Time Line for Summary

  • Last updated on November 11, 2022

A time line of important events during the Renaissance and early modern era.

Date Region Event Mid-15th c. Middle East Foundation of the Saud Dynasty 1450’s-1471 South Asia Champa Civil Wars 1450’s-1529 South Asia Thai Wars 1451-1526 South Asia Lodī Kings Dominate Northern India 1454 East Asia China Subdues Burma 1454 Europe Sultan Mehmed II grants Venice trading privileges 1454-1466 Europe Thirteen Years’ War 1454-1481 Middle East Rise of the Ottoman Empire Apr. 9, 1454 Europe Peace of Lodi 1455-1485 Europe Wars of the Roses 1456 South Asia Battle of Kamphaeng Phet 1456 Africa Ca’da Mosto, working for Portugal, discovers the Cape Verde Islands 1456 Europe János Hunyadi prevents the Ottomans from conquering Belgrade 1456 Europe Publication of Gutenberg’s Mazarin Bible 1456 Europe Treaty of Iazhelbitsy 1457-1480’s East Asia Spread of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism Feb. 11, 1457 East Asia Restoration of Zhengtong Apr. 14, 1457-July 2, 1504 Europe Reign of Stephen the Great 1458 South Asia Ban La Tra Nguyet usurps the throne of Champa 1458-1490 Europe Hungarian Renaissance 1459 South Asia Rāo Jodha Founds Jodhpur 1459 Europe Serbia becomes a province of the Ottoman Empire Early 1460’s Europe Labor Shortages Alter Europe’s Social Structure c. 1460 Europe Ottomans take control of Greece 1460-1600 Africa Rise of the Akan Kingdoms July 10, 1460 Europe Battle of Northampton Dec. 30, 1460 Europe Richard, duke of York, is killed in the Battle of Wakefield 1461 Middle East Ottomans conquer Trebizond 1461 Europe Vlad III the Impaler attacks the Ottoman Empire and captures Vidin Mar. 29, 1461 Europe Battle of Towton 1462 Central Asia Astrakhan splits from the Golden Horde 1462 Europe Founding of the Platonic Academy c. 1462 Central Asia Kazak Empire Is Established 1462 Europe Regiomontanus Completes the EPITOME of Ptolemy’s ALMAGEST 1462 Europe Vlad III the Impaler is dethroned Beginning 1462 Europe Hungary’s Matthias I Corvinus organizes a standing army of mercenaries known as the Black Army Beginning 1462 Europe and Central Asia Russian Colonial Wars Sept., 1462 Europe Battle of Puck 1463 South Asia Battle of Doi Ba 1463 Europe Ottomans expand into southern and central Bosnia 1463 Americas Topa Inca becomes commander of the Incan army 1463-1464 Europe Treaty of Wiener Neustadt 1463-1479 Europe and Middle East Ottoman-Venetian War Fall, 1463 Europe Prussian League’s navy destroys the Teutonic Knights’ fleet Sept. 12, 1463 Europe Venice and Hungary form an alliance against the Ottoman Empire 1464 Europe French nobles form the League of the Public Weal under Charles the Bold 1464 Europe Ottomans begin their conquest of Albania c. 1464-1591 Africa Songhai Empire Dominates the Western Sudan 1465 Europe Stephen the Great of Moldavia captures the Hungarian fortress at Kiliya 1465-Aug., 1467 Europe Castilian Civil War 1465-1487 East Asia Reign of Xianzong July 16, 1465-Apr., 1559 Europe French-Burgundian and French-Austrian Wars c. 1466-1473 Africa Siege of Djenné Oct. 19, 1466 Europe Second Peace of Thorn 1467 South Asia End of King Parāakramabāhu VI’s Reign 1467 Europe Charles the Bold becomes Duke of Burgundy 1467-1477 East Asia Ōnin War Nov., 1467 Europe Matthias I Corvinus of Hungary invades Moldavia Nov. 11, 1467 Middle East Ak Koyunlu army destroys Kara Koyunlu army, ending the Kara Koyunlu Dynasty Dec. 14, 1467 Europe Battle of Baia ends the Hungarian invasion of Moldavia 1468 Europe Ficino completes his Italian translations of Plato’s dialogues 1468 Central Asia Khan Abū՚l-Khayr dies in battle with Girei’s forces 1468 Europe Pact of Los Toros de Guisando between Isabella of Castille and Henry IV 1468 Africa Sonni ՙAlī captures Timbuktu and massacres its Muslim inhabitants c. 1468-1478 Europe Bohemian-Hungarian War 1469 Middle East Abū Saՙīd dies in the Battle of Karabakh 1469 Europe and Africa Fernão Gomes purchases exclusive rights to explore Africa’s west coast from Afonso V of Portugal 1469-1481 South Asia Reign of the Ava King Thihathura 1469-1492 Europe Rule of Lorenzo de’ Medici 1469-1508 Middle East Ak Koyunlu Dynasty