A time line of important events during the Renaissance and early modern era.
DateRegionEventMid-15th c.Middle EastFoundation of the Saud Dynasty1450’s-1471South AsiaChampa Civil Wars1450’s-1529South AsiaThai Wars1451-1526South AsiaLodī Kings Dominate Northern India1454East AsiaChina Subdues Burma1454EuropeSultan Mehmed II grants Venice trading privileges1454-1466EuropeThirteen Years’ War1454-1481Middle EastRise of the Ottoman EmpireApr. 9, 1454EuropePeace of Lodi1455-1485EuropeWars of the Roses1456South AsiaBattle of Kamphaeng Phet1456AfricaCa’da Mosto, working for Portugal, discovers the Cape Verde Islands1456EuropeJános Hunyadi prevents the Ottomans from conquering Belgrade1456EuropePublication of Gutenberg’s Mazarin Bible1456EuropeTreaty of Iazhelbitsy1457-1480’sEast AsiaSpread of Jōdo Shinshū BuddhismFeb. 11, 1457East AsiaRestoration of ZhengtongApr. 14, 1457-July 2, 1504EuropeReign of Stephen the Great1458South AsiaBan La Tra Nguyet usurps the throne of Champa1458-1490EuropeHungarian Renaissance1459South AsiaRāo Jodha Founds Jodhpur1459EuropeSerbia becomes a province of the Ottoman EmpireEarly 1460’sEuropeLabor Shortages Alter Europe’s Social Structurec. 1460EuropeOttomans take control of Greece1460-1600AfricaRise of the Akan KingdomsJuly 10, 1460EuropeBattle of NorthamptonDec. 30, 1460EuropeRichard, duke of York, is killed in the Battle of Wakefield1461Middle EastOttomans conquer Trebizond1461EuropeVlad III the Impaler attacks the Ottoman Empire and captures VidinMar. 29, 1461EuropeBattle of Towton1462Central AsiaAstrakhan splits from the Golden Horde1462EuropeFounding of the Platonic Academyc. 1462Central AsiaKazak Empire Is Established1462EuropeRegiomontanus Completes the EPITOME of Ptolemy’s ALMAGEST1462EuropeVlad III the Impaler is dethronedBeginning 1462EuropeHungary’s Matthias I Corvinus organizes a standing army of mercenaries known as the Black ArmyBeginning 1462Europe and Central AsiaRussian Colonial WarsSept., 1462EuropeBattle of Puck1463South AsiaBattle of Doi Ba1463EuropeOttomans expand into southern and central Bosnia1463AmericasTopa Inca becomes commander of the Incan army1463-1464EuropeTreaty of Wiener Neustadt1463-1479Europe and Middle EastOttoman-Venetian WarFall, 1463EuropePrussian League’s navy destroys the Teutonic Knights’ fleetSept. 12, 1463EuropeVenice and Hungary form an alliance against the Ottoman Empire1464EuropeFrench nobles form the League of the Public Weal under Charles the Bold1464EuropeOttomans begin their conquest of Albaniac. 1464-1591AfricaSonghai Empire Dominates the Western Sudan1465EuropeStephen the Great of Moldavia captures the Hungarian fortress at Kiliya1465-Aug., 1467EuropeCastilian Civil War1465-1487East AsiaReign of XianzongJuly 16, 1465-Apr., 1559EuropeFrench-Burgundian and French-Austrian Warsc. 1466-1473AfricaSiege of DjennéOct. 19, 1466EuropeSecond Peace of Thorn1467South AsiaEnd of King Parāakramabāhu VI’s Reign1467EuropeCharles the Bold becomes Duke of Burgundy1467-1477East AsiaŌnin WarNov., 1467EuropeMatthias I Corvinus of Hungary invades MoldaviaNov. 11, 1467Middle EastAk Koyunlu army destroys Kara Koyunlu army, ending the Kara Koyunlu DynastyDec. 14, 1467EuropeBattle of Baia ends the Hungarian invasion of Moldavia1468EuropeFicino completes his Italian translations of Plato’s dialogues1468Central AsiaKhan Abū՚l-Khayr dies in battle with Girei’s forces1468EuropePact of Los Toros de Guisando between Isabella of Castille and Henry IV1468AfricaSonni ՙAlī captures Timbuktu and massacres its Muslim inhabitantsc. 1468-1478EuropeBohemian-Hungarian War1469Middle EastAbū Saՙīd dies in the Battle of Karabakh1469Europe and AfricaFernão Gomes purchases exclusive rights to explore Africa’s west coast from Afonso V of Portugal1469-1481South AsiaReign of the Ava King Thihathura1469-1492EuropeRule of Lorenzo de’ Medici1469-1508Middle EastAk Koyunlu Dynasty Controls Iraq and Northern IranOct. 