A time line of important events during the Middle Ages.
DateRegionEvent5th-6th c.East AsiaConfucianism Arrives in Japan455EuropeVandals sack Romec. 456EuropeSaint Patrick begins his missionary work in Ireland476-493EuropeReign of Odoacer, first barbarian king of Italy481-511EuropeReign of Clovis, king of the Franks484Central and South AsiaWhite Huns Raid India493-511EuropeReign of Saint Clotilda, queen consort of France493-1364Europe and Middle EastBulgarian-Byzantine wars for control of the area south of the Danube River and the border between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian kingdom495-516EuropeBattle of Mount Badon puts a stop to Anglo-Saxon expansion496EuropeBaptism of Clovis499South AsiaĀryabhaṭa the Elder writes his magnum opus on mathematics and astronomy, The Aryabhatiya500-534EuropeBurgundian-Frankish wars for control of Burgundyc. 500-1000AfricaRise of Swahili Culturesc. 500-1000AmericasTiwanaku Civilization Flourishes in Andean Highlands6th-8th c.Central AsiaSogdians Dominate Central Asian TradeAug. 502-591Europe and Middle EastByzantine-Persian wars for control of Asia between the Bosporus and beyond the Euphrates RiverFeb. 2, 506EuropeAlaric II Drafts the Breviarum Alarici507EuropeClovis defeats the Visigoths at Vouillé and unifies Gaul524EuropeImprisonment and Death of Boethius526EuropePriscian writes Institutiones grammaticaeBefore 527Central AsiaTranslator and church historian Dionysius Exiguus devises the Christian-based calendar527-548EuropeReign of Theodora, Byzantine empress529EuropeSaint Benedict of Nursia founds the Benedictine monastic order at Monte Cassino in southern Italy529-534Middle EastJustinian’s Code Is Compiled: Justinian definitively codifies Roman law, wages war against the Germans and Persians, and changes the nature of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire to an absolute monarchy531-579Middle EastReign of Khosrow I, king of Persia532-537Middle EastBuilding of Hagia Sophia534-535EuropeReign of Amalasuntha, queen of the Ostrogoths534-554EuropeGothic wars for control of the Italian peninsula538-552East AsiaBuddhism Arrives in Japan543-1189South AsiaCālukyan wars for control of southern Indiac. 550East AsiaThe Tuque (T’u-chüeh), a Turkish steppe people, create a loose dominion north of China, stretching from Korea to KarasharJuly 552EuropeBattle of Taginae: Justinian’s general Narses defeats the Ostrogoths in Italy563Europe, Middle East, East AsiaSilk Worms Are Smuggled to the Byzantine Empire567-568Central and South AsiaSāsānians and Turks Defeat the White Huns567-597EuropeReign of Fredegunde, queen of Neustria568-571EuropeLombard Conquest of Italy and reign of AlboinLate sixth c.EuropeIrish abbess Saint Brigit makes Kildare a center of scholarship and a school of art Late sixth c.EuropeGregory of Tours writes his history of the Franks, Historia Francorum581East AsiaSui Dynasty Reunifies China590-604EuropeReforms of Pope Gregory the Great593-604East AsiaRegency of Shōtoku Taishi593-628East AsiaReign of Suiko, Japanese empressc. 595/598EuropeBattle of Catraeth, ground battle in defense of Britain595-665East and South AsiaInvention of Decimals and Negative Numbers, including the zero value596-597EuropeSee of Canterbury Is Established598-668East AsiaSino-Korean wars: Chinese conquest of north Koreac. 600-950AmericasEl Tajín Is Built7th c.AfricaAksumite kingdom is weakened by the spread of Islam throughout Arabia and North Africa7th-early 8th c.AmericasMaya Build Astronomical Observatory at Palenque7th-8th c.East AsiaPapermaking Spreads to Korea, Japan, and Central Asia7th-13th c.AmericasMogollons Establish Agricultural Settlements605-610East AsiaBuilding of the Grand Canal606East AsiaNational University Awards First Doctorate606-647South AsiaReign of Harṣa of Kanauj607-839East AsiaJapan Sends Embassies to Chinac. 610-632Middle EastMuḥammad Receives Revelations610-638EuropeConstantinople’s Sergius I is patriarch of the Orthodox Church 610-641EuropeHeraclius reigns over the Byzantine Empire, Hellenizing the culture and introducing a system of provinces ruled by military governorsc. 611-642South AsiaReign of Pulakeśin II618East AsiaFounding of the Tang Dynasty619Middle EastDeath of Khadīja, wife of the Prophet Muḥammad and first convert to Islam622Middle EastThe Prophet Muḥammad flees from Mecca to Medina to avoid persecution627-649East AsiaReign of Taizong, Chinese emperor627-650Central and South AsiaReign of Songtsen Gampoc. 628South AsiaIndian mathematician Brahmagupta completes his masterwork on astronomy, the Brahmasphuṭasiddhānta629-645East, Central, and South AsiaPilgrimage of Xuanzang630-668South AsiaReign of Narasi Mhavarman I Mahāmalla630-711AfricaIslam Expands Throughout North AfricaJune 8, 632Middle EastDeath of the Prophet Muḥammad, followed by creation of the Islamic caliphate633EuropeAt the Fourth Council of Toledo, Isidore of Seville orders the establishment of liberal arts schools in all dioceses of Hispania634-644Middle EastReign of ՙUmar I, first caliph635-800EuropeFounding of Lindisfarne and Creation of the Book of KellsAug. 15-20, 636Middle EastBattle of Yarmūk: Muslim forces capture the holy regions of Syria and Palestine from the Byzantine Empire637Middle EastBattle of Qadisiyah: Arab forces destroy the Sāsānian Persians, heralding the decline of their empire637-657Middle EastIslam Expands Throughout the Middle East641-642Middle EastSiege of Nahavand: Muslims invade the Persian highlands645-646East AsiaAdoption of Nengo System and Taika Reformsc. 650East AsiaPortraitist Yan Liben paints his Scroll of the Emperors, depicting thirteen of China’s emperors652-c. 1171AfricaChristian Nubia and Muslim Egypt Sign Treaty657-661Middle EastMuslim Civil War for control of the Islamic world: ՙAlī’s claim to the caliphate creates a rift in Islamic unity between Syrian and Iraqi Muslims, leading to the formation of the Shīՙite and Sunni sectsc. 667-c. 702AfricaReign of the Berber queen Damia al-Kāhina668-935East AsiaSilla Unification of Korea674-678EuropeThe flammable liquid Greek fire is used by the Byzantines against Arab ships during the Siege of Constantinoplec. 675-719EuropeFrankish civil wars for control of the Frankish kingdomc. 680EuropeCædmon composes the earliest known English poetryOct. 10, 680Middle EastMartyrdom of Prophet’s Grandson Ḥusayn at the Battle of Karbalā՚682-1377Southeast AsiaExpansion of Śrivijaya685-691Middle EastBuilding of the Dome of the Rock685-705Middle EastReign of Caliph ՙAbd al-Malik687EuropePépin of Herstal wins the Battle of Tertry, solidifies rule over all Franks, and unifies the office of Mayor of the Palace687-701EuropeSaint Sergius I is popeNov. 17, 689EuropeDeath of Saint Hilda of Whitby, English abbessc. 690EuropeDeath of Paul of Aegina, Byzantine physician and writer690-705East AsiaReign of Empress Wuc. 700AmericasBow and Arrow Spread into North Americac. 700East AsiaPorcelain is invented in Chinac. 700Middle EastWindmills are invented in Persiac. 700-1000AmericasBuilding of Chichén Itzác. 700-1000EuropeHeavy Plow Helps Increase Agricultural Yieldsc. 700-1100Australia/PacificSettlement of the South Pacific Islandsc. 700-1253Southeast AsiaConfederation of Thai Tribes8th c.EuropeComposition of Beowulf, England’s national epic8th-14th c.AmericasCahokia Becomes the First North American City8th-15th c.AmericasHohokam Adapt to the Desert Southwest701East AsiaTaihō Laws Reform Japanese Governmentc. 710South AsiaConstruction of the Kāila Śanātha TempleApr./May 711EuropeṬārik Crosses into Spain, overcoming the Visigoths in the seven-day Battle of La Janda711-1492EuropeReconquista (Reconquest) of Spain: Christian principalities launch a four-hundred-year campaign to retake the southern Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule712-720East AsiaWriting of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki713-741East AsiaFirst Newspapers in China714EuropePépin’s illegitimate son, Charles Martel, seizes control of the Frankish kingdom717-718EuropeSiege of Constantinople: The Islamic Empire expands into Europe718-759Europe, Middle EastFrankish-Moorish wars for control of Gaul719-741EuropeCharles Martel is Frankish mayor of the palace721EuropeBattle of Toulouse: Eudo, duke of Aquitaine, defeats the Muslims726-843EuropeIconoclastic Controversy728Middle EastDeath of the Islamic sage al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī729Southeast AsiaFounding of Nanzhao730South AsiaRise of the Pratihāras730’sEast AsiaLi Bo is traveling through China and writing lyric poetry731EuropeBede Writes Ecclesiastical History of the English PeopleOct. 11, 732EuropeBattle of Tours: Christian victory discourages Muslim incursions beyond the Pyrenees733-750EuropeÆthelbald’s wars for control of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercia becomes the most important power in England734-755East AsiaWang Wei is writing poetry in China735EuropeChristianity Is Introduced into Germany by Saint Boniface, archbishop of Mainz740EuropeKhazars Convert to Judaismc. 740Middle EastAbū Ḥanīfah founds the Hanifite school of Islamic law744-840Central AsiaUighur Turks Rule Central Asia: Uighurs destroy the Tuque (T’u-chüeh) Empire and dominate Mongolia and Central Asia747-750Middle EastՙAbbāsid Revolution: Establishment of a legitimate Islamic government and control of tax revenuesDec. 4, 749EuropeDeath of John of Damascus, writer, monk, and religious scholarc. 750East AsiaCarbon-steel swords first appear in Japanc. 