Controls Iraq and Northern Iran Oct. 19, 1469 Europe Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella 1470’s Middle East Mehmed II founds eight major Muslim colleges (madrasas) 1470 Europe Frederick III and Matthias I Corvinus meet in Vienna, quarrel, and renounce their friendship 1470 Europe Novgorod becomes a vassal state of Poland 1470 Europe Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, invades England; King Edward IV flees to Bruges June, 1470 Europe Ottomans attack Negroponte Nov. 28, 1470 South Asia Vietnam declares war on Champa 1471 Europe Stephen the Great refuses to pay a tribute to the Ottoman Empire 1471-1493 Americas Reign of Topa Inca Apr. 14, 1471 Europe Battle of Barnet: Edward IV defeats Warwick and reclaims the English throne May 4, 1471 Europe Battle of Tewkesbury Mar. 18-22, 1471 South Asia Battle of Vijaya July 14, 1471 Europe Battle of Shelon River 1472 Middle East Mamlūk army drives Ak Koyunlu out of northern Syria 1472 Europe Marriage of Ivan the Great and Sophia Palaeologus c. 1472 Africa Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the Niger River 1472 Europe Siege of Beauvais Summer, 1472 Middle East Venetian fleet under Pietro Mocenigo raids Izmir and Antalya c. 1473 East Asia Ashikaga Yoshimasa Builds the Silver Pavilion 1473 Europe Jakob II Fugger Becomes a Merchant 1473 Middle East Ottomans defeat the Ak Koyunlu at Tercan c. 1473-1478 Europe Hugo van der Goes paints the Portinari Altarpiece 1473-1600 Europe Witch-Hunts and Witch Trials Aug. 11, 1473 Middle East Battle of Başkent 1474 East Asia Great Wall of China Is Built 1474 Europe Treaty of London: Charles the Bold and England’s Edward IV make plans to conquer and divide France 1474-1479 Europe Castilian War of Succession Late 15th c. Africa Mombasa, Malindi, and Kilwa Reach Their Height Late 15th-mid-16th c. Africa Nomadic preachers bring Islamic Sufi mysticism to the western Sudan 1475 Europe Crimean Khante submits to Ottoman authority 1475 South Asia Yawnghwe submits to Avan authority Jan. 10, 1475 Europe Battle of Podul Inalt July 4, 1475 Europe Edward IV arrives in France to lead his invasion force Aug. 29, 1475 Europe Peace of Picquigny 1476 Europe and Central Asia Ivan the Great refuses to pay tributes to the Golden Horde Mar. 1, 1476 Europe Battle of Toro Mar. 2, 1476 Europe Battle of Granson June 22, 1476 Europe Battle of Morat July 26-Aug. 10, 1476 Europe Mehmed II invades Moldavia Dec. 24, 1476 Europe Assassination of Galeazzo Maria Sforza 1477-1482 Europe Work Begins on the Sistine Chapel 1477-1600 East Asia Japan’s “Age of the Country at War” Jan. 5, 1477 Europe Charles the Bold dies in the Battle of Nancy June 12, 1477-Aug. 17, 1487 Europe Hungarian War with the Holy Roman Empire Aug. 17, 1477 Europe Foundation of the Habsburg Dynasty Dec. 1, 1477 Europe Hungary signs a peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire 1478 Europe Muscovite Conquest of Novgorod 1478-1482 Europe Albanian-Turkish Wars End c. 1478-1519 Europe Leonardo da Vinci Compiles His Notebooks Apr. 26, 1478 Europe Pazzi Conspiracy Nov. 1, 1478 Europe Establishment of the Spanish Inquisition 1479 Europe Hungary defeats the Ottomans at the Battle of Kenyérmező 1479 Europe Ottomans occupy the Ionian Isles 1479-1481 Middle East Gentile Bellini paints a portrait of Sultan Mehmed II 1480 Europe Ottomans seize Otranto 1480-1502 Europe Destruction of the Golden Horde After 1480 Europe Ivan the Great Organizes the “Third Rome” 1481 Europe Aragon retakes Otranto 1481-1482 Africa Founding of Elmina 1481-1499 Europe Ludovico Sforza Rules Milan 1481-1512 Middle East Reign of Bayezid II and Ottoman Civil Wars Jan., 1481 Europe Battle of Győr May, 1481 Europe Hungary signs a truce with the Holy Roman Empire June, 1481 Middle East Battle of Yenişehir c. 1482 Africa Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the Congo River 1482-1484 Europe War of Ferrara 1482-1492 Europe Maximilian I Takes Control of the Low Countries Mar., 1482 Europe Hungary invades Austria 1483 Europe Ottomans annex Herzegovina 1483-1485 Europe Richard III Rules England 1484 Middle East Construction of the mosque and complex at Nasriyya is