The Man Who Shot the Albatross, pr. 1971

Kid Stakes, pr. 1975

Other Times, pr. 1976

The Doll Trilogy, pr. 1977 (includes Kid Stakes, Other Times, and Summer of the Seventeenth Doll)

Godsend, pr. 1982


Born one of eight children to a lower-middle-class Australian family, Raymond Evenor Lawler went to work in a factory at age thirteen but was always interested in the theater. He took acting lessons and worked at the Cremone Theatre in Brisbane during the late 1940’s. There he became Will Mahoney’s personal assistant, doing everything from roles in the pantomimes to walk-ons as a straight man for the comics; he began writing his own pieces as well. By twenty-three he had completed his first play (unproduced), and in his mid-thirties he was offered the position of manager/director of the Union Theatre Repertory Company in Melbourne. He accepted eagerly.{$I[AN]9810001720}{$I[A]Lawler, Ray}{$I[geo]AUSTRALIA;Lawler, Ray}{$I[tim]1921;Lawler, Ray}

To fully comprehend Lawler’s contribution, it is necessary to take into account that theater in Australia, from its beginning as a penal colony, was dominated by British drama. Even after World War II, the theater (and films) consisted of mainly second-rate British and American works. To counteract this, and to promote indigenous artistic creation, the Playwrights Advisory Board (PAB) and the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust offered prizes and subsidies to native writers who would write plays about their fellow Australians and stage them with native-born actors. Lawler won first prize in a contest in 1949 for Cradle of Thunder, and then, in 1955, nine unproduced plays later, he shared the first prize (of two hundred dollars) in a contest sponsored by PAB. Summer of the Seventeenth Doll was staged, with the playwright performing one of the lead roles.

Prior to its production, there had been a negative feeling about “homegrown” dramatic products, but the unparalleled international success of Summer of the Seventeenth Doll changed that perception radically. Included in Ten Best Plays of the American Season, 1957-58 and named best play by the Evening Standard, the play was a success in London, on Broadway, in a number of European countries, and in the USSR. Lawler also received favorable reviews for his acting in the Australian, London, and New York productions. In 1960 Ernest Borgnine and Anne Baxter played the leads in the American film version.

At this time Lawler was married to Jacklyn Kelleher, an actress from Brisbane, and in 1957 the couple had twin sons, then a daughter, Kylie, in 1959. The family lived in England, then Denmark, and finally Ireland because of the favorable tax situation there. Lawler had come a long way from splitting a two-hundred-dollar prize to worrying about taxes because of the success of his play.

In 1975, however, the Lawlers returned to Australia so that the playwright could participate in the production of The Doll Trilogy, which includes Kid Stakes and Other Times as well as The Summer of the Seventeenth Doll. It covers the lives of its characters over a sixteen-year period. In all three plays Lawler creates ordinary working-class Australians who speak in the native vernacular and behave conventionally except for their unconventional view of marriage.

In The Summer of the Seventeenth Doll, the two male characters, Barney and Roo, have been working for many years as canecutters in the north and consider themselves “mates” forever. Each year they have come to Melbourne during their summer layoff to stay at the boardinghouse of Emma Leach and her daughter, Olive, a barmaid, who is Roo’s girlfriend. With Nancy completing the foursome, the two couples have enjoyed sixteen carefree summers of fun. But this year is very different.

Nancy has gone off to be married, so Olive has tried to replace her with another barmaid friend, Pearl, who neither understands Olive’s enthusiastic view of their wonderful summers nor Barney’s code of morality. Even more significantly, Roo is deeply angry at Barney because instead of leaving the field with him after he was injured, Barney chose to remain with a “new friend,” Johnnie Dowd. Somewhat short of cash, Roo has taken a job in a paint factory, and to add insult to injury, when some of the “boys” come to town, Barney brings Johnnie Dowd to Emma’s to “patch things up.”

Roo, realizing that the days of their youth (when they were, according to Olive, “eagles flying down out of the sun for mating”) are gone forever, has a physical altercation with Barney. Then, settling for a more traditional lifestyle, he asks Olive to marry him, saying that he intends to remain year-round working at an ordinary job. Each year Roo has brought Olive some gifts from the North, including an elaborately dressed kewpie doll. Now, refusing to acknowledge the truth of the situation, Olive leaves the scene as Roo in torment smashes this year’s gift, the seventeenth doll.

Of the other plays in the trilogy, Kid Stakes, set during the Depression, shows the beginning relationships of the four principal characters, while Other Times, set after World War II, explores more deeply the bond between the men and foreshadows Nancy’s departure.

Among Lawler’s other dramas, The Piccadilly Bushman examines the patronizing attitude of the British toward the “colonials” and the ambivalent attitude of Australians toward Britain. The Man Who Shot the Albatross deals with the notorious Captain William Bligh, now governor of New South Wales, who cannot help but connect the original mutiny on the Bounty with the military insurrection known as the Rum Rebellion. Godsend, originally written for British television, has to do with the remains of Thomas à Beckett, supposedly entombed at Canterbury but quite possibly to be found in a little church in Kent. In 1981, Lawler was made an officer of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II.

BibliographyBartholomeuz, Dennis. “Theme and Symbol in Contemporary Australian Drama: Ray Lawler to Louis Nowra.” In Drama and Symbolism, edited by James Redmond. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1982. The author believes that “the pronounced anti-intellectual strain in Australian life” is glamorized in Summer of the Seventeenth Doll; images of flying eagles are incongruous with the “drab necessities of urban employment.” Cites Lawler’s own comments on the de-emphasis of plot in favor of characterization. Sees the play as “the tragedy of those who are made inarticulate by words.”Brisbane, Katharine. “Beyond the Backyard.” In Australia Plays. London: Walker Books, 1989. An anthology of five new Australian plays, all of which owe a debt, according to Brisbane’s introductory essay, to Lawler’s “The Doll, as it came to be called.” Brisbane sees an irony that “the backbone of Australian drama is its Irish sensibility to language, rhythm, humour and logic.” The play “is an almost perfect example of the conventional three-act form.”Fitzpatrick, Peter. After “The Doll”: Australian Drama Since 1955. Melbourne: Edward Arnold, 1979. A strong chapter on Lawler sets out the argument for a decline in quality from The Doll to the two plays completing the trilogy, Kid Stakes and Other Times. While The Doll was precedent setting, it was not altogether “helpful,” as it “left an inheritance which had partly to be lived down.”Hooton, Joy. “Lawler’s Demythologizing of The Doll: Kid Stakes and Other Times.” Australian Literary Studies 12 (May, 1986): 335-346. Examines the “retrospective” plays following The Doll and finds that the ambiguities of The Doll have been reconciled in the sequels. “Reformed text is much more thematically consistent, although far less richly suggestive” than the earlier play, the author states. Finds it less concerned with outback values, more a psychological than “a universally relevant study of the effects of time.”Rees, Leslie. The Making of Australian Drama: A Historical and Critical Survey from the 1830’s to the 1970’s. London: Angus and Robertson, 1973. In a chapter called “The Trust, The Doll, and the Break-through,” the history of Lawler’s relationship with the theater world is told. Photographs including ones of Lawler as Barney. Index and bibliography.
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