750South AsiaŚaṅkara founds the Advaita school of Hindu philosophy and makes a pilgrimage throughout the Indian subcontinent750-1035Europe, Middle EastByzantine-Muslim wars to determine Christian vs. Muslim influence in the Middle Eastc. 750-1240AfricaRise and Fall of Ghana751Central AsiaBattle of Talas River: Arabs defeat the Chinese near Samarqand in Central Asia754EuropeCoronation of Pépin the Short755-763East AsiaRebellion of An Lushan759-770East AsiaChinese poet Du Fu writes his most mature lyrics763Central AsiaTibetans Capture Chang’an764-770East AsiaReign of Kōken, Japanese empressc. 770WorldwideIron horseshoes come into common use770-810South AsiaReign of Dharmapāla771-786EuropeOffa’s wars for Mercian hegemony in England771-814EuropeWars of Charlemagne: expansion and protection of the Frankish empire775-802EuropeReign of Saint Irene, Byzantine empress775-840Southeast AsiaBuilding of Borobuḍur780Middle EastBeginning of the Harem System780Southeast AsiaRise of the Sailendra Family781EuropeAlcuin Becomes Adviser to Charlemagne782EuropeSaxon chieftain Widukind leads a revolt against the Franks near the Weser River786-809Middle EastReign of Hārūn al-Rashīd788-850South AsiaŚaṅkara Expounds Advaita Vedānta791Central AsiaBuddhism Becomes Tibetan State Religion792East AsiaRise of the SamuraiJune 7, 793EuropeNorse Raid Lindisfarne Monastery794-1185East AsiaHeian Periodc. 796EuropeCompletion of Offa’s Dyke, built on the Welsh border to defend the Mercian kingdom800EuropePope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperorc. 800East AsiaKana Syllabary Is Developed9th-11th c.AfricaKanem-Bornu Sultanate expands throughout western Sudanc. 800-1100Australia/PacificPolynesians make unique stone images on Necker Island in Hawaiic. 800-1350AmericasMississippian Mound-Building Culture Flourishes9th-14th c.AfricaRise of the Toutswe Kingdom9th-15th c.AmericasPlains Village Culture Flourishes9th-15th c.Middle East, AfricaThroughout the Islamic world, mamlūks (military slaves) are recruited into elite regiments, providing military support to many Islamic emirates and caliphates801Middle EastDeath of Sufi mystic Rābiՙah al-ՙAdawiyah802Southeast AsiaFounding of the Khmer Empire802-839EuropeReign of Egbert, king of England809Middle EastFirst Islamic Public Hospitalc. 810EuropeRabanus Maurus’s “figural poems” revive the classical practice of joining text to picturesc. 810-815EuropeTheophanes the Confessor writes Chronographia, the main source for the history of the Byzantine Empire from about 600 to 813812East AsiaPaper Money First Used in China815Middle EastDeath of Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Ḥayyān, Arabian chemist and alchemist832Southeast AsiaNanzhao Subjugates Pyu834Middle EastGypsies Expelled from PersiaApr. 22, 835East AsiaDeath of Japanese monk Kōbō Daishi838-842Central AsiaTibetan Empire Dissolves840-846Central AsiaUighur Migrations840-920Central AsiaNomadic Kirghiz horsemen invade Mongolia and drive out the Uighursc. 841EuropeDhuoda writes Liber Manualis, the only extant book by a woman from the Carolingian periodJune 25, 841EuropeBattle of Fontenay, ground battle in the Carolingian civil wars843EuropeTreaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire among Charlemagne’s sons843-876EuropeReign of Louis the German, king of Germany845East AsiaSuppression of BuddhismMid-9th c.East AsiaInvention of Gunpowder and Gunsc. 850EuropeDevelopment of Slavic Alphabetc. 850Middle EastDeath of Arabic mathematician and astronomer al-Khwārizmīc. 850Middle EastThe coffee beverage is invented in Arabiac. 850-950EuropeViking Era: Vikings raid the British Isles, Iceland, continental Europe, and Russia850-1257South AsiaCōla Kingdom rules much of southern IndiaAfter 850AmericasFoundation of Chan Chan852-889EuropeReign of Boris I of Bulgaria, czar of BulgariaJuly 855Middle EastDeath of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Muslim theologian and jurist858East AsiaRise of the Fujiwara Family858Middle EastBirth of Arab astronomer and mathematician al-Battānī858-867EuropeNicholas the Great is pope859-862EuropeVarangian incursion: Vikings invade northwestern Russiac. 860-879EuropeRurik becomes the first prince of Kievan Rus861-870Middle EastMuslim civil war for control of the caliphate in Baghdad863East and Southeast AsiaNanzhao Captures Hanoi863-885EuropeIn Moravia, Saints Cyril and Methodius are developing the Slavonic liturgy and alphabet864EuropeBoris Converts to Christianity867-886EuropeReign of Byzantine emperor Basil the Macedonian868Middle EastDeath of Arabic zoologist and scholar al-Jāḥiẓ868East AsiaFirst Book Printed: The Diamond Sutra is the earliest extant printed book869-883Middle EastZanj Revolt of African Slaves871-899EuropeReign of Alfred the Great, king of England872Middle EastArab historian al-Ṭabarī writes his history of the world872-973Middle EastPublication of The History of al-Ṭabarī875-877EuropeReign of Charles the Bald, king of France and Holy Roman Emperor877-889Southeast AsiaIndravarman I Conquers the Thai and the Mons878EuropeAlfred Defeats the Danes at the Battle of Edington886EuropeLast Viking siege of Paris890’sEuropeMagyars Invade Italy, Saxony, and Bavaria893EuropeBeginning of Bulgaria’s Golden Agec. 896-907EuropeReign of Árpád, founder of the first Hungarian state899-918EuropeReign of Æthelflæd, queen of Mercia899-924EuropeReign of Edward the Elder, king of EnglandEarly 10th c.Central AsiaQarakhanids Convert to Islam10th c.AmericasCult of Quetzalcóatl Spreads Through Mesoamerica10th c.Central and South AsiaGhaznavid Turks invade India from Afghanistan, introducing an Islamic influence that will continue until the early sixteenth century10th-11th c.AfricaFirst Hausa State Established10th-11th c.EuropeThe crossbow makes its first European appearance, in Italy10th-11th c.EuropeUnder the Umayyad caliphate, the Iberian Peninsula experiences a golden age of philosophy, literature, science, and relative religious tolerancec. 900-1150Middle EastPhilosophy, science, and scholarship flourish in Iran under such figures as al-Bīrūnī, physician-philosopher Avicenna, the Islamic theologian al-Ghazzālī, and the physician al-Rāzī907-960East AsiaPeriod of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms907-1125East AsiaThe Liao Dynasty rules northwestern China911EuropeRollo receives the county of Normandy from the French king911-c. 932EuropeRollo’s reign establishes the Norman Dynasty912-961EuropeՙAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir, Umayyad emir and caliph, rules Córdobac. 915AfricaArab historian and geographer al-Masՙūdī begins his extensive travels through the Middle East and Asia915South AsiaParāntaka I Conquers Pāṇḍya: Parāntaka expands Cōla territory into southern India with his victory against the Pāṇḍyas at the Battle of Vellur918-936East AsiaFoundation of the Koryŏ Dynasty920East AsiaKhitans drive out Kirghiz and establish an empire in Mongolia and ChinaSept. 15, 921EuropeDeath of Saint Ludmilla, duchess of Bohemiac. 922Middle EastPersian physician al-Rāzī writes his treatise on smallpox927East AsiaCompilation of the Engi Shikic. 930EuropeVikings settle Icelandc. 930Middle EastIslamic theologian al-Ashՙarī founds Ashՙarism, a movement to achieve a true synthesis of purely logical argument and the transcendental elements of revealed Islam936East AsiaKhitans Settle Near Beijing937EuropeBattle of Brunanburgh: Æthelstan defeats Scots and Vikings939-944Southeast AsiaReign of Ngo Quyen945-964EuropeReign of Saint Olga, princess of Rus945-1055Middle EastThe Buyid Dynasty dominates the ՙAbbāsid caliphate in Iraqc. 950EuropeCourt of Córdoba Flourishes in Spainc. 950-1100Middle EastRise of Madrasasc. 950-1150AmericasToltecs Build Tula, the largest city in central Mexico, with a population of about 60,000 and covering some 5 square milesAug. 10, 955EuropeOtto I Defeats the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld956Central AsiaOğhuz Turks Migrate to Transoxiana958-1076East AsiaKoreans Adopt the Tang Civil Service Model960East AsiaFounding of the Song Dynastyc. 960EuropeJews Settle in Bohemia960-1279East AsiaScholar-Official Class Flourishes Under Song Dynasty962EuropeFoundation of the Mount Athos Monasteries962-973EuropeCoronation of Otto I as Holy Roman Emperorc. 963EuropeGerman-Saxon poet, playwright, and historian Hrosvitha is writing plays in Gandersheim969-1171AfricaReign of the Fāṭimids: Shīՙite Muslims based in Cairo, the Fāṭimids challenge Baghdad’s Sunni ՙAbbāsid caliphate for control of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina972AfricaBuilding of al-Azhar Mosque972-1152AfricaThe Zirid and Hammadid Berbers, under the Fāṭimid caliphate, dominate Tunisia and eastern Algeria973South AsiaFoundation of the Western Cālukya Dynasty976-1025EuropeReign of Basil II977-1186Central and South AsiaThe Ghaznavid Empire, based in modern-day Afghanistan, is the first Islamic state dominated by a Turkic military class, spreading Islam into India978-980EuropeFranco-German war for control of the province of Lorraine978-1016EuropeReign of Ethelred II, the Unready, king of England980-1015EuropeReign of Vladimir I, grand prince of Kiev982Southeast AsiaLe Dai Hanh Invades Champac. 983-998Middle EastPersian mathematician and astronomer Abul Wefa develops his theory of sines and cosinesc. 