Bibliography Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

“Address of a Convention of Negroes Held in Alexandria, Virginia August 1865.” American History from Revolution to Reconstruction and Beyond. University of Groningen, 2012. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.

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Bauer, Craig A. A Leader among Peers: The Life and Times of Duncan Farrar Kenner. Lafayette: U of Southwestern Louisiana, 1993. Print.

Beckel, Deborah. Radical Reform: Interracial Politics in Post-Emancipation North Carolina. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2011. Print.

Bell, Malcolm, Jr. Major Butler's Legacy: Five Generations of a Slaveholding Family. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1987. Print.

Benedict, Michael Less. “Preserving the Constitution: The Conservative Basis of Radical Reconstruction.” Journal of American History 61.1 (1974): 65–90. Print.

Bergeron, Paul H., Stephen V. Ash, and Jeanette Keith. Tennesseans and Their History. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1999. Print.

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Blight, David W. “Frederick Douglass, 1818–1895.” Documenting the American South. U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2004. Web. 9 Jan. 2014.

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Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001. Print.

Bradley, Mark L. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2009. Print.

Brodie, Fawn. Thaddeus Stevens: Scourge of the South. New York: Norton, 1959. Print.

Brown, William Wells. The Negro in the American Rebellion: His Heroism and His Fidelity. Boston: Lee, 1867. Print.

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Bryant, James K. The 36th Infantry United States Colored Troops in the Civil War: A History and Roster. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012. Print.

Bryant, Jonathan M. “Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council, 9 May 2013. Web. 22 Jan. 2014.

Bryant, Jonathan M. “The Freedman's Struggle for Power in Greene County, Georgia, 1865–1874” Georgia in Black and White: Explorations in Race Relations of a Southern State, 1865–1950. Ed. John. C. Inscoe. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2009. Print.

Budiansky, Stephen. The Bloody Shirt: Terror after Appomattox. New York: Viking, 2008. Print.

Bullard, Sara. The Ku Klux Klan: A History of Racism and Violence. 4th ed. Montgomery: Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, 1991. Print.

Butchart, Ronald E. “Edmonia G. and Caroline V. Highgate: Black Teachers, Freed Slaves, and the Betrayal of Black Hearts.” Portraits of African American Life Since 1865. Ed. Nina Mjagkij. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 2003. Print.

Butchart, Ronald E. Northern Schools, Southern Blacks, and Reconstruction: Freedmen's Education, 1862–1875. Westport: Greenwood, 1980. Print.

Butchart, Ronald E. Schooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861–1876. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2010. Print.

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“Carl Schurz, German American.” Watertown History. Watertown Historical Society. 2013. Web. 28 Dec. 2013.

Carlson, Peter. “Abraham Lincoln Meets Frederick Douglass,” American History 45 6 (Feb. 2011), p. 28–29. Print.

Cimbala, Paul and Randall Miller. The Great Task Remaining before Us: Reconstruction as America's Continuing Civil War. New York: Fordham UP, 2010. Print.

“Civil Rights Act of 1866.” A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774–1875. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2003. Web. 20 March 2014.

Clark Hine, Darlene and Kathleen Thompson. A Shining Thread of Hope: The History of Black Women in America. New York: Broadway Books, 1998. Print.

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. First Freed: Washington, D.C. in the Emancipation Era. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 2002. Print.

Click, Patricia C. The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony. 2001. Web. 17 Jan. 2014.

Click, Patricia C. Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, 1862–1867. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2001. Print.

Cohen, William. At Freedom's Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861–1915. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1991. Print.

“Constitution of the United States: Amendments 11–27.” National Archives. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 29 March, 2014.

Coulter, E. Merton. William G. Brownlow: Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1937. Print.

Currie, David P. “The Reconstruction Congress.” University of Chicago Law Review 75.1 (2008): 383–495. Print.

Curtis, Michael Kent. No State Shall Abridge: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Durham: Duke UP, 1986. Print.

Donald, David H. Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War. 1960. Naperville: Sourcebooks, 2009. Print.

