Separation of races required by law or other local, state, or federal official action.
In Plessy v. Ferguson
In a series of cases decided between 1938 and 1950, the Court suggested that segregated public schools might be constitutionally suspect. In Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
Finally, on May 17, 1954, the Court rendered its decision in Brown v. Board of Education
Clotfelter, Charles. After Brown: The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004. Friedman, Leon, ed. “Brown v. Board”: The Landmark Oral Argument Before the Supreme Court. New York: New Press, 2004. Hale, Grace Elizabeth. Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998. Higginbotham, A. Leon. Shades of Freedom: Racial Politics and Presumptions of the American Legal Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of “Brown v. Board of Education” and Black America’s Struggle for Equality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976. Kull, Andrew. The Color-Blind Constitution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. Rasmussen, R. Kent. Farewell to Jim Crow: The Rise and Fall of Segregation in America. New York: Facts On File, 1997. Tussman, Joseph, ed. The Supreme Court on Racial Discrimination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Brown v. Board of Education
Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education
Equal protection clause
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal doctrine