completed c. 1484 Europe Sandro Botticelli paints the Birth of Venus Mar. 11, 1484 Europe Battle of Leitzersdorf July, 1484 Europe Ottomans capture Kiliya and Cetatea Albş Nov., 1484 Europe Frederick III, fleeing Vienna, resettles in Linz 1485 Europe Muscovy annexes Tver’ c. 1485 Africa Portuguese Establish a Foothold in Africa 1485 Europe William Caxton publishes Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur Beginning 1485 Europe The Tudors Rule England Jan. 29-June 1, 1485 Europe Siege of Vienna May, 1485-Apr. 13, 1517 Africa and Middle East Mamlūk-Ottoman Wars Aug. 22, 1485 Europe Battle of Bosworth Field 1486 Europe The Decretum majus is proclaimed, protecting the individual rights of Hungarian subjects c. 1486 Europe Krämer and Sprenger publish the Malleus maleficarum c. 1486 East Asia Sesshū paints his Long Landscape Scroll 1486-1487 Europe Pico della Mirandola Writes ORATION ON THE DIGNITY OF MAN Feb. 9, 1486 Middle East First Battle of Adana Mar. 15, 1486 Middle East Second Battle of Adana 1487 Europe Siege of Wiener Neustadt 1487 Europe Torquemada becomes Grand Inquisitor of Spain Aug., 1487-Dec., 1488 Africa Dias Rounds the Cape of Good Hope 1488 East Asia Japanese Ikko take control of Kaga Province 1488-1505 East Asia Reign of Xiaozong c. 1488-1594 South Asia Khmer-Thai Wars Mar. 5, 1488 East Asia Composition of the RENGA Masterpiece MINASE SANGIN HYAKUIN Aug. 16, 1488 Middle East Battle of Aga-Cayiri 1489 South Asia ՙĀdil Shah Dynasty Founded 1489 Europe Poland signs a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire, and Moldavia resumes paying tribute to the sultan 1489 Europe Yorkshire Rebellion 1489-1517 South Asia Sultan Sikandar Lodī rules Delhi 1490’s Europe Aldus Manutius Founds the Aldine Press 1490’s Central Asia Decline of the Silk Road Beginning 1490 Europe Development of the Camera Obscura c. 1490 South Asia Fragmentation of the Bahmani Sultanate c. 1490 Europe The Medici family become patrons of Michelangelo 1490 Europe Moldavia invades Poland c. 1490 Central Asia Uzbeks gain control of Turkistan 1490-1492 Europe Martin Behaim Builds the First World Globe 1491 Europe Greek is first taught at Oxford University 1491 Europe Treaty of Pressburg 1491-1545 Africa Christianity Is Established in the Kingdom of Kongo 1492 Americas Fall of Granada 1492 Europe Jews Are Expelled from Spain July, 1492 Europe Peace of Kadzand Oct. 12, 1492 Americas Columbus Lands in the Americas 1493 South Asia Battle of Tungabhadra River 1493-1521 Americas Ponce de León’s Voyages 1493-1525 Americas Reign of Huayna Capac 1493-1528 Africa Reign of Mohammed I Askia Aug. 19, 1493-Jan. 12, 1519 Europe Reign of Maximilian I 1494 Europe Ludovico Sforza receives the official title of duke of Milan 1494 Europe Sebastian Brant Publishes THE SHIP OF FOOLS June 7, 1494 Europe and Americas Treaty of Tordesillas Sept., 1494-Oct., 1495 Europe Charles VIII of France Invades Italy Sept., 1494-Apr., 1559 Europe The Italian Wars Dec. 1, 1494 Europe Poynings’ Law Beginning c. 1495 Europe Reform of the Spanish Church 1495-1497 Europe Leonardo da Vinci Paints THE LAST SUPPER 1495-1510 Americas West Indian Uprisings 1496 Americas Bartolomé Columbus founds Santo Domingo, capital of the first Spanish colony in the New World 1496 Europe Philip, Duke of Burgundy, marries Joan of Castille 1496 Europe Posthumous publication of the complete works of Pico della Mirandola 1496 Europe Regiomontanus’s Epitome of Ptolemy’s Almagest is published 1497 Europe Cornish Rebellion 1497 Europe Ivan the Great passes the Sudebnik, a code of common law 1497-1503 Americas Amerigo Vespucci’s voyages Beginning 1497 Europe Danish-Swedish Wars June 24, 1497-May, 1498 Americas Cabot’s Voyages Aug., 1497 Europe Poland invades Moldavia Oct. 26, 1497 Europe Battle of Codrii Cosminului 1498 Europe Moldavia invades Poland 1498 Europe Ottomans annex Moldavia 1498 South Asia Vasco da Gama reaches India Jan., 1498 Africa Portuguese Reach the Swahili Coast 1499 Europe Amerigo Vespucci becomes the first navigator to determine longitude using lunar distances 1499 Europe Louis XII of France Seizes Milan 1499-1517 Europe Erasmus Advances Humanism in England 