985-1014South AsiaReign of Rājarāja I987EuropeHugh Capet Is Elected to the French Throne988EuropeBaptism of Vladimir I989EuropeByzantine princess Anna marries Vladimir I and lays the foundation for the Christian conversion of Russia990’sEuropeThe first stone keeps appear in northwestern Europe991EuropeBattle of Maldon: Danish Vikings defeat the English and force them to pay Danegeld992-1054AfricaGhana Takes Control of Awdaghust995-1000EuropeReign of Olaf I, king of Norway997-1038EuropeReign of Stephen I, king of Hungary998-1030Central and South AsiaReign of Maḥmūd of Ghazna999-1003EuropeSylvester II is popec. 1000AmericasCollapse of the Huari and Tiwanaku Civilizationsc. 1000AmericasPueblo villages are built and black-on-white ceramics are manufactured in New Mexico’s Mimbres Valleyc. 1000East AsiaFootbinding Develops in Chinese Societyc. 1000South AsiaHindi Becomes India’s Dominant Languagec. 1000South AsiaConstruction of the Lingaraja and Rajarani temples in Orissa on India’s east coastc. 1000AmericasMetalworkers in southern Costa Rica and western Panama produce gold pendants depicting figures with the heads of frogs, turtles, bats, and crocodilesc. 1000EuropeDeath of Leif Eriksson, Norwegian explorerSept. 9, 1000EuropeBattle of Svalde, a naval conflict during the Viking raids1000-1471Southeast AsiaVietnamese-Cham wars for control of the kingdom of Champa (southern Vietnam)11th c.AfricaExpansion of Sunni Islam in North Africa and Iberia11th c.Central AsiaTibet undergoes a Buddhist renaissance, with growth of monasteries, schools, and art11th-12th c.EuropeBuilding of Romanesque Cathedrals11th-12th c.AmericasFirst European-Native American Contact: Norse expeditions reach Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland, 986-100811th-15th c.AfricaDevelopment of the Ife Kingdom and Yoruba Culture: Ife becomes a major urban center during the Pavement period, named after mosaics constructed to form a distinctive herringbone pattern. Ife’s famous terracotta and metal heads are sculpted to represent identifiable individuals11th-15th c.AfricaGreat Zimbabwe Urbanism and Architecture: develops after the city is founded by Bantu-speaking ancestors of the Shona people11th-15th/16th c.AfricaTellem people, seeking to avoid conversion to Islam, migrate from the inland Niger River Delta and Jenne-Jeno to the Bandiagara escarpmentAfter 1000EuropeDevelopment of Miracle and Mystery Plays1001Southeast AsiaThailand’s Lopburi Kingdom requests China’s assistance in securing independence from the Khmersc. 1001East AsiaSei Shōnagon Completes The Pillow Bookc. 1004East AsiaMurasaki Shikibu Writes The Tale of the Genji1009Middle EastDestruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre1010Middle EastFirdusi Composes the Shahnamah, Iran’s national epicc. 1010AfricaSonghai Kingdom Converts to Islamc. 1010-1015Middle EastAvicenna Writes His Canon of Medicine1012East AsiaRice Is Introduced into China1013EuropeDanish king Sveyn I Forkbeard defeats English king Ethelred I and forces him into exileApr. 23, 1014EuropeBattle of Clontarf: Brian Boru and his son Murchad defeat the Norse-Leinster alliance, but Brian is killed1014-1024EuropeHenry II the Saint reigns as Holy Roman Emperorc. 1015EuropeThe two republics of Genoa and Pisa send ships to Sardinia and Corsica to oust the Arabs from those islands, then vie for their control for the next three hundred years1016-1017East AsiaRegency of Fujiwara Michinaga1016-1028EuropeReign of Saint Olaf, king of Norway1016-1035EuropeCanute Conquers England and reigns as king of England, Denmark, and Norway1016-1070EuropeNormans migrate into southern Italy, eventually subverting Byzantine dominancec. 1017South AsiaCōlas conquer Sri Lankac. 1018Middle EastArab scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī becomes official astronomer/astrologer to the court of Maḥmūd of Ghazna1018EuropeEmperor Basil II conquers Bulgaria, expanding the Byzantine Empire to its largest extent until the second Bulgarian kingdom is established under the Asen line in 11861019Central and South AsiaMaḥmūd of Ghazna raids northern India and destroys Kanauj, the capital of the Gurjara-Pratihāra Empire1019Southeast AsiaAirlangga founds the Kahuripan kingdom in Java; during his reign Hindu and Buddhist arts flourish1020-1057East AsiaJapanese sculptor Jōchō is developing his joined-wood technique1020’sMiddle EastArab physicist Alhazen, the most important figure in optics between antiquity and the seventeenth century, writes his treatise Opticsc. 1025EuropeScholars at Chartres Revive Interest in the Classics1025South and Southeast AsiaSouth India’s Cōla kingdom invades ŚrivijayaAfter 1026EuropeItalian music theorist Guido d’Arezzo publishes the Micrologus, a manual on musical notation and one of the most influential books of its timeApr. 10, 1028EuropeDeath of Saint Fulbert, founder of the cathedral school at Chartresc. 1028EuropeDeath of Gershom ben Judah, French-German rabbi who played a major role in establishing the scholarly autonomy of Franco-German Jewry1030South AsiaAl-Bīrūnī completes his history of India, Tār՚īkh al-Hind1031EuropeCaliphate of Córdoba Falls1031-1086EuropeTa’ifa rulers assume power in Islamic Spain after the fall of Córdoba, becoming patrons of the arts and architecture and building huge palaces1032-1227East AsiaRise of the Xixia Empire in northwestern China1037Middle EastDeath of Avicenna, Persian philosopher and scholar1038Central AsiaBattle of Nishapur: Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids and move into the Khorāsān grazing grounds of northeastern PersiaMay 24, 1040Middle EastBattle of Dandāngān Castle: Seljuks overcome the Ghaznavid Masՙūd I1040’sEuropeIbn Gabirol is writing poetry in biblical Hebrew1040-1055Middle EastExpansion of the Seljuk Turksc. 1042Central AsiaThe “second transmission,” a renaissance in Tibetan Buddhism, is born when Atisha, an Indian mystic, settles in Tibet1043-1066EuropeReign of Edward the Confessor, king of Englandc. 1044East AsiaThe first book containing a formula for gunpowder appears, listing coal, saltpeter, and sulfur as the primary ingredients1044Southeast AsiaAnawrahta founds the first Burmese kingdom, the Pagan Empirec. 1045East AsiaBi Sheng Develops Movable Earthenware Type1048AfricaZīrids Break from Fāṭimid Dynasty and Revive Sunni Islam1049-1054EuropeLeo IX is popec. 1050East AsiaWorldwide proliferation of block-printed books and paper1050-1203Southeast AsiaKhmer-Cham wars: Khmer territorial expansion and political control over Champa1054East and South AsiaChinese and American Indian astronomers observe the Crab supernova explosion1054EuropeBeginning of the Rome-Constantinople Schism1055EuropeLlewelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Powys, briefly unifies Wales, but the country dissolves after his death1055Middle EastThe Seljuk Turks take Baghdad, ending Buyid rule1059East AsiaChinese writer and philosopher Ouyang Xiu revivifies the fu, a Chinese poetic form, with “The Sounds of Autumn”1062-1147AfricaAlmoravids Conquer Morocco and Establish the Almoravid Empire1063-1072/73Middle EastReign of Alp Arslan, second Seljuk sultan; Seljuk vizier Niẓām al-Mulk is in powerSept. 25, 1066EuropeBattle of Stamford Bridge: English king Harold II defeats Norwegian and Norman invadersOct. 14, 1066EuropeBattle of Hastings: William of Normandy defeats Harold II in this decisive battle in the Norman Conquest1066-1086EuropeThe abbot Desiderius restores the abbey at Monte Cassino1066-1087EuropeReign of William the Conqueror, king of France1067East AsiaChinese statesman Sima Guang presents his Zizhi tongjian to Emperor Yingzong1069-1072East AsiaWang Anshi Introduces Bureaucratic Reforms1070’sMiddle EastMathematician and poet Omar Khayyám writes his RubáiyátAug. 26, 1071Middle EastBattle of Manzikert: marks the beginning of Byzantine decline as Seljuk Turks conquer Anatolia and Hellenistic Asia Minor; prompts the First Crusade two decades laterAfter 1071EuropeByzantine philosopher and historian Michael Psellus writes Chronographia1073-1085EuropeGregory VII is popec. 1075-1086AfricaHummay Founds Sefuwa Dynasty1075EuropeIn Spain, work begins on the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, the most important destination for Christian pilgrims after Rome and Jerusalem1075-c. 1220AfricaEmergence of Mapungubwe1076AfricaAlmoravids Sack Kumbi1076EuropeInvestiture Controversy begins: Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Emperor Henry IV for insisting on his right to name bishops and other clerics within his realmc. 1077EuropeBayeux Tapestry is created: More than 200 feet long, it tells the story of the Battle of Hastings in 10661077Middle EastSeljuk Dynasty Is Founded: Süleyman founds Seljuk Rum, beginning the golden age of the Seljuk Empire1077-1095EuropeReign of Saint László I, Polish-born king of Hungary1077-1214EuropeGerman civil war over control of the Holy Roman Empire1081-1085EuropeNorman-Byzantine wars result in Norman defeat and preservation of Byzantine autonomy1084-1106EuropeHenry IV of Germany reigns as Holy Roman Emperor1086AfricaBattle of Al-Zallāqah: Major battle during the Reconquista; after Castilian king Alfonso VI conquers Toledo in 1085, the Almoravid Tāshufīn enters Iberia to support the Islamic principalities and establish control in the south1086EuropeDomesday Survey: Ordered by William the Conqueror, first Norman king of England, the Domesday Book records a systematic survey of England’s lands1086-1091EuropeBogomil (Bulgarian) revolt and Pecheneg-Byzantine war1088-1099EuropeUrban II is pope1092-1093EuropeSaint Anselm intercedes with King William Rufus on behalf of oppressed clerics in England, is named archbishop of Canterbury1092-1094EuropeEl Cid Conquers Valencia: After cavalry and infantry battles and sieges, El Cid holds Valencia during his lifetime, although Muslims reconquer it at his deathNov. 