Supreme Court Justice Hugo L. Black underscored a distinction between speech and action in upholding the conviction of civil rights demonstrators.
Justice Hugo L. Black,
Although often regarded as a civil libertarian, Black disappointed many liberals with his opinion in this case. His critics failed to perceive that his so-called “absolute standard” was logically compatible with a distinction between speech, which was absolutely protected, and assembly, which was limited by the Constitution’s use of the word “peaceably” and could never be so absolutely protected. Justice William O. Douglas, Black’s frequent partner in dissent, disagreed with him in this case and was joined by Chief Justice Earl Warren and Justices William J. Brennan, Jr., and Abe Fortas.
Assembly and association, freedom of
Black, Hugo L.
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Hague v. Congress of Industrial Organizations
Time, place, and manner regulations