Private agreements or contracts meant to deny a privilege, usually housing, on the basis of race, gender, or ethnicity.
Contemporary Harper's Weekly illustration of celebrations outside the galleries of the House of Representatives after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. A clause in that law outlawed housing discrimination.
A common practice in Northern and Western cities, restrictive covenants were a prime example of de facto segregation
Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.
Segregation, de facto
Shelley v. Kraemer