27, 1095Europe, Middle EastPope Urban II Calls the First Crusade1095-1105Middle EastMuslim mystic al-Ghazzālī abandons Baghdad for a life of poverty, producing The Revival of the Religious SciencesAug. 1096EuropeBattle of Cibotus: Crossing the Bosporus into Asia, participants in the Peasants’ Crusade are annihilated by the TurksBefore 1097EuropeItalian physician Trotula is writing her manuals of the treatments of women’s diseases and conditionsJuly 1, 1097Europe, Middle EastBattle of Dorylaeum: Bohemond I defeats the TurksMar. 21, 1098EuropeFoundation of the Cistercian OrderJune 3, 1098Europe, Middle EastFall of Antioch to Bohemond I and Crusaders after an eight-month siegeJuly 15, 1099Middle EastCrusaders retake Jerusalemc. 1100EuropeArabic Numerals Are Introduced into Europec. 1100AfricaFounding of Timbuktuc. 1100AfricaOrigins of Swahili in Its Written Formc. 1100EuropeRise of Courtly Love1100AmericasBuilding of the Pueblo Bonito, the largest of the Chaco Canyon multistory houses1100EuropeEuropean knights adopt the use of the couched lance, which provides more force than previous hand-thrust weapons1100-1125East AsiaReign of Huizong, famous for his paintings and as a patron of the arts1100-1135EuropeReign of Henry I, king of England1100-1300EuropeEuropean Universities Emerge12th c.AfricaGao, near the Niger River on the border between the Sudan and the Sahel, becomes a key trading center of the Songhai Empire12th c.AfricaCoins Are Minted on the Swahili Coast12th c.AfricaTrading Center of Kilwa Kisiwani Is Founded12th c.East AsiaWang Chongyang Founds Quanzhen Daoism12th-14th c.EuropeSocial and Political Impact of Leprosy12th-15th c.AfricaCreation of the Esie sculptures, soapstone images of humans and animals found near this Yoruba town in Nigeriac. 1100-1500Australia/PacificOn Easter Island, the earliest of the giant stone figures called moai are being carved1101East AsiaLi Qingzhao is writing her poetry1101EuropeTancred becomes regent of AntiochJuly 28, 1101East AsiaDeath of Chinese poet and scholar Su DongpoSept. 6, 1101Middle EastBattle of Ramleh, a ground battle in the Crusades1107East AsiaDeath of Chinese calligrapher Mi Fei1112East AsiaThe Miyazedi stone inscriptions, recording the earliest known written form of the Burmese language, are created1113-1150Southeast AsiaReign of Khmer king Suryavarman II, who captures parts of Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand, and builds Angkor Wat1115East AsiaFoundation of the Jin Dynasty: Jurchens conquer northern China, Mongolia descends into tribal warfare between Jurchens and Khitan-Liao, and Chinese are driven south1115EuropeSaint Bernard founds the abbey of Clairvaux and revives the Cistercian monastic orderJuly 24, 1115EuropeDeath of Matilda of Canossa, defender of the Papacy during the Investiture Controversy1117EuropeFrench Scholastic philosopher and university teacher Peter Abelard is tutoring his pupil Héloïse in Parisc. 1119East AsiaEarliest known record of a compass, although the instrument was invented centuries beforec. 1119-1120EuropeWilliam of Saint-Thierry becomes abbot of the monastery at Saint-Thierry near Reimsc. 1120Middle EastOrder of the Knights Templar Is Founded1122EuropeConcordat of Worms settles the Investiture Controversy, which began in 10761123EuropeBattle of Ascalon: Venetian fleet defeats a Muslim fleet, ensuring Christian control of the Kingdom of Jerusalem for another generation1124-1153EuropeReign of David I, king of Scotland1127-1130EuropeCreation of the Kingdom of Sicily: Roger II unifies Norman territories in southern Italy, Sicily, Malta, and North Africa1127-1279East AsiaSouthern Song Dynasty1130East AsiaBirth of Zhu Xi, who later consolidates Confucian thought into four books1130Central AsiaKarakitai Empire Established1130-1163AfricaReign of ՙAbd al-Mu՚min, Berber founder of the Almohad Dynasty1130-1170EuropeOwain Gwynedd rules in Wales, overseeing a revival of Latin scholarship and literature1131-1153Middle EastReign of Melisende, queen of Jerusalem1134-1141East AsiaIn China, Yo Fei, a military commander in the displaced Song Dynasty, conducts campaigns against the Jin and Qi invaders under the slogan “Give us back our rivers and mountains!” He is murdered1135-1154EuropeReign of King Stephen, king of Englandc. 1136EuropeGeoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain appears1136EuropeIn Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales, Gwenllian verch Gruffydd is killed fighting against Norman invaders1136EuropeHildegard von Bingen Becomes Abbess1137South AsiaDeath of Rāmānuja, Indian philosopherJuly 1137EuropeEleanor of Aquitaine marries Louis VII, king of France, significantly increasing the size of France by adding her land holdings to the kingdom1139EuropePope Innocent II prohibits the use of the crossbow in Christian Europe1139EuropeHebrew poet, physician, and philosopher Judah ha-Levi writes his Book of the Kuzari1139-1185EuropeReign of Afonso I, king of Portugal1140’sAfricaArab geographer and cartographer al-Idrīsī produces a globe and maps of the world at the court of Roger II, king of Sicily1140-1150EuropeAbbot Suger reforms the architecture of Saint-Denis outside Paris and furnishes it with newly commissioned artworks1141Central AsiaBattle of Qatwan: Seljuks are defeated in a clash with the nascent Karakitai Empire near Samarqand1142-1180EuropeHenry the Lion is duke of Saxony and Bavaria1143EuropePortugal becomes an independent state under the leadership of Afonso I1143-1180Middle EastReign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus1145East AsiaKim Pu-sik Writes Samguk Sagi, Korea’s first written historiesc. 1145EuropePrester John Myth Sweeps Across Europe1145-1232EuropeAlmohad Berbers from the south overcome the Almoravids in northern Africa and Islamic Spain1147-1149EuropeSecond Crusade is prompted by Muslim conquest of the principality of Edessa in 1144, unsuccessfully led by the kings of France and Germany1147-1186EuropeSicilian-Byzantine wars: Byzantines fail to reconquer southern Italy and SicilyAfter 1148EuropeDeath of Anna Comnena, Byzantine princess and historianc. 1150EuropeMoors Transmit Classical Philosophy and Medicine to Europec. 1150EuropeRefinements in Banking1150EuropeVenetian Merchants Dominate Trade with the East1150AmericasInhabitants of Chaco Canyon abandon their settlements during a long drought1150-1160EuropeGerman mystic and Benedictine abbess Hildegard von Bingen is writing hymns, canticles, and morality playsc. 1150-1200EuropeDevelopment of Gothic Architecture allows higher cathedral ceilings and more numerous windows filled with stained glass, leading to some of the most breathtaking architecture in Europec. 1150-1200EuropeRise of the Hansa Merchant Union: The Hanseatic League dominates trade in the Baltic and becomes the northern European hub for world trade1152EuropeFrederick Barbarossa Is Elected King of Germany, reigns as Holy Roman Emperor until 11901153East AsiaJin Move Their Capital to Beijing1153-1186South AsiaConstruction in Sri Lanka of the Parakrama Samudra, a huge artificial lake for irrigation and one of the greatest feats of engineering in the world1154-1159EuropeAdrian IV is pope1154-1204EuropeAngevin Empire Is Established: Henry II, the first Plantagenet, reigns in England (1154-1189) and reforms English law and its enforcement; Eleanor of Aquitaine reigns as queen, adding her domains in France to England’s holdings; the empire dissolves on her death in 1204 when their weak son King John cannot hold the empire together1155EuropeCharter of Lorris Is Written1156East AsiaThe Hōgen disturbance in Japan, between the Minamoto (Genji) and Taira (Heike) clans, inaugurates the decline of FujiwarasSept. 17, 1156EuropeAustria Emerges as a National Entity1156-1192East AsiaMinamoto Yoritomo Becomes Shogun: establishes bakufu, government by warrior chieftains (shoguns) or their regents, which will endure for seven centuries1157-1182EuropeValdemar I the Great reigns during Denmark’s golden agec. 1159EuropeGeographer Benjamin of Tudela embarks on his journey to Baghdad1159-1181EuropeAlexander III is pope1160EuropeDeath of the religious mystic Christina of Markyate1160’sEuropeMarie de France is composing her Lais1167EuropeFoundation of the Nemanjid Dynasty: emergence of an independent Serbia under Stefan Nemanja1167-1183EuropeWars of the Lombard League result in free government of Lombard cities and their retention of the royal revenue1169-1172EuropeNormans Invade Ireland: English incursions into Ireland will last for more than four centuries1170EuropeWhile acting as Venetian ambassador in Constantinople, Enrico Dandolo is blinded on order of the Byzantine emperorDec. 29, 1170EuropeMurder of Thomas Becket, English statesman and archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury Cathedral1171AfricaSaladin establishes the Ayyūbid Dynasty in Syria and Egypt1171EuropeAverroës (Ibn Rushd) becomes physician to Alomoravid caliph Abū Yaՙqūb Yūsuf in Marrakech1174-1178EuropeAfter it was destroyed by fire, Canterbury Cathedral is rebuilt in a distinctly English architectural stylec. 1175AmericasThe major city Tula, in central Mexico, is destroyed by peoples from northern Mexicoc. 1175Central and South AsiaIn Punjab, Ghūrid Turks defeat the Ghaznavids1175East AsiaHōnen Shōnin Founds Pure Land Buddhismc. 