Title: Foe

Author: J.M. Coetzee

Publication Date: March 13, 1986

Genre: Fiction, Postmodern Literature

Page Length: 160 pages


Foe is a thought-provoking postmodern novel written by acclaimed author J.M. Coetzee, published in 1986. Set in a remote farm in the mid-18th century, this captivating tale explores the themes of identity, power dynamics, and the complexities of storytelling.

Part 1: The Arrival

The novel opens with an introduction to Susan Barton, the main protagonist, who finds herself stranded on an island after her ship is wrecked. She manages to survive and reaches a remote farm inhabited by two occupants: Cruso, an enigmatic man, and Friday, a mute African slave. Susan gets acquainted with them, and soon becomes close with Cruso, forming a unique bond.

Part 2: The Dream of Susan

After Cruso’s sudden death, Susan is left alone on the island with Friday. Determined not to let their story be forgotten, Susan longs to write an account of their time together. She decides to leave the island, seeking help from a renowned writer, Daniel Foe (commonly known as Daniel Defoe), who is famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Hoping to turn her story into a best-selling book, Susan believes Foe’s expertise will be invaluable.

Part 3: The Inventions of Foe

Susan arrives in London and meets with Foe, a shrewd and calculating man. However, Foe quickly dismisses Susan’s account as uninteresting and lacking narrative potential. Susan becomes disheartened but is determined to persist. Frustrated by Foe’s lack of enthusiasm, she seeks the help of Foe’s servant, Barton, who resembles Friday. Susan proposes that Barton takes on Friday’s persona and helps her recreate the events of the island to make the story more engaging.

Part 4: The Ghost of Widows

With Barton now taking on Friday’s identity, they construct an extraordinary tale that captivates readers and critics alike. Susan’s account becomes a success, as the fabricated narrative overshadows the original story. However, as Barton and Susan continue to craft their narrative, Foe starts to suspect the authenticity of their account. The power dynamics between the characters shift, as Foe takes control and manipulates the story to serve his own interests.

Part 5: The Writer’s Island

In the final section, Foe takes Susan and Barton to a remote island, where they are met with isolation and confinement. Foe’s control becomes evident as he reshapes the narrative to fit his vision. Susan, now disillusioned, begins to question the nature of storytelling and the power that authors hold over their characters. The novel delves into the idea that, in the act of writing, the truth can often be distorted or even erased entirely.


Foe explores various themes that provoke contemplation and self-reflection. One of the main themes is the question of identity. Through the characters of Susan, Cruso, Friday, and Foe, the novel raises questions about how our identities are shaped by external forces and how individuals can reinvent themselves.

Power dynamics and manipulation are also central themes in Foe. The novel examines how those in positions of authority can exploit and control others for their own gain. Foe’s influence over Barton and Susan highlights the importance of power and its impact on storytelling.

Furthermore, Foe raises questions about the nature of storytelling itself. Coetzee challenges the idea of a singular, definitive truth and explores how stories can be crafted and altered to serve particular agendas. The novel prompts readers to consider the ethical implications of using storytelling as a means of control and manipulation.


Foe is an important work of postmodern literature that challenges conventional storytelling techniques and explores complex themes. By deconstructing the story of Robinson Crusoe and providing alternate perspectives, Coetzee prompts readers to question the dominant narrative and consider the influence of power dynamics in storytelling.

The novel’s exploration of identity sheds light on the complexities and fluidity of human nature. By examining how characters reinvent themselves and are shaped by external forces, Foe encourages readers to reflect on the nuances of identity formation in their own lives.

Moreover, Foe serves as a profound critique of the nature of storytelling itself. Coetzee invites readers to reconsider the reliability and authenticity of narratives, urging them to question the power dynamics at play and the potential for manipulation.

Overall, Foe is a thought-provoking novel that delves into themes of identity, power, and storytelling. Through its intricate plot and well-crafted characters, J.M. Coetzee invites readers to critically examine the construction and manipulation of narratives, leaving a lasting impact on those who engage with this compelling work of postmodern literature.