Ability to freely exchange ideas and concepts in an academic setting.
In many rulings, the Supreme Court recognized that citizens possess constitutional rights of free speech and due process. However, when these citizens were faculty members at academic institutions, the Court also obligated them to respect their responsibilities to their students, their academic community, and society in general. In early cases such as Gitlow v. New York
Two Supreme Court decisions in 1952 focused on the First Amendment rights of teachers. Both cases, Adler v. Board of Education
As chief justice, Earl Warren led the Court in landmark decisions guaranteeing First Amendment protections. In Shelton v. Tucker
The Court’s ruling in Epperson v. Arkansas
Justices appointed by Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Ronald Reagan (Warren E. Burger, William H. Rehnquist, Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and Sandra Day O’Connor) formed the core of a new majority on the Burger and Rehnquist Courts. Under these chief justices, the Court would issue opinions contradicting rulings that had previously limited the authority of school-governing officials. In Ambach v. Norwick
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
University of Pennsylvania v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Menard, Louis. The Future of Academic Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Poch, Robert. Academic Freedom in American Higher Education: Rights, Responsibilities, and Limitations. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University Press, 1993. Whitson, James Anthony. Constitution and Curriculum. London: The Falmer Press, 1991.
Epperson v. Arkansas
Gitlow v. New York
Keyishian v. Board of Regents
Stanley v. Georgia
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
Whitney v. California