1175EuropeWaldensian Excommunications Usher in Protestant Movement1175-1206South AsiaConquests of Muḥammad of Ghor, laying the groundwork for Islamic rule in IndiaMay 29, 1176EuropeBattle of Legnano: Lombard League defeats Frederick I Barbarossa1179-1223EuropeReign of Philip II Augustus, the first French monarch referred to as King of France (rather than “of the Franks”)c. 1180EuropeChrétien de Troyes Writes Perceval1180’sEast AsiaSaigyo, a Buddhist monk, composes three volumes of poetry known as the Sankashu (mountain hermitage)1180-1185East AsiaIn the Gempei War, the Minamoto clan defeats the Taira clan and establishes the bakufu (shogunate) government in Kamakurac. 1180-1230AfricaExpansion of the Soso Kingdom under the Kante Dynasty, which absorbs much of ancient Ghanac. 1181-1221AfricaLalibela Founds the Christian Capital of Ethiopiac. 1181-1243Southeast AsiaIn Khmer, Jayavarman VII builds the city of Angkor Thom, supporting Mahayana Buddhism with the Bayon temple1183EuropePeace of Constance allows Frederick I Barbarossa to extend direct imperial administration throughout Tuscany1184-1212EuropeReign of Queen Tamara, Georgian queen1185-1208EuropeSaxo Grammaticus composes his history of the Danes, Gesta DanorumJuly 4, 1187Middle EastBattle of Hattin: Saladin’s forces capture this walled city, prompting the Third Crusade1189-1192EuropeThird Crusade: The participation of Richard I helps to restore some Christian possessions, including Acre and Cyprus but not Jersalem1189-1199EuropeReign of Richard I, king of Englandc. 1190EuropeHartmann von Aue composes the first German Arthurian romance, Erec1190EuropeMoses Maimonides Writes The Guide of the Perplexed1190’sEuropeAlexander Neckam becomes the first Scholastic theologian to teach at Oxford Universityc. 1190-1279East AsiaMa-Xia School of Painting Flourishes1191East AsiaEisai, a Buddhist monk, is teaching Zen Buddhism in Japan, marking the growth and influence of this form of Buddhism1192-1203Central and South AsiaThe Ghūrid Empire, headed by Muḥammad Ghūri, invades India, defeats the Rājputs, and sacks Buddhist monasteries1193Central and South AsiaTurkish Raiders Destroy Buddhist University at Nalanda1194EuropePope Celestine III issues Joachim of Fiore a charter to establish new monastery at San Giovanni in Fiore1196-1258East AsiaCh’oe Family Takes Power in Korea1198EuropePope Innocent III calls for the Fourth Crusadec. 1198-1200EuropeFrench musician Pérotin, a pioneer of Western music, is developing polyphonic forms1198-1216EuropeInnocent III is popeFeb. 9, 1199East AsiaDeath of Japanese shogun Minamoto Yoritomo1199EuropeBurgundian historian and military leader Geoffroi de Villehardouin joins the Fourth Crusade1199-1216EuropeReign of John, king of Englandc. 1200EuropeAs forged steel processes are refined, several European cities, including Sheffield, Brussels, and Toledo, emerge as swordmaking centersc. 1200AmericasIn North America, the southwestern Anasazi culture is destroyed, possibly by raiding Ute, Apache, Navajo, and Comanche tribesc. 1200EuropeCommon-Law Tradition Emerges in Englandc. 1200EuropeFairs of Champagne: Such international markets introduce Asian and other world goods into Europec. 1200EuropeScientific Cattle Breeding Developedc. 1200EuropeNicholas of Verdun produces the Klosterneuburg Altarpiece, an elaborate metalwork shrine in Cologne Cathedral considered the most important metal artwork of the Middle Agesc. 1200Australia/PacificPolynesians reach the Chatham Islands east of New Zealandc. 1200Australia/PacificConstruction begins on Nan Madol, a city on Pohnpei Island in Micronesia1200AmericasMoundville, on the Black Warrior River in Alabama, is one of the largest cities in North America at this time, producing ceramic, stone, and copper tools and implements1200AmericasIn New Mexico, people are living in cliff dwellings such as those at Mesa Verde; in Arizona, Snaketown is abandonedApr. 23, 1200East AsiaDeath of Confucian scholar Zhu XiEarly 13th c.East AsiaComposition of the Japanese war epic Heike monogatari (The Tale of the Heike), the tale of the Taira and Minamoto clans from the Hōgen disturbance in 1156 to the end of the Gempei War in 1185c. 1200-1210EuropeGerman poet Wolfram von Eschenbach writes his epic Parzifalc. 1200-1230AmericasManco Capac Founds the Inca State1200-1300Central AsiaTibetan monks translate 4,569 works in the Buddhist canon, which along with Chinese translations preserves India’s Buddhist doctrines1200-1482South AsiaKing Ari Malla founds the Malla Dynasty in the Kathmandu Valley; it will dominate the region until 1482c. 1200-1500Central and South AsiaDevelopment of the Urdu language, a combination of Persian, Arabic, and regional dialects13th c.AfricaThe Great Mosque of Kilwa begins construction in Tanzania and marks the flowering of Swahili architecture and powerful trade cities along the East African coast13th c.AfricaThe centralized city-state of Benin is founded by Edo-speaking people; kingship at Benin state is formalized in the thirteenth century, and by the mid-fifteenth century, under Oba (King) Ewuare the Great, Benin develops into an empire13th c.AfricaMuslim Soninke people found the major trade city of Jenne on the Niger Delta in West Africa, although Jenne’s founding has been dated as early as the eighth century, according to oral tradition13th c.AfricaNdiadiane N’diaye Founds the Wolof Empire in the region of modern Senegal13th c.East AsiaKorean printers complete the Buddhist Tripitaka Koreana13th c.EuropeRise of the guild system, in which groups formed by professional craftsmen begin to assume political as well as economic power, in turn leading to powerful city-states such as Venice and Florence13th c.EuropeThe cog, a large merchant vessel associated with the Hanseatic League, is developed in northern Europe13th-16th c.AfricaMali Empire: Through a series of successful military campaigns, the emperors of Mali created a massive kingdom stretching across a vast section of West Africa1202EuropeThe first great medieval European mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa), publishes Liber abaci (book of calculations), which popularizes the decimal system first devised in India1202-1241EuropeReign of Valdemar II, king of Denmark1204East and Central AsiaGenghis Khan Founds Mongol Empire1204EuropeKnights of the Fourth Crusade Capture Constantinople1206-1210South AsiaQuṭ al-Dīn Aybak Establishes the Delhi Sultanate1206-1526South AsiaWars of the Delhi Sultanate: struggles for hegemony in India result in Muslim dominationApr. 16, 1209EuropeFounding of the Franciscans1209-1229EuropeAlbigensian Crusade is led by Simon de Montfort1210Middle EastDeath of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, Muslim theologian and scholar1212EuropeChildren’s Crusade1212EuropeSaint Clare of Assisi receives the tonsure from Saint Francis of Assisi and settles at the nearby monastery of San Damiano, where she will establish the Poor Ladies of AssisiJuly 16, 1212EuropeBattle of Las Navas de Tolosa; the armies of Aragon and Castile defeat the Almohads, a turning point in the Reconquista, the campaign of Christian kingdoms to defeat Islamic rulec. 1213Middle East and Central AsiaMuslim historian and geographer Yaqut begins his travels through the Middle East and Central AsiaJuly 27, 1214EuropeBattle of Bouvines, during the German civil war of 1077-1214, establishes France as champion of the Catholic Church and sets a precedent for popular support of the monarchy1215East AsiaGenghis Khan captures Beijing during the Mongol invasion of China1215EuropeSaint Dominic establishes the Dominican monastic orderJune 15, 1215EuropeSigning of the Magna CartaNov. 11-30, 1215EuropeFourth Lateran Council reinforces the power of the Papacy and initiates the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade1215-1217EuropeEnglish civil war over absolute monarchy vs. baronial rule and English land in France results in King John’s victory and negotiation of the Magna Carta1216-1272EuropeReign of Henry III, king of England1217-1221Africa, Middle EastFifth Crusade: organized to attack the Islamic power base in Egypt, succeeds in capturing the port city of Damietta but ends in defeat1217-1276EuropeReign of James I the Conqueror, king of Spain1219EuropeWhile a student in Paris, Johannes de Muris begins writing his controversial treatise on musical notation, Ars novae musicae1219-1333East AsiaHōjō Family Dominates Shoguns, Rules Japanc. 1220EuropeSaint Elizabeth of Hungary establishes the first orphanage for homeless children in Central Europe1220’sEuropeWalther von der Vogelweide is writing poetry in Germany1220’sEuropeFranciscan theologian Saint Anthony of Padua is preaching to large crowds throughout Italy1220’sMiddle EastIbn al-ՙArabī formulates the doctrines of Sufism1220-1250EuropeReign of Frederick II, king of Sicily and Holy Roman Emperor1221Middle EastBattle of Eşfahān: Mongols retreat from Iran to Central Asia1221-1256Middle EastMongols invade and dominate Iran1221-1259AfricaMai Dunama Dibbalemi Expands Kanem Empire1223East AsiaDeath of Japanese sculptor Unkei1223-1252EuropeReign of Blanche of Castile, queen of Francec. 1225East AsiaDeath of Chinese painter Ma Yuan1225EuropeMathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) publishes his numbers theory in Liber quadratorum (the book of square numbers), dedicated to his patron, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II1225Southeast AsiaTran Thai Tong Establishes Tran Dynasty1225-1231Middle EastJalāl al-Dīn Expands the Khwārizmian Empire1226East AsiaBattle of Yellow River destroys the Western Xia kingdom and leaves the Song Dynasty vulnerable to Mongol attackOct. 