1499-c. 1600 Europe Russo-Polish Wars Beginning c. 1500 World Coffee, Cacao, Tobacco, and Sugar Are Sold Worldwide 1500 Europe Aldus publishes Erasmus’s Adagia c. 1500 Europe Netherlandish School of Painting c. 1500 Europe Revival of Classical Themes in Art c. 1500 Europe Rise of Sarmatism in Poland 1500 Europe Roman Jubilee 1500-1530’s Americas Portugal Begins to Colonize Brazil Early 16th c. Americas Athapaskans Arrive in the Southwest Early 16th c. South Asia Devotional Bhakti Traditions Emerge Early 16th c. Middle East Fuzuli Writes Poetry in Three Languages Early 16th c. Americas Rise of the Fur Trade 16th c. East Asia China’s Population Boom 16th c. Americas Decline of Moundville 16th c. Europe Evolution of the Galleon 16th c. Americas Iroquois Confederacy Is Established 16th c. World Proliferation of Firearms 16th c. East Asia Rise of the SHENSHI 16th c. East Asia Single-Whip Reform 16th c. Africa Trans-Saharan Trade Enriches Akan Kingdoms 16th c. World Worldwide Inflation 1501-1504 Europe Michelangelo sculpts his David 1501-1507 Central Asia Shaybānī-Timurid War 1501-1524 Middle East Reign of Ismāՙīl I 1502 Middle East Battle of Nakhichevan 1502 Africa and Americas Beginning of the Transatlantic Slave Trade 1502 Europe Muslims are expelled from Spain 1502 Africa Portugal occupies Kilwa 1502-1520 Americas Reign of Montezuma II c. 1503 Europe Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa 1503 South Asia Ramathibodi II of Ayutthaya oversees construction of an immense and priceless statue of the Buddha 1503-1513 Europe Papacy of Julius II, the “Warrior Pope” June, 1503 Central Asia Battle of Akhsi 1504 Middle East Ismāՙīl seizes Baghdad Beginning 1504 Africa Decline of the Ḥafṣid Dynasty Sept. 22, 1504 Europe Treaty of Blois Nov. 26, 1504 Europe Joan the Mad Becomes Queen of Castile 1505 South Asia Earthquake destroys Āgra 1505 Africa Portuguese sack and burn Mombasa 1505-1506 Central Asia Siege of Khiva 1505-1515 South Asia Portuguese Viceroys Establish Overseas Trade Empire 1505-1521 East Asia Reign of Zhengde and Liu Jin 1506 Europe Charles Habsburg becomes ruler of the Low Countries and the Franche-Comté 1506-1543 Africa Afonso I rules Kongo 1507 Central Asia End of the Timurid Dynasty 1508 Europe Formation of the League of Cambrai 1508-1520 Europe Raphael Paints His Frescoes 1508-1512 and 1534-1541 Europe Michelangelo Paints the Sistine Chapel 1508-1572 Americas Spanish conquest of the Americas 1509-1565 South Asia Vijayanagar Wars May 14, 1509 Europe Battle of Agnadello c. 1510 Europe Invention of the Watch 1510 Europe Muscovy annexes Pskov 1510-1578 Africa Saՙdī Sharifs Come to Power in Morocco Nov. 25, 1510 South Asia Portugal captures Goa Dec. 2, 1510 Central Asia Battle of Merv Establishes the Shaybānīd Dynasty 1511 Central Asia Bābur seizes Samarqand and Bukhara 1511-c. 1515 South Asia Melaka Falls to the Portuguese 1512 Europe Spain annexes Navarre 1512 Americas Spain’s Law of Burgos is passed, establishing the encomienda system in the Americas 1512-1520 Middle East Reign of Selim I Apr. 11, 1512 Europe Battle of Ravenna Dec. 12, 1512 Central Asia Battle of Ghazdivan Beginning 1513 East Asia Kanō School Flourishes July-Dec., 1513 Europe Machiavelli Writes THE PRINCE Aug. 16, 1513 Europe Battle of the Spurs Aug. 22, 1513-July 6, 1560 Europe Anglo-Scottish Wars Sept. 9, 1513 Europe Battle of Flodden Sept. 29, 1513 Americas Balboa Reaches the Pacific Ocean 1514 Europe Hungarian Peasants’ Revolt 1514 Europe Muscovy annexes Smolensk 1514-1555 Middle East Turko-Persian Wars 1514-1598 East Asia Portuguese Reach China Aug. 23, 1514 Middle East Battle of Chāldirān 1515 South Asia Battle of Lampang 1515 Europe Emperor Maximilian I, Vladislav II of Hungary, and Sigismund I, the Old, meet in Vienna and arrange marriages that will expand the Habsburg empire 1515-1529 Europe Wolsey Serves as Lord Chancellor and Cardinal Sept. 13-14, 1515 Europe Battle of Marignano 1516 Europe Ludovico Ariosto publishes Orlando furioso 1516 Europe Sir Thomas More Publishes UTOPIA c. 1516-1576 Europe Titian paints his masterpieces Jan. 23, 1516 Europe Charles I Ascends the Throne of Spain Aug. 18, 1516 Europe