The Supreme Court ruled that the exigencies of war justified a military curfew which was applied almost exclusively to Japanese Americans.
After the United States entered into a war against Japan, many Americans feared that Japanese
Acting under presidential authority, General John DeWitt
By a 9-0 vote, the Supreme Court held that the curfew was constitutionally permitted under the combined congressional and presidential war powers. Because of the concurrent sentences, the Court refused to examine the constitutionality of the relocation program. Writing for the Court, Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone
Three members of the Court wrote concurring opinions that narrowed the scope of the decision. Justice Frank Murphy, who almost registered a dissent, wrote, “Distinctions based on color and ancestry are utterly inconsistent with our traditions and our ideals.” In Korematsu v. United States
Irons, Peter. “Gordon Hirabayashi v. United States.” In The Courage of Their Convictions. New York: Free Press, 1988.
Due process, substantive
Jackson, Robert H.
Race and discrimination
War and civil liberties
World War II