3, 1226EuropeDeath of Saint Francis of Assisi1226-1270EuropeReign of Louis IX, king of France1227-1230Middle EastFrederick II Leads the Sixth Crusade1227-1241EuropeGregory IX is pope1227-1502Middle EastThe Golden Horde khanate rules the western Mongol Empire, stretching from the Caucasus Mountains and the Volga River Basin to the Irtysh River in Siberia1228EuropeWilliam of Auvergne becomes bishop of Paris1228-1229Middle EastIn what is sometimes referred to as the Sixth Crusade, the excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II sails to the Holy Land and negotiates a reoccupation of Jerusalem1228-1231EuropeTeutonic Knights Bring Baltic Region Under Catholic Control: in particular East Prussia, which, together with Brandenburg, forms the nucleus of the Prussian state1228-1454Middle EastThe Rasulid sultanate rules in Yemen1229-1574AfricaThe Hafsid Berbers replace the Almohads as the dominant force in northwestern Africa’s Maghribc. 1230EuropeGerman mystic Mechthild von Magdeburg leaves home to join the Beguines in Magdeburg1230EuropeUnification of Castile and León1230East AsiaDeath of Chinese painter Xia GuiAug. 10, 1230Middle EastBattle of Erzincan: Defeat of Jalāl al-Dīn ends his westward expansionc. 1230-1235EuropeSnorri Sturluson writes the Heimskringla, his chronicle of the kings of Norway1230’s-1255AfricaReign of Sundiata of Mali1231East AsiaThe Koryō Dynasty is forced into exile when the Mongols begin a series of invasions into the Korean peninsula1232-1492EuropeThe Nasrid Dynasty rules Granada but becomes a vassal to northern Christian states by 1243; the Nasrids build the Alhambra, the last major monument to Islam on the Iberian Peninsula1233East AsiaThe Jin capital at Kaifeng surrenders to the Mongols1233EuropePapal Inquisitionc. 1235EuropeHenry de Bracton writes his treatise on English common law, De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae1235AfricaBattle of Kirina: Sundiata of Mali defeats Sumanguru of Ghana1236-1240South AsiaReign of Raziya, fifth sultan of Delhi1236-1242Europe, Middle East, AsiaThe Mongols make conquests in Russia, Eastern Europe, Iran, and TranscaucasiaJuly 15, 1240EuropeAlexander Nevsky Defends Novgorod from Swedish InvadersApr. 11, 1241EuropeBattle of Sajó River, during the third Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe1243Middle EastBattle of Köse Dagh: fall of the Seljuks to the Il-Khanids1243-1254EuropeInnocent IV is pope1243-1295Southeast AsiaReign of Jayavarman VIII and restoration of Hinduism in the Khmer nation1244Middle EastMuslim Turks retake Jerusalem from Christian CrusadersApr. 16, 1245EuropeFranciscan missionary Giovanni da Pian del Carpini leaves Lyon to lead a mission to the Mongols in Kiev, three thousand miles away1248-1254Middle EastFailure of the Seventh Crusade1248-1257EuropeSaint Bonaventure is writing his theological works1249-1250Middle EastBattle of Mansura (Al Manṣūrah), ground battle in the Seventh Crusade: King Louis IX’s forces are routed, and Louis is taken for ransom1249-1286EuropeAlexander III of Scotland unifies mainland ScotlandLate 13th c.Australia/PacificMaoris Hunt Moa to Extinction in New Zealandc. 1250EuropeImprovements in Shipbuilding and Navigationc. 1250AmericasChichén Itzá is abandoned as a population center but remains a destination for Mayan pilgrimsc. 1250AmericasThe Toltecs conquer the major religious and cultural center at Cholula, east of the Mexican Basin1250AmericasThe Hohokam settlement of Casas Grandes, in northern Chihuahua, undergoes major construction, including ballcourts, wells, and a sewer system1250’sMiddle EastMuslim poet Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī composes Sufi lyrics of Dīwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzc. 1250-1300EuropeHomosexuality Criminalized and Subject to Death Penaltyc. 1250-1532AmericasThe Inca Empire conquers Chanca, Chincha, Chinchasuyu, Chimor, and other Andean states, creating the largest indigenous state in the Western Hemisphere, with an estimated thirteen million inhabitantsFeb./Mar. 1252East AsiaDeath of Mongolian princess and kingmaker Sorghaghtani Beki1252-1284EuropeReign of Alfonso X, king of Castile and León1252-1517Middle EastThe Mamlūk sultans, former slaves to the declining Ayyūbids, assume rule in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula, defeating the Crusaders at the end of the thirteenth century and becoming the most important Islamic power of the Middle Ages1253-1254EuropeDutch geographer William of Rubrouck is traveling through Central Asia1254-1273EuropeGreat Interregnum: The Holy Roman Empire loses its authority over Italy as the Papacy invites Charles of Anjou to establish Angevin power in southern Italy and Sicily1255EuropeBirger Jarl, regent of the Swedish crown, founds the city of Stockholm1256Middle EastMedina’s mosque is destroyed by fire1256EuropeFrench theologian William of Saint-Amour writes De periculis novissimorum temporum1257-1258Middle EastThe Persian writer Shaykh Saՙdi writes The Orchard and The Rose1257-1266EuropeRoger Bacon is in Paris teaching mathematics, perspective, and philosophy and conducting scientific investigations1257-1299EuropeThe republics of Venice and Genoa battle for control of trade routes and ports in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea; although neither side clearly defeats the other, Venice proves more resilient and Genoa never recovers1258Middle EastIl-Khanid Mongols sack the Islamic capital, Baghdad, and murder the caliph al-Mustaՙṣim, ending the ՙAbbāsid caliphate—a major blow to Islamic civilization1258EuropeProvisions of Oxford Are Established1259Southeast AsiaMangrai Founds the Kingdom of Lan NaSept. 3, 1260Middle EastBattle of Ain Jālūt: Mongols invade Syria and capture Damascus but are defeated by Mamlūk slave cavalry1260-1277Middle EastReign of Baybars I, sultan of Egypt and Syria1260-1278EuropeWilliam of Moerbeke translates Aristotle’s works1260-1294East AsiaReign of the Mongol Kublai Khan, who moves his capital to Beijing and establishes the Yuan Dynasty1260-1315EuropeNicola and Giovanni Pisano are creating cathedral sculptures in northern and central Italy1261Middle EastByzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus retakes Constantinople from the Venetians, who had captured the city in 1204, but the Byzantine Empire will never regain its former power1261Europe, AsiaCivil war between Il-Khanate of Persia and the Golden Horde of Russia begins1262-1288EuropeSalimbene writes his Chronicle1263EuropeJewish scholar and physician Naḥmanides is forced to debate a Dominican friar as a stratagem to convert him to Christianity; despite the rigged and unfair restrictions of the debate, Naḥmanides rebuts the Dominican’s claims and defeats him1263-1265EuropeBarons’ War over baronial participation in English government; royalist victory results in restoration of King Henry III1264EuropeDeath of Vincent of Beauvais, French scholar and historianc. 1265-1273EuropeThomas Aquinas Compiles the Summa TheologicaFeb. 26, 1266EuropeBattle of Benevento: Charles of Anjou conquers Sicily, establishing Angevin rule1268EuropeDeath of Flemish mystic Beatrice of Nazareth1269EuropePetrus Peregrinus de Maricourt publishes his treatise on the properties and uses of magnetism1269-1270AfricaEighth Crusade is organized by a now elderly Louis IX, who dies upon landing in Tunisia1269-1465AfricaThe Marinid Dynasty conquers the Maghrid and ends Almohad rule in northwestern Africa1270-1272Middle EastEdward I, the son of Henry III of England, decides to press on alone to Palestine after the French abandon the Eighth Crusade and achieves some modest success with a truce before the ultimate fall of Acre, the last bastion of the Crusader states, in 12911270-1277EuropeSiger of Brabant is condemned by the Church for his heretical teaching of Averroistic doctrines and finally flees Paris for Rome1270-1285AfricaYekuno Amlak Founds the Solomonid Dynasty: The Solomonic period is a golden age of trade and cultural exchange for Ethiopia and the surrounding region1271-1276EuropeGregory X is pope1271-1295Europe, Mideast, and AsiaTravels of Marco Polo1272-1307EuropeReign of Edward I, king of England1273EuropeCatalan mystic Raymond Lull writes his Book of Contemplation1273Middle EastSufi Order of Mawlawīyah Is Established1273-1291EuropeReign of Rudolf I, Holy Roman Emperor1274-1278EuropeHabsburg-Bohemian War: Rudolf’s victory results in establishment of the Habsburg Dynasty in Austria1274, 1281East AsiaThe Mongols attempt naval invasions of Japan but are forced to retreat by devastating typhoons1275EuropeFirst Mechanical Clock1275East AsiaNestorian Archbishopric Is Founded in Beijingc. 1275EuropeThe Zohar Is Transcribed1275EuropeTheoleptus of Philadelphia retires as a monk to Mount Athos in northeastern Greece, where he practices a form of prayer and spirituality known as HesychasmJan. 6, 1275EuropeDeath of Spanish religious scholar Raymond of Peñafortc. 1276-1277EuropeAdam de la Halle writes his play Jeu d’AdamNov. 15, 1280EuropeDeath of Saint Albertus Magnus, German philosopher, theologian, and scientistc. 1280-1300EuropeGuido Cavalcanti is writing love poetry in the “sweet new style”c. 1281/88-1326Middle EastReign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman EmpireNov. 