The Supreme Court held that fear of violence did not provide justification for postponing school desegregation, and it also affirmed that its constitutional interpretations were legally binding on governors and state legislators.
In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation of the public schools violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The next year, in Brown II,
President Dwight D. Eisenhower did not hesitate to send armed troops to enforce court-imposed desegregation orders.
With tensions in Little Rock continuing in 1958, the school board asked the district judge to withdraw the African American
Although President Eisenhower personally disagreed with the Brown decision, he made it manifestly clear that he would use his executive powers to enforce the decrees and interpretations of the Court. Confident of presidential enforcement, the justices were encouraged to take a firm stand in the Cooper ruling. It was not until the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that Congress provided statutory support for the desegregation effort.
Brown v. Board of Education
Equal protection clause
Race and discrimination
School integration and busing
States’ rights and state sovereignty