Similar to other movements of this period promoting civil rights, the Chicano movement made society aware of the injustices suffered by Mexican Americans in the United States and spurred social change.
The Chicano movement, also known by Chicanos as El Movimiento, was a cultural and political movement that raised awareness of the history of Mexicans and/or Chicanos in North America. The origin of the term “Chicano” is not known, and its definition varies, yet it has been proudly reclaimed by Americans of Mexican ancestry to emphasize their descent from colonial projects. The movement has been analyzed in three parts: the struggle for restoration of land grants, the appeal for Mexican American farmworkers’ rights, and the demand for equal access to empowerment via education and politics.
During the 1960’s, a group of Mexican Americans attempted to reclaim federal land in the United States. This group basied their actions on the
Leaders of the Chicano movement argued that many Mexican Americans were not immigrants and that the Mexican people legitimately owned parts of the land ceded to the United States. When they failed to secure these lost lands, the Chicanos of the 1960’s and 1970’s reclaimed
The Chicano movement also protested the exploitation of Mexican American migrant farmworkers, who traveled throughout the United States following the crop seasons for wages that kept their families well below the poverty level. Because migrant families were unable to stay in one town for much time, workers’ children were limited to two to three years of education before they too would begin to pick produce for growers. Both adults and children were exposed to poisonous pesticides and the harsh sun for long periods of time, among other detrimental conditions.
To put an end to these conditions, Mexican American migrant farmworkers organized. Cofounded in 1962 by
During the Chicano movement, Chicanos became conscious of the injustices in the educational system. Cognizant of the fact that only 25 percent of Chicanos graduated from high school, students were awakened to the need for reform within what they perceived to be a discriminatory system. Poor quality of education and unequal access to learning resources channeled Chicano students into cheap labor positions like those of their parents. Chicano youths were also being conscripted to fight in the
Aware of their oppression, these youths became an energetic source of cultural pride, activism, and radicalism. They organized into a conglomerate of various student organizations collectively named the
In order to effect social change, Chicanos saw the need to enter into politics and galvanize the Mexican American community. Growing disenchanted with the Democratic and Republican parties, they saw the need for a third political party that would refuse to compromise with these traditional groups. Chicanos organized the Raza Unida Party (RUP) to bring Mexican Americans’ values and needs under one political banner. Though the RUP eventually failed in its initial efforts, it nonetheless paved the way for Chicanos to enter the political arena.
Acuña, Rodolfo F. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. 6th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2006. Surveys the history of Chicanos from the Mesoamerican era to the present day and examines the complex intersections of race, gender, and class in Chicano identity. Cockcroft, Eva Sperling, and Holly Barnet-Sánchez, eds. Signs from the Heart: California Chicano Murals. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993. Includes four essays analyzing the educational, historical, and artistic significance of the mural genre inspired by Chicano culture. García, Alma M., ed. Chicana Feminist Thought: The Basic Historical Writings. New York: Routledge, 1997. Recovers the writings of a generation of Chicano feminists who collectively struggled against gender conflicts within the Chicano movement. Maciel, David R., Isidro D. Ortiz, and María Herrera-Sobek. Chicano Renaissance: Contemporary Cultural Trends. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2000. Examines the broad range of artistic cultural forms inspired by the Chicano movement, including art, literature, music, television, radio, and cinema. Focuses on the decades following the Chicano movement. Muñoz, Carlos. Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement. New York: Verso, 1989. Written by a leader of the Chicano movement, this book explores the origins and development of Chicano political protest contextualized within the history of Mexicans and their descendants in the United States. Rosales, Francisco Arturo. Chicano! The History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement. Houston: Arte Público Press, 1996. Companion to a documentary of the same name, this text highlights pivotal moments, key issues, and important figures of the Chicano movement and includes historical photographs.
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
Civil Rights movement
Latinos and immigrants
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
United Farm Workers