14, 1282East AsiaDeath of Japanese monk Nichirenc. 1284EuropeArnolfo di Cambio becomes Florence’s capomaestro, or chief architect1284EuropeThe 64-meter-high vault of the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre Beauvais collapses, revealing limits to the height of Gothic cathedrals1285EuropeStatute of Winchester1285-1314EuropeReign of Philip IV the Fair, king of France1290-1306EuropeJews Are Expelled from England, France, and Southern Italyc. 1290-1326Middle EastReign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire in northwestern Anatolia1290-1388EuropeAnglo-Scottish wars produce Scottish independence until the seventeenth centuryApr. 1291Middle EastFall of Acre, Palestine marks the end of the Crusader kingdom in PalestineAug. 1291EuropeThe principalities of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden sign a written alliance for mutual defense; it will form the basis for the state of SwitzerlandDec. 8, 1292EuropeDeath of John Pecham, archbishop of Canterbury1293-1310Southeast AsiaRise of kingdom of Majapahit in Java, which emerges in the fight against the Mongols1294EuropeEdward I of England attacks La Rochelle; in response, Philip IV seizes the English duchy of Aquitaine1295EuropeModel Parliament establishes broad political representation in England1295Southeast AsiaRamkhamhaeng Conquers the Mekong and Menam Valleys1295-1304Middle EastReign of Maḥmūd Ghāzān, Mongol il-khan of Iran1296EuropeFranciscans found the church of Santa Croce in Florence1296-1316South AsiaReign of ՙAlā՚-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī, Khaljī sultan of DelhiSept. 11, 1297EuropeBattle of Stirling Bridge: William Wallace defeats the English in this battle in the Anglo-Scottish warsJuly 22, 1298EuropeBattle of Falkirk: English defeat William Wallace1299South AsiaՙAlā-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī Conquers GujaratDec. 22, 1299Middle EastBattle of Homs: Ghāzān defeats the Mamlūks1290’s-c. 1310EuropeArnold of Villanova develops alcohol distillation and writes numerous medical treatises1300AmericasThe mound-builder city of Etowah, in northeastern Georgia, dominates the region1300East AsiaJapanese sword makers create the katana, a curved sword used by samurai warriorsc. 1300AmericasDistinct tribal identities among North American indigenous peoples develop in response to the increasing importance of agriculture and sedentary culturesc. 1300EuropeEarly oil painting on a Norwegian church altar heralds the refinement and proliferation of the technique a century laterc. 1300-1350EuropeAlbanians migrate southward from the Balkans into central Greece1300’sEuropeThe population of France is estimated to be about 20 million, far greater than that of Germany (14 million) or England (only 4 million)c. 1300-1400Central and South AsiaNepalese artists begin to influence Tibetan art14th c.AfricaThe semilegendary founder of Benin and Oyo, Prince Oranmiyan, flourishes in West Africa14th c.EuropeThe carrack, an efficient sailing ship with multiple masts, becomes popular in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters14th-15th c.EuropeThe increasing predominance of firearms in Europe results in the diminishing use of archers in warfareJuly 11, 1302EuropeBattle of Courtrai: The eight-year battle between England’s Edward I and France’s Philip IV ends when the count of Flanders, an English ally, defeats PhilipJuly 27, 1302Middle EastBattle of Bapheus: first battle of the Byzantine-Ottoman wars; the Byzantines attempt to meet the challenge of Ottoman power but are defeatedNov. 18, 1302EuropeBoniface VIII Issues the Bull Unam Sanctam1302-1461Europe, Middle EastByzantine-Ottoman wars test whether the reduced Byzantine Empire can defend itself against the growing Ottoman Empire, marking the rise of Ottoman domination of Balkans and Middle East1304EuropeGiotto begins painting his frescoes in Padua1305EuropeDietrich von Freiberg investigates rainbows to understand reflection and refraction1305-1307EuropeScholastic theologian John Duns Scotus is teaching in Paris1305-1417EuropeAvignon Papacy and the Great SchismBefore 1306EuropeMarguerite Porete writes The Mirror of Simple Soulsc. 1306East AsiaJapanese poet Nijō writes Towazugatari, or The Confessions of Lady Nijō, concerning her life at courtc. 1306-1320EuropeDante Writes The Divine Comedy1306-1329EuropeReign of Robert Bruce, king of Scotland1307-1327EuropeReign of Edward II, king of England1308-1330EuropeReign of Isabella of France, queen of England1309-1466EuropeTeutonic Knights’ wars with Poland: The Teutonic Order becomes the dominant power on the Baltic coastline1310-c. 1350EuropeWilliam of Ockham Attacks Thomist Ideas1312-1337AfricaReign of Mansa Mūsā, king of Mali1313-1357EuropeGhibelline-Guelph struggle for domination of Tuscany1314AfricaEmperor Amda Tseyon comes to power in Ethiopia, expanding the Solomonid DynastyJune 23-24, 1314EuropeBattle of Bannockburn: Robert I’s victory ensures Scottish independence1314-1325EuropeGerman civil war for control of the Holy Roman Empire: Wittelsbach victory confines the Habsburgs to their Austrian possessions1315EuropeSimone Martini produces his masterpiece, the Siena MaestàNov. 15, 1315EuropeSwiss Victory at Morgarten over Habsburg Forces1316-1334EuropeJohn XXII is pope1317-1329EuropeJewish rabbi and philosopher Levi ben Gershom writes The Wars of the Lordc. 1320Middle EastOrigins of the Bubonic Plague: The point of origin is contested but may be in Crimea, carried back to China by Mongol soldiers; epidemics begin to emerge in the 1330’s in China and spread west1320EuropePhilippe de Vitry produces his treatise on music, Ars nova1320-1328EuropeLuccan-Florentine war: In the Ghibelline-Guelph struggle for domination of Tuscany, a major setback for the Ghibellines1320-1334EuropeFrench painter Jean Pucelle is illuminating manuscripts in Paris1323-1326Southeast AsiaChampa Wins Independence from Dai Viet1323-1328EuropePeasants’ Revolt in Flanders1324EuropeAragon conquers SardiniaJuly 2, 1324EuropeLady Alice Kyteler Is Found Guilty of Witchcraft1324-1325AfricaMansa Mūsā’s Pilgrimage to Mecca Sparks Interest in Mali Empire1325-1355AfricaTravels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭah1325-c. 1400AmericasRise of the Kachina cult in the American Southwest1325-1519AmericasAztecs Build Tenochtitlán: Mexican people settle on a marshy island in the Basin of Mexico’s Lake Texcoco, building monuments to gods such as Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc1327-1369EuropeReign of Philippa of Hainaut, queen of England1327-1377EuropeReign of Edward III, king of England1328EuropePhilip VI, the first French king from the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty, ascends the French throne1328EuropeKing Edward III of England signs the Treaty of Northampton, formally recognizing Scottish sovereignty1328EuropeWilliam of Ockham challenges Church authority and upholds the rights of lay rulers1328-1350EuropeFlowering of Late Medieval Physics1329-1371EuropeReign of David II, king of ScotlandNov. 1330EuropeBasarab Defeats the Hungarians at the Battle of Posada1331EuropeSiege of Friuli in Italy is marked by early use of gunpowder weaponry on the battlefield1331-1355EuropeReign of Stefan Dušan, king of Serbia1333AfricaKilwa Kisiwani Begins Economic and Historical Decline1333-1370EuropeReign of Casimir the Great, king of Poland1333-1466EuropePolish wars of expansion: Poland comes into power, achieving access to trade ports and political dominance of eastern central Europe1334-1360EuropeThe bell tower at the Cathedral of Florence is built1335Middle EastIl-Khanate of Persia ends1336-1392East AsiaYoshino Civil Wars: Ashikaga Takauji ousts Emperor Go-Daigo from Kyoto, establishing the Northern Court in Japan as Go-Daigo takes refuge in the south at Yoshino and founds the Southern Court; thus begins the Muromachi period, a time of intense rivalry and warfare between competing warlords known as daimyo1337-1453EuropeHundred Years’ War: a series of military conflicts between France and England that resulted in France’s ultimate victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, a rise in nationalism in a more unified France, England’s withdrawal from its French holdings, and England’s emergence as a preeminent naval power1340AfricaAl-ՙUmarī Writes a History of AfricaJune 24, 1340EuropeBattle of Sluis: English fleet overcomes the French in this naval battle in the Hundred Years’ War1340’sEuropeJean Buridan is writing his commentaries on the works of Aristotlec. 1343South AsiaCompletion of Vijayanagar in southern India, one of the most lavishly appointed cities in the world, with palaces, temples, and huge gateways1346South AsiaMuslim armies raid the Kathmandu valley in Nepal, destroying images and templesAug. 26, 1346EuropeBattle of Crécy: Key battle in the Hundred Years’ War, notable for the use of longbows by the English to defeat French knights; also marked the role of gunpowder artillery. English victory at Crécy foreshadowed the decline of the mounted knight and a greater emphasis on missile warfareOct. 