19, 1469EuropeMarriage of Ferdinand and Isabella1470’sMiddle EastMehmed II founds eight major Muslim colleges (madrasas)1470EuropeFrederick III and Matthias I Corvinus meet in Vienna, quarrel, and renounce their friendship1470EuropeNovgorod becomes a vassal state of Poland1470EuropeRichard Neville, earl of Warwick, invades England; King Edward IV flees to BrugesJune, 1470EuropeOttomans attack NegroponteNov. 28, 1470South AsiaVietnam declares war on Champa1471EuropeStephen the Great refuses to pay a tribute to the Ottoman Empire1471-1493AmericasReign of Topa IncaApr. 14, 1471EuropeBattle of Barnet: Edward IV defeats Warwick and reclaims the English throneMay 4, 1471EuropeBattle of TewkesburyMar. 18-22, 1471South AsiaBattle of VijayaJuly 14, 1471EuropeBattle of Shelon River1472Middle EastMamlūk army drives Ak Koyunlu out of northern Syria1472EuropeMarriage of Ivan the Great and Sophia Palaeologusc. 1472AfricaPortuguese explorers reach the mouth of the Niger River1472EuropeSiege of BeauvaisSummer, 1472Middle EastVenetian fleet under Pietro Mocenigo raids Izmir and Antalyac. 1473East AsiaAshikaga Yoshimasa Builds the Silver Pavilion1473EuropeJakob II Fugger Becomes a Merchant1473Middle EastOttomans defeat the Ak Koyunlu at Tercanc. 1473-1478EuropeHugo van der Goes paints the Portinari Altarpiece1473-1600EuropeWitch-Hunts and Witch TrialsAug. 11, 1473Middle EastBattle of Başkent1474East AsiaGreat Wall of China Is Built1474EuropeTreaty of London: Charles the Bold and England’s Edward IV make plans to conquer and divide France1474-1479EuropeCastilian War of SuccessionLate 15th c.AfricaMombasa, Malindi, and Kilwa Reach Their HeightLate 15th-mid-16th c.AfricaNomadic preachers bring Islamic Sufi mysticism to the western Sudan1475EuropeCrimean Khante submits to Ottoman authority1475South AsiaYawnghwe submits to Avan authorityJan. 10, 1475EuropeBattle of Podul InaltJuly 4, 1475EuropeEdward IV arrives in France to lead his invasion forceAug. 29, 1475EuropePeace of Picquigny1476Europe and Central AsiaIvan the Great refuses to pay tributes to the Golden HordeMar. 1, 1476EuropeBattle of ToroMar. 2, 1476EuropeBattle of GransonJune 22, 1476EuropeBattle of MoratJuly 26-Aug. 10, 1476EuropeMehmed II invades MoldaviaDec. 24, 1476EuropeAssassination of Galeazzo Maria Sforza1477-1482EuropeWork Begins on the Sistine Chapel1477-1600East AsiaJapan’s “Age of the Country at War”Jan. 5, 1477EuropeCharles the Bold dies in the Battle of NancyJune 12, 1477-Aug. 17, 1487EuropeHungarian War with the Holy Roman EmpireAug. 17, 1477EuropeFoundation of the Habsburg DynastyDec. 1, 1477EuropeHungary signs a peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire1478EuropeMuscovite Conquest of Novgorod1478-1482EuropeAlbanian-Turkish Wars Endc. 1478-1519EuropeLeonardo da Vinci Compiles His NotebooksApr. 26, 1478EuropePazzi ConspiracyNov. 1, 1478EuropeEstablishment of the Spanish Inquisition1479EuropeHungary defeats the Ottomans at the Battle of Kenyérmező1479EuropeOttomans occupy the Ionian Isles1479-1481Middle EastGentile Bellini paints a portrait of Sultan Mehmed II1480EuropeOttomans seize Otranto1480-1502EuropeDestruction of the Golden HordeAfter 1480EuropeIvan the Great Organizes the “Third Rome”1481EuropeAragon retakes Otranto1481-1482AfricaFounding of Elmina1481-1499EuropeLudovico Sforza Rules Milan1481-1512Middle EastReign of Bayezid II and Ottoman Civil WarsJan., 1481EuropeBattle of GyőrMay, 1481EuropeHungary signs a truce with the Holy Roman EmpireJune, 1481Middle EastBattle of Yenişehirc. 1482AfricaPortuguese explorers reach the mouth of the Congo River1482-1484EuropeWar of Ferrara1482-1492EuropeMaximilian I Takes Control of the Low CountriesMar., 1482EuropeHungary invades Austria1483EuropeOttomans annex Herzegovina1483-1485EuropeRichard III Rules England1484Middle EastConstruction of the mosque and complex at Nasriyya is completedc. 1484EuropeSandro Botticelli paints the Birth of VenusMar. 