Concordat of Bologna Aug. 24, 1516 Middle East Mamlūk sultan Qānṣawh dies at the Battle of Marj Dabiq 1517 Europe Fracastoro Develops His Theory of Fossils 1517 Africa Ottomans conquer Egypt 1517 East Asia Portugal reaches Canton Oct. 31, 1517 Europe Luther Posts His Ninety-five Theses 1518 East Asia Siege of Arai Beginning 1519 Americas Smallpox Kills Thousands of Indigenous Americans 1519-1522 World Magellan Expedition Circumnavigates the Globe Jan., 1519 America Balboa is executed for treason Apr., 1519-Aug., 1521 Americas Cortés Conquers Aztecs in Mexico June 28, 1519 Europe Charles V Is Elected Holy Roman Emperor Nov. 8, 1519 Americas Meeting of Montezuma II and Cortés 1520-1522 Europe Comunero Revolt 1520-1560 Europe Western Europe experiences a temporary decrease in witch trials 1520-1566 Middle East Reign of Süleyman June 5-24, 1520 Europe Field of Cloth of Gold 1521 Europe Muscovy annexes Ryazan’ 1521 East Asia Portuguese are banned from all Chinese ports 1521-1559 Europe Valois-Habsburg Wars 1521-1567 East Asia Reign of Jiajing Apr.-May, 1521 Europe Luther Appears Before the Diet of Worms 1522 Europe Battle of Bicocca June 28, 1522-Dec. 27, 1522 Europe Siege and Fall of Rhodes Nov. 3, 1522-Nov. 17, 1530 Europe Correggio Paints the ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN 1523 Europe Gustav I Vasa Becomes King of Sweden 1523 South Asia Krishnadevaraya annexes parts of Bijāpur to Vijayanagar 1523 Europe England enters the Valois-Habsburg conflict on the side of the Habsburgs Spring, 1523 East Asia Ōuchi Family Monopolizes Trade with China Aug., 1523 Americas Franciscan Missionaries Arrive in Mexico 1524-1529 South Asia Bābur conquers northern India June, 1524-July, 1526 Europe German Peasants’ War 1525-1532 Americas Huāscar and Atahualpa Share Inca Rule 1525-1600 Africa Ottoman-Ruled Egypt Sends Expeditions South and East Feb., 1525 Europe Battle of Pavia 1526 Central Asia Kazak Empire is divided into three territories 1526-1530 South Asia Reign of Bābur 1526-1547 Europe Hungarian Civil Wars Beginning 1526 Europe and Middle East Austro-Turkish Wars Apr. 21, 1526 South Asia First Battle of Panipat Aug. 29, 1526 Europe Battle of Mohács 1527 South Asia Sack of Ava by the Maw Shans 1527-1543 Africa Ethiopia’s Early Solomonic Period Ends 1527-1547 Americas Maya Resist Spanish Incursions in Yucatán 1527-1554 Africa Saՙdī-Wattasid Wars 1527-1561 Americas Las Casas writes his History of the Indies 1527-1599 South Asia Burmese Civil Wars Mar. 17, 1527 South Asia Battle of Khānua May 6, 1527-Feb., 1528 Europe Sack of Rome 1528 Africa Askia Mūsā overthrows Mohammed I Askia 1528 Europe Castiglione’s BOOK OF THE COURTIER Is Published 1528-1536 Americas Narváez’s and Cabeza de Vaca’s Expeditions 1529 Europe Peace of Cambrai 1529 Africa Portuguese sack and burn a rebuilt Mombasa 1529-1574 Africa North Africa Recognizes Ottoman Suzerainty Mar. 7, 1529 Africa Battle of Shimbra-Kure Apr. 22, 1529 Europe and South Asia Treaty of Zaragoza confirms Portugal’s claim to the Spice Islands Sept. 27-Oct. 16, 1529 Europe Siege of Vienna 1530’s-1540’s Europe Paracelsus Presents His Theory of Disease 1530 East Asia; South Asia China recognizes Ayutthaya Dec. 30, 1530 South Asia Humāyūn Inherits the Throne in India 1531 East Asia Hosokawa Takakuni dies in a coup 1531 South Asia Ottoman navy helps Sultan Bahādur of Gujarat to repel Portuguese attempting to capture Diu 1531-1540 Europe Cromwell Reforms British Government 1531-1585 Europe Antwerp Becomes the Commercial Capital of Europe Feb. 27, 1531 Europe Formation of the Schmalkaldic League 1532 Europe Charles V’s Lex Carolina makes witchcraft a criminal offense in the Holy Roman Empire 1532 Europe Holbein Settles in London 1532 Europe Machiavelli’s The Prince is published, five years after his death 1532-1536 East Asia Temmon Hokke Rebellion 1532-1537 Americas Pizarro Conquers the Incas in Peru 1532-1552 Europe François Rabelais writes Gargantua and Pantagruel 1533 Europe Catherine de Médicis marries Henry, duke of Orléans 1534 Africa Barbarossa captures Tunis 1534-1535 Middle East Ottomans Claim Sovereignty over Mesopotamia Apr. 20, 1534-July, 1543 Americas