Donald, David Herbert, Jean Baker, and Michael Holt. Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.

“Douglass Biography.” Frederick Douglass Papers Edition, Institute for American Thought. Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2014.

Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. 1892. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 2003. Print.

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. New Haven: Yale UP, 2014. Print.

DuBois, W. E. B. Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a History of the Part of Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880. Rev. ed. New Brunswick, NH: Transaction, 2012. Print.

Duncan, Russell. “Rufus Bullock (1834–1907).” New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and the U of Georgia P, 2004. Web. 28 Dec. 2013.

Duncan, Russell. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Bullock, Commerce, and Race in Post–Civil War Georgia. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1994. Print.

Elliott, Mark. Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgée and the Quest for Racial Equality: From the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson. New York: Oxford UP, 2006. Print.

Enoch, Jessica. Refiguring Rhetorical Education: Women Teaching African American, Native American, and Chicano/a Students, 1865–1911. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2008. Print.

Epps, Garrett. Democracy Reborn: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Fight for Equal Rights in Post–Civil War America. New York: Holt, 2006. Print.

Escott, Paul D., ed. North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2008. Print.

Exman, Eugene. The House of Harper. New York: Harper, 1967. Print.

Feldman, Glenn. The Irony of the Solid South: Democrats, Republicans, and Race, 1865–1944. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2013. Print.

Ferrell, Claudine. Reconstruction. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2003. Print.

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005. Print.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: HarperCollins, 2011. Print.

Foner, Eric. “The Strange Career of the Reconstruction Amendments.” Yale Law Journal 108.8 Symposium: Moments of Change: Transformation in American Constitutionalism (1999): 2003–9. Print.

Foner, Philip S. and Robert James Branham, eds. Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1998. Print.

Foner, Philip S. The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, IV, Reconstruction and After. New York: International Publishers, 1955. Print.

“Frances Butler Leigh, 1838–1910.” Documenting the American South. University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2004. Web. 29 Jan. 2014.

Franklin, John Hope and Eric Foner. Reconstruction after the Civil War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. Print.

Frederick Douglass Project. Frederick Douglass Institute, University of Rochester, Feb. 2001. Web. 20 Mar. 2014.

“The Freedmen's Colony on Roanoke Island.” Fort Raleigh, North Carolina: National Historic Site. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Garner, James Wilford. Reconstruction in Mississippi. New York: Macmillan, 1902. Print.

“Georgia Governor Rufus Brown Bullock.” National Governors Association. National Governors Association. n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2013.

Goldberg, Barry M. The Unknown Architects of Civil Rights Thaddeus Stevens, Ulysses S. Grant, and Charles Sumner. Los Angeles: Critical Minds Press, 2011. Print.

Goldman, Robert M. Reconstruction and Black Suffrage: Losing the Vote in Reese and Cruikshank. Kansas: UP of Kansas, 2001. Print.

Goldstone, Lawrence. Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865–1903. New York: Walker, 2011. Print.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. Andrew Johnson. New York: Times Books, 2011. Print.

Graf, LeRoy and Ralph W. Haskins, eds. The Papers of Andrew Johnson. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1967–1999. Print.

“Green, John Patterson.” The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve, 16 Jul. 1997. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.

Gross, Theodore L. Albion W. Tourgée. New York: Twayne, 1963. Print.

Hacker, Louis M. and Benjamin Kendrick. The United States Since 1865. Rev. ed. New York: F. S. Crofts & Co., 1937. Print.

Heiny, Louisa M. A. “Radical Abolitionist Influence on Federalism and the Fourteenth Amendment.” American Journal of Legal History 49.2 (2007): 180–96. Print.

Hodges, Graham Russell, ed. African American History and Culture. New York: Garland, 1998. Print.

Hoffer, William James Hull. Plessy v. Ferguson: Race and Inequality in Jim Crow America. Lawrence: UP of Kansas, 2012. Print

Horn, Stanley F. Invisible Empire: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866–1871. Cos Cob: Edwards, 1969. Print.

