Authors: Virginia Hamilton

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist, short-story writer, and biographer

Identity: African American

Author Works

Children’s/Young Adult Literature:

Zeely, 1967

The House of Dies Drear, 1968

The Planet of Junior Brown, 1971

M. C. Higgins the Great, 1974

Justice and Her Brothers, 1978

Dustland, 1980

Jahdu, 1980

The Gathering, 1981

Sweet Whispers, Brother Rush, 1982

Willie Bea and the Time the Martians Landed, 1983

The People Could Fly: American Black Folktales, 1985

The Mystery of Drear House, 1987

A White Romance, 1987

Bells of Christmas, 1989

The Dark Way: Stories from the Spirit World, 1990

Cousins, 1990

Many Thousand Gone: African Americans from Slavery to Freedom, 1992

Plain City, 1993

Her Stories: African American Folktales, Fairy Tales, and True Tales, 1995

When Birds Could Talk and Bats Could Sing, 1996

A Ring of Tricksters: Animal Tales from America, the West Indies, and Africa, 1997

The Magical Adventures of Pretty Pearl, 1998

Second Cousins, 1998

Bluish, 1999

The Girl Who Spun Gold, 2000

Wee Winnie Witch’s Skinny: An Original Scare Tale for Halloween, 2001

Time Pieces: The Book of Times, 2002


W. E. B. Du Bois: A Biography, 1972

Paul Robeson: The Life and Times of a Free Black Man, 1974


A much-honored writer of children’s literature, Virginia Esther Hamilton was awarded every major award for her stories. Beginning with the Nancy Block Memorial Award of New York for her first book, Zeely, she has received the Edgar Allan Poe Award for best juvenile mystery, the Newbery Medal (becoming the first African American writer to receive it), the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award, the National Book Award, the Boston Globe/Horn Book Award and the Hans Christian Andersen Award. In 1995, she received a “genius grant” from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.{$I[AN]9810001789}{$I[A]Hamilton, Virginia}{$I[geo]WOMEN;Hamilton, Virginia}{$I[geo]UNITED STATES;Hamilton, Virginia}{$I[geo]AFRICAN AMERICAN/AFRICAN DESCENT;Hamilton, Virginia}{$I[tim]1936;Hamilton, Virginia}

Hamilton was born and raised in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and her talent as a writer became evident at an early age. She went on to Antioch College, where she studied creative writing. She concentrated on short stories; one of her models was Carson McCullers. Upon leaving Antioch, she went to Ohio State University for a period but then moved to New York City with the intention of attending the New School for Social Research. In New York she met and married poet Arnold Adoff. Their honeymoon to North Africa was credited by Hamilton with having been an influence on her book Zeely.

Zeely was developed from one of her short stories after a book editor encouraged Hamilton to switch from short fiction to long fiction for children. It tells the unusual story of a young girl’s fascination with a neighbor woman, Zeely, who resembles a Watusi princess. Chosen as an American Library Association Notable Book for 1967, it was also awarded the Nancy Block Memorial Award because its handling of the black experience promoted racial understanding. Well received critically, the book launched Hamilton’s career as a writer of children’s fiction.

In 1974, M. C. Higgins the Great was published. A story of a young boy’s rite of passage into responsible young manhood, the book was called brilliant by many, a powerful “charting of growing up.” Some critics, however, decried her writing style, which they labeled “heavy” and occasionally impenetrable. In spite of such naysayers, the book was a success, winning many prestigious awards. It became the first book ever to win both the Newbery Medal and the National Book Award.

A prolific writer who produced about one book a year, she also wrote nonfiction for children. Her biographies of W. E. B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson are commendable for their portrayals of the enormous strength of these two African American men as well as their flaws. Her goal was to show the men as heroes with whom young black readers could identify while making them real people.

Hamilton was applauded for, among other things, the unique approach she took to children’s stories: the telling of tales with African American heroes and heroines whose experiences and adventures are not so much peculiar to the black experience as they are revealingly universal. Her characters show how to survive the mundane, the odd, and the fantastic, which makes her books not only compelling reading but also subtle “survival primers” (as her husband described them). Hamilton herself said that she saw her books and the language she used in them as empowering her to express her own “dreams and wishes and those of other African Americans.” She liked writing for and about young people largely because her own childhood in Yellow Springs was “so delightful.” Her family was full of storytellers; she describes them as “an extremely eccentric family . . . independent . . . wise . . . and very talkative.” Living most of her professional life in the small town in which she grew up–and where family still had a strong effect on her–Hamilton seemed to find the inspiration and creative nourishment that helped her to write.

Hamilton and her husband lived in Yellow Springs on land that had been in the family since her fugitive slave ancestor settled there after fleeing the South. While producing an impressive number of books, Hamilton reared two children who became artists in their own right. She also spent time lecturing and speaking to groups about writing. Breast cancer, however, ended Hamilton’s life and her prolific career in 2002, a month before her sixty-sixth birthday.

BibliographyFarrell, Kirby. “Virginia Hamilton’s Sweet Whispers, Brother Rush and the Case for a Radical Existential Criticism.” Contemporary Literature 31, no. 2 (Summer, 1990): 161-176. A detailed analysis from a psychological perspective.Giovanni, Nikki. Review of M. C. Higgins, the Great, by Virginia Hamilton. The New York Times Book Review, September 22, 1974, 8. Provides an analysis of Hamilton’s appeal, which Giovanni attributes to her realism, her characterization, and her uniting “the forces of hope with the forces of dreams.” A brief but perceptive article.Hamilton, Virginia. “The Mind of a Novel: The Heart of the Book.” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 8 (Winter, 1983): 10-14. Hamilton emphasizes persistent themes in her works, such as the importance of place and family. Explains her use of language, nonverbal communication, and dialect. A lengthy section on the importance of Africa in her thought and fiction is especially valuable.Hamilton, Virginia. “Talking with Virginia Hamilton.” Interview by Yolanda Robinson Coles. American Visions 10 (December/January, 1995): 31-32. Hamilton credits her family with being the main source of her stories and storytelling skills. She compares her calling as a storyteller to the griot’s role in African American culture. Provides valuable insight into her work as a whole.Hamilton, Virginia. “Writing the Source: In Other Words.” The Horn Book Magazine 14 (December, 1978): 609-619. Comments on the genesis of her works, emphasizing the importance of the revision process. Also discusses the genres that appeal to her and makes interesting observations about her relationship to black literature in general.Mikkelsen, Nina. Virginia Hamilton. New York: Twayne, 1994. The first book-length study of Hamilton’s work. Mikkelsen presents a biographical portrait and then analyzes Hamilton’s fiction, biographies, folklore collections, and fantasy. In-depth literary criticism of each book to 1995 is offered.Paterson, Katherine. “Family Visions.” The New York Times Book Review, November 14, 1982, 41, 56. A highly laudatory review of Sweet Whispers, Brother Rush. Paterson challenges readers to read the first paragraph of the book and “then stop–if you can.”Scholl, Kathleen. “Black Traditions in M. C. Higgins, the Great.” Language Arts 17 (April, 1980): 420-424. Drawing on scholarly sources, this essay traces in detail the use of folklore, song, and myth in Hamilton’s novel.Townsend, John Rowe. “Virginia Hamilton.” In A Sounding of Storytellers. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1979. A thorough overview of Hamilton’s early fiction.
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