Cartier and Roberval Search for a Northwest Passage Aug. 15, 1534 Europe Founding of the Jesuit Order Dec. 18, 1534 Europe Act of Supremacy Dec. 23, 1534-1540 Europe Parmigianino Paints MADONNA WITH THE LONG NECK 1535 Africa Charles V recaptures Tunis from the Ottomans July, 1535-Mar., 1540 Europe Henry VIII Dissolves the Monasteries 1536 Americas Establishment of the Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco Tenochtítlan 1536 Europe France captures Turin 1536 Middle East Turkish Capitulations Begin 1536 and 1543 Europe Acts of Union Between England and Wales Mar., 1536 Europe Calvin Publishes INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION May 19, 1536 Europe Anne Boleyn is executed Oct., 1536-June, 1537 Europe Pilgrimage of Grace 1537 Europe The Bishops’ Book is published in England 1537 Europe and Americas Pope Paul III Declares Rights of New World Peoples c. 1538 Central Asia Aq Nazak Khan reunifies Kazak Empire 1538 Europe Charles V and Francis I meet at Nice and reaffirm the Peace of Cambrai 1538 Europe Moldavia becomes a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire Sept. 27-28, 1538 Middle East Battle of Préveza 1539 South Asia Jiajing Threatens Vietnam May, 1539 Europe Six Articles of Henry VIII May 28, 1539-Sept. 10, 1543 Americas De Soto’s North American Expedition June, 1539 South Asia Battle of Chausa 1540 Americas Orrellana navigates the Amazon River 1540-1545 South Asia Shēr Shāh Sūr Becomes Emperor of Delhi Feb. 23, 1540-Oct., 1542 Americas Coronado’s Southwest Expedition Oct. 20-27, 1541 Africa Holy Roman Empire Attacks Ottomans in Algiers 1542 Europe Francis I allies with the Ottomans against the Habsburgs; the Ottoman fleet uses the French harbor of Toulon as a base to raid the coast of Western Europe 1542 South Asia Muslims massacre Hindus at Raisin 1542 Africa Saՙdīs capture the Portuguese fort at Agadir 1542-1543 Europe and Americas The New Laws of Spain Feb. 13, 1542 Europe Catherine Howard is executed June 27, 1542-c. 1600 Americas Spain Explores Alta California July 15, 1542-1559 Europe Paul III Establishes the INDEX OF PROHIBITED BOOKS 1543 Europe Copernicus Publishes DE REVOLUTIONIBUS 1543 Europe Vesalius Publishes ON THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODY Autumn, 1543 East Asia Europeans Begin Trade with Japan 1544 Europe Coronation of Mary, Queen of Scots 1544-1628 Europe Anglo-French Wars Apr. 14, 1544 Europe Battle of Cerisolles July 19, 1544-Sept. 14, 1544 Europe English Siege of Boulogne Sept., 1544 Europe Peace of Crépy 1545-1548 Americas Silver Is Discovered in Spanish America 1545-1563 Europe Council of Trent Feb. 27, 1545 Europe Battle of Ancrum Moor 1546 Europe Fracastoro Discovers That Contagion Spreads Disease 1546 South Asia Vijayanagar signs a treaty of nonaggression with the Portuguese June, 1546-June, 1547 Europe Schmalkaldic War Jan. 16, 1547 Europe Coronation of Ivan the Terrible Jan. 28, 1547-July 6, 1553 Europe Reign of Edward VI Apr. 24, 1547 Europe Battle of Mülberg Sept. 10, 1547 Europe Battle of Pinkie 1548-1600 South Asia Siamese-Burmese Wars 1549 East Asia Battle of Kajiki Castle: First use of firearms in Japanese warfare 1549 Europe French Siege of Boulogne 1549 Europe Kett’s Rebellion 1549-1552 East Asia Father Xavier Introduces Christianity to Japan 1549-1570’s Europe La Pléiade Promotes French Poetry Mid-16th c. Europe Development of the Caracole Maneuver 1550’s Europe Sofonisba Anguissola develops her style of mannerist painting 1550’s Europe Tartaglia Publishes THE NEW SCIENCE 1550’s-1587 East Asia Japanese Pirates Pillage the Chinese Coast 1550’s-c. 1600 Europe Educational Reforms in Europe 1550-1571 East Asia Mongols Raid Beijing 1550-1593 East Asia Japanese Wars of Unification Jan.