11, 1484EuropeBattle of LeitzersdorfJuly, 1484EuropeOttomans capture Kiliya and Cetatea AlbşNov., 1484EuropeFrederick III, fleeing Vienna, resettles in Linz1485EuropeMuscovy annexes Tver’c. 1485AfricaPortuguese Establish a Foothold in Africa1485EuropeWilliam Caxton publishes Sir Thomas Malory’s Le Morte d’ArthurBeginning 1485EuropeThe Tudors Rule EnglandJan. 29-June 1, 1485EuropeSiege of ViennaMay, 1485-Apr. 13, 1517Africa and Middle EastMamlūk-Ottoman WarsAug. 22, 1485EuropeBattle of Bosworth Field1486EuropeThe Decretum majus is proclaimed, protecting the individual rights of Hungarian subjectsc. 1486EuropeKrämer and Sprenger publish the Malleus maleficarumc. 1486East AsiaSesshū paints his Long Landscape Scroll1486-1487EuropePico della Mirandola Writes ORATION ON THE DIGNITY OF MANFeb. 9, 1486Middle EastFirst Battle of AdanaMar. 15, 1486Middle EastSecond Battle of Adana1487EuropeSiege of Wiener Neustadt1487EuropeTorquemada becomes Grand Inquisitor of SpainAug., 1487-Dec., 1488AfricaDias Rounds the Cape of Good Hope1488East AsiaJapanese Ikko take control of Kaga Province1488-1505East AsiaReign of Xiaozongc. 1488-1594South AsiaKhmer-Thai WarsMar. 5, 1488East AsiaComposition of the RENGA Masterpiece MINASE SANGIN HYAKUINAug. 16, 1488Middle EastBattle of Aga-Cayiri1489South AsiaՙĀdil Shah Dynasty Founded1489EuropePoland signs a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire, and Moldavia resumes paying tribute to the sultan1489EuropeYorkshire Rebellion1489-1517South AsiaSultan Sikandar Lodī rules Delhi1490’sEuropeAldus Manutius Founds the Aldine Press1490’sCentral AsiaDecline of the Silk RoadBeginning 1490EuropeDevelopment of the Camera Obscurac. 1490South AsiaFragmentation of the Bahmani Sultanatec. 1490EuropeThe Medici family become patrons of Michelangelo1490EuropeMoldavia invades Polandc. 1490Central AsiaUzbeks gain control of Turkistan1490-1492EuropeMartin Behaim Builds the First World Globe1491EuropeGreek is first taught at Oxford University1491EuropeTreaty of Pressburg1491-1545AfricaChristianity Is Established in the Kingdom of Kongo1492AmericasFall of Granada1492EuropeJews Are Expelled from SpainJuly, 1492EuropePeace of KadzandOct. 12, 1492AmericasColumbus Lands in the Americas1493South AsiaBattle of Tungabhadra River1493-1521AmericasPonce de León’s Voyages1493-1525AmericasReign of Huayna Capac1493-1528AfricaReign of Mohammed I AskiaAug. 19, 1493-Jan. 12, 1519EuropeReign of Maximilian I1494EuropeLudovico Sforza receives the official title of duke of Milan1494EuropeSebastian Brant Publishes THE SHIP OF FOOLSJune 7, 1494Europe and AmericasTreaty of TordesillasSept., 1494-Oct., 1495EuropeCharles VIII of France Invades ItalySept., 1494-Apr., 1559EuropeThe Italian WarsDec. 1, 1494EuropePoynings’ LawBeginning c. 1495EuropeReform of the Spanish Church1495-1497EuropeLeonardo da Vinci Paints THE LAST SUPPER1495-1510AmericasWest Indian Uprisings1496AmericasBartolomé Columbus founds Santo Domingo, capital of the first Spanish colony in the New World1496EuropePhilip, Duke of Burgundy, marries Joan of Castille1496EuropePosthumous publication of the complete works of Pico della Mirandola1496EuropeRegiomontanus’s Epitome of Ptolemy’s Almagest is published1497EuropeCornish Rebellion1497EuropeIvan the Great passes the Sudebnik, a code of common law1497-1503AmericasAmerigo Vespucci’s voyagesBeginning 1497EuropeDanish-Swedish WarsJune 24, 1497-May, 1498AmericasCabot’s VoyagesAug., 1497EuropePoland invades MoldaviaOct. 26, 1497EuropeBattle of Codrii Cosminului1498EuropeMoldavia invades Poland1498EuropeOttomans annex Moldavia1498South AsiaVasco da Gama reaches IndiaJan., 1498AfricaPortuguese Reach the Swahili Coast1499EuropeAmerigo Vespucci becomes the first navigator to determine longitude using lunar distances1499EuropeLouis XII of France Seizes Milan1499-1517EuropeErasmus Advances Humanism in England1499-c. 1600EuropeRusso-Polish WarsBeginning c. 1500WorldCoffee, Cacao, Tobacco, and Sugar Are Sold Worldwide1500EuropeAldus publishes Erasmus’s Adagiac. 