Physical or mental impairment that prevents a justice from participating fully in the activities of the Supreme Court.
One of the earliest cases of disability involved Justice Gabriel Duvall,
Before 1869, there was no provision for justices to receive a pension. In that year, a pension plan
Almost thirty years later, a similar situation existed involving, ironically, Justice Field,
Congress acted to extend pension benefits by special legislation to Justice Ward Hunt
William H. Moody
On December 31, 1975, Justice William O. Douglas
The justices who have incurred serious disabilities have been few in number. The availability of a generous retirement program obviously has made it easier for justices to take leave of the Court when confronted by a major physical or mental ailment. The timely intervention of colleagues on the Court has usually been the most important factor in influencing the disabled justice to leave the Court.
Abraham, Henry. Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Freidman, Leon, and Israel, Fred, eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Opinions. 5 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1997. Hughes, Charles Evans. The Supreme Court of the United States. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Publishing, 1928. Warren, Charles. The Supreme Court in United States History. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1922. Witt, Elder, ed. Guide to the United States Supreme Court. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1997.
Douglas, William O.
Field, Stephen J.
Grier, Robert C.
Moody, William H.
Nominations to the Court
Resignation and retirement