-May, 1551 Europe The Stoglav Convenes c. 1552 Europe France captures the Three Bishoprics of Lorraine 1552 Europe and Americas Las Casas Publishes THE TEARS OF THE INDIANS 1552 Middle East Struggle for the Strait of Hormuz 1552-1555 Central Asia Kazak Empire repels invasions from Mongolia and Kobdo 1553 Europe Servetus Describes the Circulatory System July, 1553 Europe Coronation of Mary Tudor July 10-19, 1553 Europe Lady Jane Grey is queen of England for nine days Sept., 1553 East Asia First Battle of Kawanakajima Oct. 27, 1553 Europe Servetus is burned as a heretic 1554 Africa The last Wattasid is killed; Marrakech becomes the capital of Saՙdīan Morocco Jan. 25-Feb. 7, 1554 Europe Wyatt’s Rebellion 1555-1556 Europe Charles V Abdicates Sept. 25, 1555 Europe Peace of Augsburg 1556-1605 South Asia Reign of Akbar Jan. 23, 1556 East Asia Earthquake in China Kills Thousands Summer, 1556 Europe and Central Asia Ivan the Terrible Annexes Astrakhan 1557-1574 Africa Reign of Abdallah al-Ghālib in Morocco 1557-1582 Europe Livonian War Aug. 10, 1557 Europe Battle of Saint-Quentin 1558-1593 South Asia Burmese-Laotian Wars 1558-1603 Europe Reign of Elizabeth I Jan. 1-8, 1558 Europe France Regains Calais from England July 13, 1558 Europe Battle of Gravelines 1559-1561 Middle East Süleyman’s Sons Wage Civil War Apr. 3, 1559 Europe Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis May, 1559-Aug., 1561 Europe Scottish Reformation c. 1560’s Europe Invention of the “Lead” Pencil Apr. or May, 1560 Europe Publication of the Geneva Bible June 12, 1560 East Asia Battle of Okehazama 1562-1565 Americas French Huguenots attempt to colonize South Carolina and Florida, but the Spanish drive them away Mar., 1562-May 2, 1598 Europe French Wars of Religion 1563 East Asia Jesuit missionary Luis Frois settles in Japan 1563-1584 Europe Construction of the Escorial Jan., 1563 Europe Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England Jan. 20, 1564 Europe Peace of Troyes June, 1564 Europe Tintoretto Paints for the Scuola di San Rocco 1565 South Asia Spain Seizes the Philippines Jan., 1565 South Asia Battle of Talikota May 18-Sept. 8, 1565 Europe Siege of Malta Sept., 1565 Americas St. Augustine Is Founded 1566-1574 Middle East Reign of Selim II July 22, 1566 Europe Pius V Expels the Prostitutes from Rome 1567 Europe Palestrina Publishes the POPE MARCELLUS MASS 1567-1572 East Asia Reign of Longqing July 29, 1567 Europe James VI Becomes King of Scotland 1568 Europe Battle of Langside: Supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots are defeated, and Mary flees to England, where Elizabeth I imprisons her 1568 Americas Jesuits found the first missionary school for North American Indians at Havana 1568 East Asia Oda Nobunaga Seizes Kyōto c. 1568-1571 Europe and Central Asia Ottoman-Russian War 1568-1648 Europe Dutch Wars of Independence Feb. 23, 1568 South Asia Fall of Chitor 1569 Europe Mercator Publishes His World Map 1569 East Asia Siege of Odawara Nov. 9, 1569 Europe Rebellion of the Northern Earls Feb. 25, 1570 Europe Pius V Excommunicates Elizabeth I July, 1570-Aug., 1571 Middle East Siege of Famagusta and Fall of Cyprus c. 1571-1603 Africa Bornu-Kanem Empire reaches the height of its power, using firearms purchased from the Ottoman Turks Oct. 7, 1571 Europe Battle of Lepanto 1572-1574 Europe Tycho Brahe Observes a Supernova 1572-1589 Europe Siege of La Rochelle Aug. 24-25, 1572 Europe St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1573-1582 East Asia Oda Nobunaga deposes the shogun and unifies half of Japan under his rule 1573-1620 East Asia Reign of Wanli 1574-1595 Middle East Reign of Murad III c. 1574-1600 East Asia Japan’s Azuchi-Momoyama Period Mid-1570’s Americas Powhatan Confederacy Is Founded 1575 Europe Diana Mantuana moves to Rome and receives papal permission to print and sell her engravings, becoming the first sanctioned woman engraver. 1575 Europe Saint Philip Neri founds the Institute of the Oratory in Rome 1575 Europe Tallis and Byrd Publish CANTIONES SACRAE 1575-1680 Africa Portuguese take control of the Angolan coast Mar. 3, 1575 South Asia Mongol Conquest of Bengal June 28, 1575 East Asia Battle of Nagashino Nov., 1575 Europe Stephen Báthory Becomes King of Poland 1576 Europe James Burbage Builds The Theatre 1576-1612 Europe Reign of Rudolf II June 7, 1576-July, 1578 Americas Frobisher’s Voyages 1577 South Asia Ram Dās Founds Amritsar 1578 East Asia Battle of Mimigawa 1578 Central Asia First Dalai Lama Becomes Buddhist Spiritual Leader 1578 Europe Joseph of Volokolamsk is canonized 1578 Europe