1500EuropeNetherlandish School of Paintingc. 1500EuropeRevival of Classical Themes in Artc. 1500EuropeRise of Sarmatism in Poland1500EuropeRoman Jubilee1500-1530’sAmericasPortugal Begins to Colonize BrazilEarly 16th c.AmericasAthapaskans Arrive in the SouthwestEarly 16th c.South AsiaDevotional Bhakti Traditions EmergeEarly 16th c.Middle EastFuzuli Writes Poetry in Three LanguagesEarly 16th c.AmericasRise of the Fur Trade16th c.East AsiaChina’s Population Boom16th c.AmericasDecline of Moundville16th c.EuropeEvolution of the Galleon16th c.AmericasIroquois Confederacy Is Established16th c.WorldProliferation of Firearms16th c.East AsiaRise of the SHENSHI16th c.East AsiaSingle-Whip Reform16th c.AfricaTrans-Saharan Trade Enriches Akan Kingdoms16th c.WorldWorldwide Inflation1501-1504EuropeMichelangelo sculpts his David1501-1507Central AsiaShaybānī-Timurid War1501-1524Middle EastReign of Ismāՙīl I1502Middle EastBattle of Nakhichevan1502Africa and AmericasBeginning of the Transatlantic Slave Trade1502EuropeMuslims are expelled from Spain1502AfricaPortugal occupies Kilwa1502-1520AmericasReign of Montezuma IIc. 1503EuropeLeonardo da Vinci begins painting the Mona Lisa1503South AsiaRamathibodi II of Ayutthaya oversees construction of an immense and priceless statue of the Buddha1503-1513EuropePapacy of Julius II, the “Warrior Pope”June, 1503Central AsiaBattle of Akhsi1504Middle EastIsmāՙīl seizes BaghdadBeginning 1504AfricaDecline of the Ḥafṣid DynastySept. 22, 1504EuropeTreaty of BloisNov. 26, 1504EuropeJoan the Mad Becomes Queen of Castile1505South AsiaEarthquake destroys Āgra1505AfricaPortuguese sack and burn Mombasa1505-1506Central AsiaSiege of Khiva1505-1515South AsiaPortuguese Viceroys Establish Overseas Trade Empire1505-1521East AsiaReign of Zhengde and Liu Jin1506EuropeCharles Habsburg becomes ruler of the Low Countries and the Franche-Comté1506-1543AfricaAfonso I rules Kongo1507Central AsiaEnd of the Timurid Dynasty1508EuropeFormation of the League of Cambrai1508-1520EuropeRaphael Paints His Frescoes1508-1512 and 1534-1541EuropeMichelangelo Paints the Sistine Chapel1508-1572AmericasSpanish conquest of the Americas1509-1565South AsiaVijayanagar WarsMay 14, 1509EuropeBattle of Agnadelloc. 1510EuropeInvention of the Watch1510EuropeMuscovy annexes Pskov1510-1578AfricaSaՙdī Sharifs Come to Power in MoroccoNov. 25, 1510South AsiaPortugal captures GoaDec. 2, 1510Central AsiaBattle of Merv Establishes the Shaybānīd Dynasty1511Central AsiaBābur seizes Samarqand and Bukhara1511-c. 1515South AsiaMelaka Falls to the Portuguese1512EuropeSpain annexes Navarre1512AmericasSpain’s Law of Burgos is passed, establishing the encomienda system in the Americas1512-1520Middle EastReign of Selim IApr. 11, 1512EuropeBattle of RavennaDec. 12, 1512Central AsiaBattle of GhazdivanBeginning 1513East AsiaKanō School FlourishesJuly-Dec., 1513EuropeMachiavelli Writes THE PRINCEAug. 16, 1513EuropeBattle of the SpursAug. 22, 1513-July 6, 1560EuropeAnglo-Scottish WarsSept. 9, 1513EuropeBattle of FloddenSept. 29, 1513AmericasBalboa Reaches the Pacific Ocean1514EuropeHungarian Peasants’ Revolt1514EuropeMuscovy annexes Smolensk1514-1555Middle EastTurko-Persian Wars1514-1598East AsiaPortuguese Reach ChinaAug. 23, 1514Middle EastBattle of Chāldirān1515South AsiaBattle of Lampang1515EuropeEmperor Maximilian I, Vladislav II of Hungary, and Sigismund I, the Old, meet in Vienna and arrange marriages that will expand the Habsburg empire1515-1529EuropeWolsey Serves as Lord Chancellor and CardinalSept. 13-14, 1515EuropeBattle of Marignano1516EuropeLudovico Ariosto publishes Orlando furioso1516EuropeSir Thomas More Publishes UTOPIAc. 1516-1576EuropeTitian paints his masterpiecesJan. 23, 1516EuropeCharles I Ascends the Throne of SpainAug. 18, 1516EuropeConcordat of BolognaAug. 