Hume, Richard L. “Carpetbaggers in the Reconstruction South: A Group Portrait of Outside Whites and the ‘Black and Tan’ Constitutional Conventions.” Journal of American History 64.2 (1977): 313–30. Print.

Inaugural Ceremonies of the Freedmen's Memorial Monument to Abraham Lincoln. 1876. Internet Archive, 2001. Web. 20 March 2014.

Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 1999. Print.

Katz, William L. The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan Impact on History. Seattle: Open Hand, 1987. Print.

Keith, LeeAnna. The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction. New York: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

Kelley, Robin D. G., and Earl Lewis. To Make Our World Anew: A History of African Americans. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.

Kendrick, Benjamin B. The Journal of the Joint Committee of Fifteen on Reconstruction. New York: Columbia University, 1914. Google eBooks. n.d. Web. 20 March 2014.

Kennedy, Robert C. “On This Day: The Freedmen's Bureau.” HarpWeek. The New York Times Company, 2001. Web. 3 April 2014.

Kennedy, Stetson. Jim Crow Guide to the U.S.A.: The Laws, Customs and Etiquette Governing the Conduct of Nonwhites and Other Minorities as Second-Class Citizens. 2nd ed. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2011. Print.

Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery: 1619–1877. London: Penguin Books, 1995. Print.

Lane, Charles. The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction. New York: Holt, 2008. Print.

Lawson, Elizabeth. The Gentleman From Mississippi: Our First Negro Representative, Hiram R. Revels. New York: The Author, 1960. Print.

Lee, Maurice S. The Cambridge Companion to Frederick Douglass. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print.

Leibowitz, Arnold H. An Historical-Legal Analysis of the Impeachments of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, and William Clinton: Why the Process Went Wrong. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2012. Print.

Leigh, Frances Butler. Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation since the War, 1866–1876. Savannah: Beehive Press, 1992. Print.

Levine, Robert S. Martin R. Delany: A Documentary Reader. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2003. Print.

Levine, Robert S. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1997. Print.

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Linder, Douglas O. “The Andrew Johnson Impeachment Trial, 1868.” Famous American Trials. University of Missouri–Kansas City Law School, 1999. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.

Lowery, Charles and John Marszalek. Encyclopedia of African-American Civil Rights. New York: Greenwood, 1992. Print.

Lynch, Matthew, ed. Legacies Lost. Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2012. Print.

Mardock, Robert Winston. The Reformers and the American Indians. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971. Print.

Martinez, J. Michael. Carpetbaggers, Cavalry, and the Ku Klux Klan: Exposing the Invisible Empire during Reconstruction. Lanham: Rowman, 2007. Print.

Mathews, John M. Legislative and Judicial History of the Fifteenth Amendment. New York: Da Capo, 1971. Print.

Matthews, John M. “Negro Republicans in the Reconstruction of Georgia.” The Politics of Freedom: African Americans and the Political Process During Reconstruction. Ed. Donald G. Nieman. New York: Garland, 1994. 253–268. Print.

McCaleb, Edwin H. “Letter to T.P. Chandler.” 1865. Digital History. Eds. S. Mintz & S. McNeil. University of Houston, 2012. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.

McConnell, John Preston. Negroes and their Treatment in Virginia from 1865–1867. Pulaski, VA: B.D.

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McIver, Stuart. “The Murder of a Scalawag.” American History Illustrated 8 (1973): 12–18. Print.

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Parsons, Elaine Frantz. “Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan.” Journal of American History 92.3 (2005): 811–36. Print.

Patler, Nicholas. “The Black ‘Consummate Strategist’: Blanche Kelso Bruce and the Skillful Use of Power in the Reconstruction and Post-Reconstruction Eras.” Before Obama: A Reappraisal of Black Reconstruction Era Politicians, Vol. 1: Legacies Lost. Ed. Matthey Lynch. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2012. Print.

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Sterling, Dorothy, ed. The Trouble They Seen: The Story of Reconstruction in the Words of African Americans. New York: Da Capo, 1994. Print.

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