In the sixteenth century, Europe experienced a period of civil strife, rebellions, and conflicts that came to be called the European Wars of Religion.
In the sixteenth century, Europe experienced a period of civil strife, rebellions, and conflicts that came to be called the European Wars of Religion. The
Challenges outside Europe also fueled change. The Islamic
European states from 1517 to 1618 achieved military successes abroad but only mixed results within Europe, owing to civil conflict and the
The formation of the Catholic Spanish
The Ottoman Turks besieged the old Habsburg capital of Vienna in 1529 and formed an alliance with France’s King Francis against the Habsburgs in the 1530’s and 1540’s.
The sixteenth century saw
Catholic and Protestant Territories, 1590-1598
In sixteenth century Europe, the Wars of Religion and the emergence of gunpowder weapons disrupted state development and the ability of rulers to field large-scale, well-organized military units. Funding and loyalty were the two main variables to be overcome, thus
An engraving of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of 1572, in which Huguenot leaders and thousands of other Protestants were killed by French Catholic nobles in Paris.
Unit clothing and constant fighting did identify professional mercenary groups, but irregular state funding and loyalty issues often resulted in confusing conflicts and fluctuating levels of military organization. The main exceptions were the Spanish square
Strategy and tactics were transformed in the sixteenth century by the emergence of gunpowder weapons and large sailing ships.
At sea, the expense of naval seafaring again was key. The Portuguese alone had a variety of ships, including naus, caravels, gales, and bergantim. All served as both merchant ships and warships. Only the English
The popularization of the European
Black, Jeremy. Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. De Souza, Philip. Seafaring and Civilization. London: Profile Books, 2001. Knecht, Robert. The French Religious Wars, 1562-1598. New York: Osprey, 2002. Konstam, Angus. The Spanish Armada. New York: Osprey, 2009. Lynn, John. Battle: A History of Combat and Culture. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2003. Parker, Geoffrey, ed. Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Rogers, Clifford, ed. The Military Revolution Debate. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995. Battlefield Britain: Spanish Armada. Documentary. DD Home Entertainment, 2005. History’s Mysteries: Drake’s Secret Voyage. Documentary. A&E Home Video, 2006. The Return of Martin Guerre. Feature film. Arrow Films, 1982.
The Era of Gustavus Adolphus
The Era of Frederick the Great
The Era of Napoleon Bonaparte
The Crimean War
The American Civil War