24, 1516Middle EastMamlūk sultan Qānṣawh dies at the Battle of Marj Dabiq1517EuropeFracastoro Develops His Theory of Fossils1517AfricaOttomans conquer Egypt1517East AsiaPortugal reaches CantonOct. 31, 1517EuropeLuther Posts His Ninety-five Theses1518East AsiaSiege of AraiBeginning 1519AmericasSmallpox Kills Thousands of Indigenous Americans1519-1522WorldMagellan Expedition Circumnavigates the GlobeJan., 1519AmericaBalboa is executed for treasonApr., 1519-Aug., 1521AmericasCortés Conquers Aztecs in MexicoJune 28, 1519EuropeCharles V Is Elected Holy Roman EmperorNov. 8, 1519AmericasMeeting of Montezuma II and Cortés1520-1522EuropeComunero Revolt1520-1560EuropeWestern Europe experiences a temporary decrease in witch trials1520-1566Middle EastReign of SüleymanJune 5-24, 1520EuropeField of Cloth of Gold1521EuropeMuscovy annexes Ryazan’1521East AsiaPortuguese are banned from all Chinese ports1521-1559EuropeValois-Habsburg Wars1521-1567East AsiaReign of JiajingApr.-May, 1521EuropeLuther Appears Before the Diet of Worms1522EuropeBattle of BicoccaJune 28, 1522-Dec. 27, 1522EuropeSiege and Fall of RhodesNov. 3, 1522-Nov. 17, 1530EuropeCorreggio Paints the ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN1523EuropeGustav I Vasa Becomes King of Sweden1523South AsiaKrishnadevaraya annexes parts of Bijāpur to Vijayanagar1523EuropeEngland enters the Valois-Habsburg conflict on the side of the HabsburgsSpring, 1523East AsiaŌuchi Family Monopolizes Trade with ChinaAug., 1523AmericasFranciscan Missionaries Arrive in Mexico1524-1529South AsiaBābur conquers northern IndiaJune, 1524-July, 1526EuropeGerman Peasants’ War1525-1532AmericasHuāscar and Atahualpa Share Inca Rule1525-1600AfricaOttoman-Ruled Egypt Sends Expeditions South and EastFeb., 1525EuropeBattle of Pavia1526Central AsiaKazak Empire is divided into three territories1526-1530South AsiaReign of Bābur1526-1547EuropeHungarian Civil WarsBeginning 1526Europe and Middle EastAustro-Turkish WarsApr. 21, 1526South AsiaFirst Battle of PanipatAug. 29, 1526EuropeBattle of Mohács1527South AsiaSack of Ava by the Maw Shans1527-1543AfricaEthiopia’s Early Solomonic Period Ends1527-1547AmericasMaya Resist Spanish Incursions in Yucatán1527-1554AfricaSaՙdī-Wattasid Wars1527-1561AmericasLas Casas writes his History of the Indies1527-1599South AsiaBurmese Civil WarsMar. 17, 1527South AsiaBattle of KhānuaMay 6, 1527-Feb., 1528EuropeSack of Rome1528AfricaAskia Mūsā overthrows Mohammed I Askia1528EuropeCastiglione’s BOOK OF THE COURTIER Is Published1528-1536AmericasNarváez’s and Cabeza de Vaca’s Expeditions1529EuropePeace of Cambrai1529AfricaPortuguese sack and burn a rebuilt Mombasa1529-1574AfricaNorth Africa Recognizes Ottoman SuzeraintyMar. 7, 1529AfricaBattle of Shimbra-KureApr. 22, 1529Europe and South AsiaTreaty of Zaragoza confirms Portugal’s claim to the Spice IslandsSept. 27-Oct. 16, 1529EuropeSiege of Vienna1530’s-1540’sEuropeParacelsus Presents His Theory of Disease1530East Asia; South AsiaChina recognizes AyutthayaDec. 30, 1530South AsiaHumāyūn Inherits the Throne in India1531East AsiaHosokawa Takakuni dies in a coup1531South AsiaOttoman navy helps Sultan Bahādur of Gujarat to repel Portuguese attempting to capture Diu1531-1540EuropeCromwell Reforms British Government1531-1585EuropeAntwerp Becomes the Commercial Capital of EuropeFeb. 27, 1531EuropeFormation of the Schmalkaldic League1532EuropeCharles V’s Lex Carolina makes witchcraft a criminal offense in the Holy Roman Empire1532EuropeHolbein Settles in London1532EuropeMachiavelli’s The Prince is published, five years after his death1532-1536East AsiaTemmon Hokke Rebellion1532-1537AmericasPizarro Conquers the Incas in Peru1532-1552EuropeFrançois Rabelais writes Gargantua and Pantagruel1533EuropeCatherine de Médicis marries Henry, duke of Orléans1534AfricaBarbarossa captures Tunis1534-1535Middle EastOttomans Claim Sovereignty over MesopotamiaApr. 20, 1534-July, 1543AmericasCartier and Roberval Search for a Northwest PassageAug. 