Author: Bernal Díaz del Castillo
Title: The Conquest of New Spain
Publish Date: 1632
Genre: Historical account
Page Length: 670 pages
The Conquest of New Spain is an account of the conquest of Mexico by the Spanish conquistadors under Hernán Cortés, written by one of his own soldiers, Bernal Díaz del Castillo. It is considered one of the most important primary sources on the conquest and provides a valuable insight into the motivations, tactics, and events of the conquest from the perspective of a Spanish soldier.
The book is divided into three parts, each of which covers a different stage of the conquest. The first part describes the journey of Cortés and his men from Cuba to Mexico, including their encounters with indigenous peoples and their acquisition of a native woman, Malinche, who acted as their interpreter.
The second part details the events leading up to the fall of the Aztec empire, including the battles with various indigenous groups, the meeting with Moctezuma, and the eventual siege of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. It also covers the internal conflicts within the Spanish camp and the struggle for power between Cortés and his lieutenant, Pedro de Alvarado.
The third part covers the aftermath of the conquest, including the consolidation of Spanish control over Mexico, the subjugation of the remaining indigenous groups, and the exploitation of the region's resources. It also discusses the conflicts between the Spanish conquerors and the royal authorities in Spain, as well as the ongoing impact of the conquest on indigenous peoples.
Throughout the book, Díaz del Castillo provides a detailed and often personal account of the events, including his own actions and interactions with other members of the Spanish expedition. He also provides insights into the motivations and attitudes of the Spanish conquistadors, including their sense of religious mission, desire for riches and glory, and their willingness to use violence and cruelty to achieve their goals.
The book also highlights the impact of the conquest on Native American societies, and the lasting damage caused by Spanish colonialism and exploitation. This includes the destruction of indigenous cultures, the introduction of new diseases, and the enslavement of millions of people.
One of the key themes of the book is the clash of civilizations between the Spanish and the native peoples of Mexico. Díaz del Castillo portrays the indigenous peoples as both barbaric and sophisticated, with a rich culture and complex political and social structures. He also highlights the difference in values and worldviews between the Spanish and the native peoples, particularly in relation to religion, economics, and governance.
Overall, The Conquest of New Spain is a valuable and fascinating primary source on one of the most significant events in world history. It provides a vivid and personal account of the conquest of Mexico, shedding light on the motivations, tactics, and impact of Spanish colonialism on the Americas. Despite its limitations as a historical source, it remains an invaluable resource for anyone seeking to understand the history of the Americas and the forces that shaped its development.