Selected Sites in Ancient Africa

A map showing some of the major cultural centers of ancient Africa.

San Peoples Create Earliest African Art

BaTwa Peoples Thrive in Central Africa

Saharan Peoples Create Rock Art

Nilo-Saharan Peoples Produce Food and Pottery

Khoisan Peoples Disperse Throughout Southern Africa

Nilo-Saharan Farmers Spread Cultivation and Herding

Niger-Congo Religion Takes Hold Across West Africa

Omotics Advance Farming Practices in Horn of Africa

Niger-Congo Peoples Spread Agriculture in Africa

Gash Civilization Thrives in Africa

Wawat Chiefdom Flourishes in Lower Nubia

First Great Expansion of Berber Peoples Across North Africa

Kerma Kingdom Develops and Dominates Lower Nubia

Kerma Kingdom Rules Nubia

Hyksos Create Second Intermediate Period

Berbers Expand Across North Africa

Third Intermediate Period Begins in Egypt

Sub-Saharan Ironworking Begins

Mashariki Bantu Establish Chifumbaze Ironworking Culture

Nok Artists Develop Terra-cotta Sculpture

Urban Commerce Develops in the Sudan Belt

Kushite King Piye Conquers Upper Egypt

Phoenicians from Tyre Found Carthage

Ironworking Spreads into Sub-Saharan Africa

Napata Kingdom Flourishes in Kush

Shabaka Reunites the Nile Valley

Meroitic Empire Rules from Southern Egypt to the Blue Nile

Libyan Garamantes Flourish as Farmers and Traders

Socially Stratified Kingdoms Arise Around the Middle Niger River

City-State of Yeha Flourishes in the Ethiopian Highlands

Bantu Peoples Spread Farming Across Southern Africa

Commercial City of Jenne Is Founded on Niger River

Berber Kingdoms of Numidia and Mauretania Flourish

Khoikhoi and Kwadi Adopt Pastoral Lifestyle

First Punic War

Battle of Zama

Third Punic War

Marius Creates a Private Army

East African Trading Port of Rhapta Flourishes

Kingdom of Aksum Emerges

Giant Stelae Are Raised at Aksum

Bantu People Invent Copper Metallurgy

Ezana Expands Aksum, Later Converts to Christianity

Ancient Ghana Emerges

Lydenburg Bantus Sculpt Life-Size Terra-cotta Heads

Vandals Seize Carthage