15, 1534EuropeFounding of the Jesuit OrderDec. 18, 1534EuropeAct of SupremacyDec. 23, 1534-1540EuropeParmigianino Paints MADONNA WITH THE LONG NECK1535AfricaCharles V recaptures Tunis from the OttomansJuly, 1535-Mar., 1540EuropeHenry VIII Dissolves the Monasteries1536AmericasEstablishment of the Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco Tenochtítlan1536EuropeFrance captures Turin1536Middle EastTurkish Capitulations Begin1536 and 1543EuropeActs of Union Between England and WalesMar., 1536EuropeCalvin Publishes INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGIONMay 19, 1536EuropeAnne Boleyn is executedOct., 1536-June, 1537EuropePilgrimage of Grace1537EuropeThe Bishops’ Book is published in England1537Europe and AmericasPope Paul III Declares Rights of New World Peoplesc. 1538Central AsiaAq Nazak Khan reunifies Kazak Empire1538EuropeCharles V and Francis I meet at Nice and reaffirm the Peace of Cambrai1538EuropeMoldavia becomes a vassal state of the Ottoman EmpireSept. 27-28, 1538Middle EastBattle of Préveza1539South AsiaJiajing Threatens VietnamMay, 1539EuropeSix Articles of Henry VIIIMay 28, 1539-Sept. 10, 1543AmericasDe Soto’s North American ExpeditionJune, 1539South AsiaBattle of Chausa1540AmericasOrrellana navigates the Amazon River1540-1545South AsiaShēr Shāh Sūr Becomes Emperor of DelhiFeb. 23, 1540-Oct., 1542AmericasCoronado’s Southwest ExpeditionOct. 20-27, 1541AfricaHoly Roman Empire Attacks Ottomans in Algiers1542EuropeFrancis I allies with the Ottomans against the Habsburgs; the Ottoman fleet uses the French harbor of Toulon as a base to raid the coast of Western Europe1542South AsiaMuslims massacre Hindus at Raisin1542AfricaSaՙdīs capture the Portuguese fort at Agadir1542-1543Europe and AmericasThe New Laws of SpainFeb. 13, 1542EuropeCatherine Howard is executedJune 27, 1542-c. 1600AmericasSpain Explores Alta CaliforniaJuly 15, 1542-1559EuropePaul III Establishes the INDEX OF PROHIBITED BOOKS1543EuropeCopernicus Publishes DE REVOLUTIONIBUS1543EuropeVesalius Publishes ON THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODYAutumn, 1543East AsiaEuropeans Begin Trade with Japan1544EuropeCoronation of Mary, Queen of Scots1544-1628EuropeAnglo-French WarsApr. 14, 1544EuropeBattle of CerisollesJuly 19, 1544-Sept. 14, 1544EuropeEnglish Siege of BoulogneSept., 1544EuropePeace of Crépy1545-1548AmericasSilver Is Discovered in Spanish America1545-1563EuropeCouncil of TrentFeb. 27, 1545EuropeBattle of Ancrum Moor1546EuropeFracastoro Discovers That Contagion Spreads Disease1546South AsiaVijayanagar signs a treaty of nonaggression with the PortugueseJune, 1546-June, 1547EuropeSchmalkaldic WarJan. 16, 1547EuropeCoronation of Ivan the TerribleJan. 28, 1547-July 6, 1553EuropeReign of Edward VIApr. 24, 1547EuropeBattle of MülbergSept. 10, 1547EuropeBattle of Pinkie1548-1600South AsiaSiamese-Burmese Wars1549East AsiaBattle of Kajiki Castle: First use of firearms in Japanese warfare1549EuropeFrench Siege of Boulogne1549EuropeKett’s Rebellion1549-1552East AsiaFather Xavier Introduces Christianity to Japan1549-1570’sEuropeLa Pléiade Promotes French PoetryMid-16th c.EuropeDevelopment of the Caracole Maneuver1550’sEuropeSofonisba Anguissola develops her style of mannerist painting1550’sEuropeTartaglia Publishes THE NEW SCIENCE1550’s-1587East AsiaJapanese Pirates Pillage the Chinese Coast1550’s-c. 1600EuropeEducational Reforms in Europe1550-1571East AsiaMongols Raid Beijing1550-1593East AsiaJapanese Wars of UnificationJan.-May, 1551EuropeThe Stoglav Convenesc. 1552EuropeFrance captures the Three Bishoprics of Lorraine1552Europe and AmericasLas Casas Publishes THE TEARS OF THE INDIANS1552Middle EastStruggle for the Strait of Hormuz1552-1555Central AsiaKazak Empire repels invasions from Mongolia and Kobdo1553EuropeServetus Describes the Circulatory SystemJuly, 1553EuropeCoronation of Mary TudorJuly 10-19, 1553EuropeLady Jane Grey is queen of England for nine daysSept., 1553East AsiaFirst Battle of KawanakajimaOct. 