The Supreme Court called for integration of public school facilities rather than a desegregation of schools.

The Supreme Court unanimously ruled “intolerable” a Virginia county school board plan allowing a freedom of choice plan. Under this plan, no white student in the rural, mixed black and white district had chosen to attend a formerly all-black public school that had been legally opened up to all races, and a relatively small number of black students were attending the previously all-white school. Brown v. Board of Education II[case]Brown II[Brown II] (1955) had called for “all deliberate speed” in desegregation. Although on its face Green was only a case to specify the acceptable time limits in accordance with Brown II, it actually shifted the emphasis in school desegregation from formal or legal equality of educational opportunity to a numerical standard for determining compliance with desegregation orders in previously formally segregated schools. Although the Court did not declare freedom of choice plans to be inevitably unconstitutional, it expressed doubt that such plans could achieve integration.School integration and busing;Green v. County School Board of New Kent County[Green v. County School Board of New Kent County]

Brown v. Board of Education

Columbus Board of Education v. Penick


Equal protection clause

Fourteenth Amendment

Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County

Milliken v. Bradley

Pasadena Board of Education v. Spangler

School integration and busing

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education