Raphael Holinshed publishes his Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1578-1590 Middle East The Battle for Tabrīz 1578-1603 Africa Reign of Aḥmad al-Manṣūr Aug. 4, 1578 Africa Battle of Ksar el-Kebir June 17, 1579 Americas Drake Lands in Northern California 1580’s-1590’s Europe Galileo Conducts His Early Experiments 1580 Europe Formula of Concord 1580 East Asia Surrender of the Ōsaka Honganji, the last major military stronghold of Pure Land Buddhism 1580-1581 Europe Spain Annexes Portugal 1580-1587 South Asia Rebellions in Bihar and Bengal 1580-1595 Europe Montaigne Publishes His ESSAYS c. 1580-c. 1600 South Asia Siamese-Cambodian Wars 1581 Central Asia Kabul falls to Akbar 1581-1597 Central Asia Cossacks Seize Sibir July 26, 1581 Europe The United Provinces Declare Independence from Spain 1582 Europe Gregory XIII Reforms the Calendar 1582 East Asia Battle of Yamakazi 1582 East Asia Oda Nobunaga commits suicide 1582-1598 East Asia Toyotomi Hideyoshi completes the unification of Japan Summer, 1582 Europe Sir Philip Sidney writes Astrophel and Stella July 21, 1582 Central Asia Battle of the Tobol River 1583-1600 Europe Bruno’s Theory of the Infinite Universe 1583-1610 East Asia Matteo Ricci Travels to Beijing 1584 Europe Assassination of William of Orange 1584 Europe Lavinia Fontina becomes the first woman publicly commissioned to produce a painting 1584-1585 Europe Siege of Antwerp 1584-1613 Europe and Central Asia Russia’s Time of Troubles July 4, 1584-1590 Americas Lost Colony of Roanoke July 7, 1585-Dec. 23, 1588 Europe War of the Three Henrys Sept. 14, 1585-July 27, 1586 Americas Drake’s Expedition to the West Indies c. 1586-1593 Europe Christopher Marlowe writes his dramas Feb., 1586 South Asia Annexation of Kashmir 1587 East Asia Toyotomi Hideyoshi Hosts a Ten-Day Tea Ceremony 1587 East Asia Toyotomi Hideyoshi issues an edict prohibiting piracy 1587-1629 Middle East Reign of ՙAbbās the Great Feb. 8, 1587 Europe Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots Apr., 1587-c. 1600 Europe Anglo-Spanish War Oct. 20, 1587 Europe Battle of Courtras 1588-1602 Europe Rise of the English Madrigal July 31-Aug. 8, 1588 Europe Defeat of the Spanish Armada Dec. 23, 1588 Europe Assassination of the third duke of Guise 1589 Europe Russian Patriarchate Is Established 1589 Middle East Second Janissary Revolt in Constantinople c. 1589-1613 Europe Shakespeare Writes His Dramas Aug. 2, 1589 Europe Henry IV Ascends the Throne of France 1590’s Europe Birth of Opera 1590 Europe Edmund Spenser publishes The Faerie Queene 1590 East Asia Odawara Campaign Beginning 1590 Europe Russo-Swedish Wars Mar. 14, 1590 Europe Battle of Ivry 1591 Africa Fall of the Songhai Empire Beginning 1591 South Asia Mogul conquest of the Deccan After 1591 Africa The Hausa states become a center of trans-Saharan trade in the wake of Songhai’s fall 1592 Africa Mombasa falls to Portugal and Malindi 1592 East Asia Publication of Wu Chengen’s THE JOURNEY TO THE WEST July 8, 1592-July 10, 1592 East Asia Battle of the Yellow Sea 1592-1599 East Asia Japan Invades Korea 1593-1606 Europe and Middle East Ottoman-Austrian War 1594-1595 East Asia Taikō Kenchi Survey 1594-1600 Europe King Michael’s Uprising c. 1595 Europe Zacharias Janssen produces the first compound microscope 1596 Americas Ralegh Arrives in Guiana Oct., 1596-Feb., 1597 East Asia SAN FELIPE Incident 1597-Sept., 1601 Europe Tyrone Rebellion Oct. 31, 1597 Europe John Dowland Publishes AYRES 1598 Central Asia Astrakhanid Dynasty Is Established 1598 Americas Tepic Indian miners revolt against the Spanish Jan., 1598-Feb., 1599 Americas Oñate’s New Mexico Expedition Apr. 13, 1598 Europe Edict of Nantes May 2, 1598 Europe Treaty of Vervins Aug. 14, 1598 Europe Battle of Yellow Ford Dec., 1598-May, 1599 Europe The Globe Theatre Is Built 1599 Europe Castrati Sing in the Sistine Chapel Choir c. 1600 Americas Spain imports sheep into the American Southwest 1600 Europe William Gilbert Publishes DE MAGNETE Oct. 21, 1600 East Asia Battle of Sekigahara Dec. 31, 1600 Europe and South Asia Elizabeth I Charters the East India Company

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