27, 1553EuropeServetus is burned as a heretic1554AfricaThe last Wattasid is killed; Marrakech becomes the capital of Saՙdīan MoroccoJan. 25-Feb. 7, 1554EuropeWyatt’s Rebellion1555-1556EuropeCharles V AbdicatesSept. 25, 1555EuropePeace of Augsburg1556-1605South AsiaReign of AkbarJan. 23, 1556East AsiaEarthquake in China Kills ThousandsSummer, 1556Europe and Central AsiaIvan the Terrible Annexes Astrakhan1557-1574AfricaReign of Abdallah al-Ghālib in Morocco1557-1582EuropeLivonian WarAug. 10, 1557EuropeBattle of Saint-Quentin1558-1593South AsiaBurmese-Laotian Wars1558-1603EuropeReign of Elizabeth IJan. 1-8, 1558EuropeFrance Regains Calais from EnglandJuly 13, 1558EuropeBattle of Gravelines1559-1561Middle EastSüleyman’s Sons Wage Civil WarApr. 3, 1559EuropeTreaty of Cateau-CambrésisMay, 1559-Aug., 1561EuropeScottish Reformationc. 1560’sEuropeInvention of the “Lead” PencilApr. or May, 1560EuropePublication of the Geneva BibleJune 12, 1560East AsiaBattle of Okehazama1562-1565AmericasFrench Huguenots attempt to colonize South Carolina and Florida, but the Spanish drive them awayMar., 1562-May 2, 1598EuropeFrench Wars of Religion1563East AsiaJesuit missionary Luis Frois settles in Japan1563-1584EuropeConstruction of the EscorialJan., 1563EuropeThirty-nine Articles of the Church of EnglandJan. 20, 1564EuropePeace of TroyesJune, 1564EuropeTintoretto Paints for the Scuola di San Rocco1565South AsiaSpain Seizes the PhilippinesJan., 1565South AsiaBattle of TalikotaMay 18-Sept. 8, 1565EuropeSiege of MaltaSept., 1565AmericasSt. Augustine Is Founded1566-1574Middle EastReign of Selim IIJuly 22, 1566EuropePius V Expels the Prostitutes from Rome1567EuropePalestrina Publishes the POPE MARCELLUS MASS1567-1572East AsiaReign of LongqingJuly 29, 1567EuropeJames VI Becomes King of Scotland1568EuropeBattle of Langside: Supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots are defeated, and Mary flees to England, where Elizabeth I imprisons her1568AmericasJesuits found the first missionary school for North American Indians at Havana1568East AsiaOda Nobunaga Seizes Kyōtoc. 1568-1571Europe and Central AsiaOttoman-Russian War1568-1648EuropeDutch Wars of IndependenceFeb. 23, 1568South AsiaFall of Chitor1569EuropeMercator Publishes His World Map1569East AsiaSiege of OdawaraNov. 9, 1569EuropeRebellion of the Northern EarlsFeb. 25, 1570EuropePius V Excommunicates Elizabeth IJuly, 1570-Aug., 1571Middle EastSiege of Famagusta and Fall of Cyprusc. 1571-1603AfricaBornu-Kanem Empire reaches the height of its power, using firearms purchased from the Ottoman TurksOct. 7, 1571EuropeBattle of Lepanto1572-1574EuropeTycho Brahe Observes a Supernova1572-1589EuropeSiege of La RochelleAug. 24-25, 1572EuropeSt. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre1573-1582East AsiaOda Nobunaga deposes the shogun and unifies half of Japan under his rule1573-1620East AsiaReign of Wanli1574-1595Middle EastReign of Murad IIIc. 1574-1600East AsiaJapan’s Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodMid-1570’sAmericasPowhatan Confederacy Is Founded1575EuropeDiana Mantuana moves to Rome and receives papal permission to print and sell her engravings, becoming the first sanctioned woman engraver.1575EuropeSaint Philip Neri founds the Institute of the Oratory in Rome1575EuropeTallis and Byrd Publish CANTIONES SACRAE1575-1680AfricaPortuguese take control of the Angolan coastMar. 3, 1575South AsiaMongol Conquest of BengalJune 28, 1575East AsiaBattle of NagashinoNov., 1575EuropeStephen Báthory Becomes King of Poland1576EuropeJames Burbage Builds The Theatre1576-1612EuropeReign of Rudolf IIJune 7, 1576-July, 1578AmericasFrobisher’s Voyages1577South AsiaRam Dās Founds Amritsar1578East AsiaBattle of Mimigawa1578Central AsiaFirst Dalai Lama Becomes Buddhist Spiritual Leader1578EuropeJoseph of Volokolamsk is canonized1578EuropeRaphael Holinshed publishes his Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland1578-1590Middle EastThe Battle for Tabrīz1578-1603AfricaReign of Aḥmad al-ManṣūrAug. 4, 1578AfricaBattle of Ksar el-KebirJune 17, 1579AmericasDrake Lands in Northern California1580’s-1590’sEuropeGalileo Conducts His Early Experiments1580EuropeFormula of Concord1580East AsiaSurrender of the Ōsaka Honganji, the last major military stronghold of Pure Land Buddhism1580-1581EuropeSpain Annexes Portugal1580-1587South AsiaRebellions in Bihar and Bengal1580-1595EuropeMontaigne Publishes His ESSAYSc. 1580-c. 1600South AsiaSiamese-Cambodian Wars1581Central AsiaKabul falls to Akbar1581-1597Central AsiaCossacks Seize SibirJuly 26, 1581EuropeThe United Provinces Declare Independence from Spain1582EuropeGregory XIII Reforms the Calendar1582East AsiaBattle of Yamakazi1582East AsiaOda Nobunaga commits suicide1582-1598East AsiaToyotomi Hideyoshi completes the unification of JapanSummer, 1582EuropeSir Philip Sidney writes Astrophel and StellaJuly 21, 1582Central AsiaBattle of the Tobol River1583-1600EuropeBruno’s Theory of the Infinite Universe1583-1610East AsiaMatteo Ricci Travels to Beijing1584EuropeAssassination of William of Orange1584EuropeLavinia Fontina becomes the first woman publicly commissioned to produce a painting1584-1585EuropeSiege of Antwerp1584-1613Europe and Central AsiaRussia’s Time of TroublesJuly 4, 1584-1590AmericasLost Colony of RoanokeJuly 7, 1585-Dec. 23, 1588EuropeWar of the Three HenrysSept. 14, 1585-July 27, 1586AmericasDrake’s Expedition to the West Indiesc. 1586-1593EuropeChristopher Marlowe writes his dramasFeb., 1586South AsiaAnnexation of Kashmir1587East AsiaToyotomi Hideyoshi Hosts a Ten-Day Tea Ceremony1587East AsiaToyotomi Hideyoshi issues an edict prohibiting piracy1587-1629Middle EastReign of ՙAbbās the GreatFeb. 8, 1587EuropeExecution of Mary, Queen of ScotsApr., 1587-c. 1600EuropeAnglo-Spanish WarOct. 20, 1587EuropeBattle of Courtras1588-1602EuropeRise of the English MadrigalJuly 31-Aug. 8, 1588EuropeDefeat of the Spanish ArmadaDec. 23, 1588EuropeAssassination of the third duke of Guise1589EuropeRussian Patriarchate Is Established1589Middle EastSecond Janissary Revolt in Constantinoplec. 1589-1613EuropeShakespeare Writes His DramasAug. 2, 1589EuropeHenry IV Ascends the Throne of France1590’sEuropeBirth of Opera1590EuropeEdmund Spenser publishes The Faerie Queene1590East AsiaOdawara CampaignBeginning 1590EuropeRusso-Swedish WarsMar. 14, 1590EuropeBattle of Ivry1591AfricaFall of the Songhai EmpireBeginning 1591South AsiaMogul conquest of the DeccanAfter 1591AfricaThe Hausa states become a center of trans-Saharan trade in the wake of Songhai’s fall1592AfricaMombasa falls to Portugal and Malindi1592East AsiaPublication of Wu Chengen’s THE JOURNEY TO THE WESTJuly 8, 1592-July 10, 1592East AsiaBattle of the Yellow Sea1592-1599East AsiaJapan Invades Korea1593-1606Europe and Middle EastOttoman-Austrian War1594-1595East AsiaTaikō Kenchi Survey1594-1600EuropeKing Michael’s Uprisingc. 1595EuropeZacharias Janssen produces the first compound microscope1596AmericasRalegh Arrives in GuianaOct., 1596-Feb., 1597East AsiaSAN FELIPE Incident1597-Sept., 1601EuropeTyrone RebellionOct. 31, 1597EuropeJohn Dowland Publishes AYRES1598Central AsiaAstrakhanid Dynasty Is Established1598AmericasTepic Indian miners revolt against the SpanishJan., 1598-Feb., 1599AmericasOñate’s New Mexico ExpeditionApr. 13, 1598EuropeEdict of NantesMay 2, 1598EuropeTreaty of VervinsAug. 14, 1598EuropeBattle of Yellow FordDec., 1598-May, 1599EuropeThe Globe Theatre Is Built1599EuropeCastrati Sing in the Sistine Chapel Choirc. 1600AmericasSpain imports sheep into the American Southwest1600EuropeWilliam Gilbert Publishes DE MAGNETEOct. 21, 1600East AsiaBattle of SekigaharaDec. 31, 1600Europe and South AsiaElizabeth I Charters the East India Company