17, 1346EuropeBattle of Neville’s Cross: English defeat David II and the Scots1346-1381EuropeHungarian-Venetian wars: Hungary gains Dalmatia1347EuropeSiege of Calais ends when the English capture this city on the French coast of the English Channel, after a yearlong siege1347South AsiaՙAlā՚-ud-Dīn Bahman Shāh Founds the Bahmanī Sultanate1347-1352EuropeInvasion of the Black Death in Europe: Traveling on flea-infested rats from the east, the plague erupts first in Constantinople and then travels west to Italy and north throughout Europe for the next three years, killing a third of the population; more than any other natural event, this epidemic shaped Europe for centuries, not only economically, as labor shortages gave rise to a new middle class, but also religiously and politically, as social reforms were instituted to cope with the epidemic’s aftermath1347-1354EuropeCola di Rienzo Leads Popular Uprising in Romec. 1350AmericasMixtecs and Zapotecs intermarry to extend their territories in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valleyc. 1350Australia/PacificOn the islands of central Vanuatu (New Hebrides) in the southwestern Pacific, the legendary king Roy Mata is in power, as evidenced by a burial site containing his body and shell artifacts1350AmericasEastern Woodland culture, characterized by religious practices and artifacts displaying warrior, bird-man, and serpent imagery, flourishes in eastern North America1350Southeast AsiaRamathibodi I Creates First Thai Legal System1350-55, 1378-80EuropeMore Venetian-Genoese battles for control of trade routes and ports in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea; Venice thrives while Genoa declinesc. 1350-1400EuropePetrarch and Boccaccio Recover Classical Texts, leading to the emergence of Humanism and laying a foundation for the Renaissance1352-1434Southeast AsiaKhmer-Thai wars: Siamese attempts to exert political dominance over Cambodia cause the decline of the Khmer Empire1353-1373Southeast AsiaFa Ngum founds the Lan Xang, a kingdom that controls Laos and parts of Thailand1354EuropeOttoman Turks capture the Byzantine fortress of Gallipoli and begin expansion into the Balkans1354EuropeAndrea Orcagna is commissioned by Strozzi family to paint an altarpiece in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Christ Conferring Authority on Saints Peter and Thomas Aquinas1355-1378EuropeReign of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor1356EuropeGolden Bull: Charles IV reiterates the power of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, thus limiting German unitySept. 19, 1356EuropeBattle of Poitiers: English defeat the French and capture the French king John II, who is held prisoner in England until 13601358-1384Middle EastPersian poet Hafiz is composing his ghazal1360EuropeTreaty of Brétigny: England gains Calais and nearly the whole of Aquitaine1360EuropeJean de Venette records the trauma of plague and war during his times in his Chroniconc. 1360-1406Middle EastJalayirid Dynasty rules Iraq and northwestern Iran after the collapse of the Il-Khansc. 1360-1440East AsiaKan’ami and Zeami Perfect Nō Drama1361-1370EuropeDanish wars with the Hanseatic League: The League maintains its supremacy in the Baltic region1363EuropeGuy de Chauliac completes his treatise on surgery, Chirurgia magna1366EuropeStatute of Kilkenny1368Southeast AsiaBurmese civil wars for provincial supremacy of Burma begin; Burma is united by 15551368East AsiaEstablishment of the Ming Dynasty: The native Chinese population reasserts itself, burning the Mongol palaces of the Yuan Dynasty in Beijing1368Central AsiaTibet Gains Independence from Mongols1369EuropeA sense of national identity begins to form in the Low Countries (Netherlands) with the marriage of Margaret of Flanders to Philip the Bold of Burgundy, inaugurating more than a century of Burgundian rule of the region1369-1388EuropePortuguese-Castilian war over reciprocal claims by Portugal and Castile to each other’s thrones; mutual independence is assured for Portugal and Castile, and Portugal and England begin a long alliancec. 1371AmericasIn Mexico, Tezozomoc becomes king at Azcapotzalco and takes control of Tenochtitlán, naming Acamapichtli as its king1371EuropeBattle of Marica: Turks defeat the Serbians and Bulgarians1371-1529Southeast AsiaThai kingdom and the provinces of Ayutthaya and Chiengmai struggle for dominance1373-1410EuropeJean Froissart Compiles His Chronicles1375Middle EastThe Armenian kingdom of Cilicia, in southern Anatolia, falls to the Mamlūks1376AfricaIbn Khaldūn abandons his political career to live among North Africa’s nomadic tribes and write1376EuropeCatherine of Siena travels to Avignon to urge the pope to return to Rome1377Southeast AsiaThe Majapahit kingdom conquers Palembang in Sumatra, ending Śrivijayan dominance1377AfricaIbn Khaldūn Completes His MuqaddimahApr.?, 1377EuropeDeath of Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and composer of polyphonic music1377-1378EuropeCondemnation of John Wyclif1377-1399EuropeReign of Richard II, king of England1378-1419EuropeReign of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemiac. 1380South AsiaCompilation of the Wise Sayings of Lal DedSept. 8, 1380EuropeBattle of Kulikovo: defeat of the Mongols by Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy of MoscowMay-June 1381EuropePeasants’ Revolt in England, led by Wat TylerJuly 15, 1381EuropeJohn Ball is executed near St. Albans Abbey for his part in Wat Tyler’s Peasants’ Revolt1381-1405Middle EastTamerlane’s Conquests: After establishing Timurid rule in Central Asia, Tamerlane gains control over most of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia, as well as southern Russia and India1382-1395South AsiaReign of Sthitimalla1382-1516Middle EastIn the Mamlūk sultanate, the Burjī sultans, Circassian military elites, replace the Baḥrī line1384-1399EuropeReign of Władysław II Jagiełło and Jadwiga, king and queen of Poland1385-1499EuropeAustro-Swiss wars: Swiss victory secures the de facto independence of Switzerlandc. 1387East AsiaChinese Create the Eight-Legged Essay1387-1400EuropeChaucer Writes The Canterbury Tales1387-1412EuropeReign of Margaret, queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden1389EuropeBattle of Falköping: Margaret’s forces were victorious in this battle of the Swedish civil warJune 28, 1389EuropeTurkish Conquest of Serbia: Battle of Kosovo1389-1402Middle EastReign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, who will defeat Tamerlane and the Timurids1391EuropeJews on the Iberian Peninsula are persecuted and massacredc. 1392Central AsiaFoundation of the Gelugpa Order of Buddhist monksJuly 1392East AsiaEstablishment of the Yi DynastySept. 25, 1396Middle EastBattle of Nicopolis: European Christians fail to drive back the Muslim Turks, leaving them in control of the Balkans1397East AsiaPublication of the Laws of Great MingJune 17, 1397EuropeKalmar Union Is Formed: Sweden, Norway, and Denmark are unitedDec. 17, 1399South AsiaBattle of Pānīpat, major battle during Tamerlane’s invasion of India1399-1404Central AsiaTamerlane Builds the Bibi Khanum Mosque in Samarqand1399-1413EuropeReign of Henry IV, king of Englandc. 1400AmericasThe Mayan codexes are being createdc. 1400AmericasIn Mexico, the population of the Tarascan state grows to about 35,000, centered on its capital at Tzintzuntzan1400AfricaThe Kongo kingdom becomes central Africa’s largest state, with its capital at Mbanza1400AmericasIn southeastern North America, Moundville, Etowah, and Spiro are in decline1400EuropeIceland enters a five-century period of decline following natural disasters, climate change, disease, and depleted resourcesOct. 25?, 1400EuropeDeath of Geoffrey Chaucerc. 1400-1401Middle EastTamerlane’s armies burn and loot Aleppo and Damascus in Syria and Baghdad in Iraq1400-1402East AsiaZeami Motokiyo writes his first treatise on the aesthetics of Nō drama, Fūshikaden1400-1403EuropeChristine de Pizan composes Le Livre de la mutacion de fortune and Le Livre du chemin de long éstude1400-1409EuropeGlendower’s Revolt: This struggle for Welsh independence from England results in English victory and Welsh submission, impoverishment, and social restructuringAug. 20, 1400-11EuropeGerman civil war: Wenceslaus of Bohemia wins this struggle for the Holy Roman Empire and the Rhine-Main area of Germany, but his power continues to decline, enabling his brother Sigismund to replace him as king1400-1500AfricaFoundation of the West African States of Benin15th c.EuropeThe Medici merchant-banker family rules Florence, exerting not only economic and political but also cultural influence stemming from their patronage of the artsJuly 28, 1402Central AsiaBattle of Ankara: Tamerlane defeats Bayezid I1402-1421Middle EastMehmed I reestablishes a unified Ottoman state after the death of his father Bayezid I1402-1424East AsiaReign of Chinese Ming emperor Yonglo is marked by five military campaigns, the development of porcelains and textiles, and the proliferation of Buddhist influence1403-1407East AsiaYonglo Dadian Encyclopedia Is Compiled1404-1406Southeast AsiaMalacca emerges as the most important trading center on the Malay Peninsula1405Central AsiaDeath of Tamerlane1405-1433East AsiaZheng He’s Naval Expeditions1406EuropePisa falls to Florencec. 1406-1408East AsiaIn Beijing, work begins on the Forbidden City1406-1428East AsiaThe Chinese take control of Vietnam1408EuropeDonatello sculpts his bronze David1409-1419Central AsiaGelugpa Buddhists build three major monasteries in Lhasa: Ganden in 1409, Drepung in 1416, and Sera in 14191409-1613EuropeKalmar wars: Sweden achieves independenceJuly 15, 1410EuropeBattle of Tannenberg: marks the decline of the Teutonic Knights and the rise of Polish influence in the Balticc. 1410-1440EuropeFlorentine School of Art Emerges1413-1422EuropeReign of Henry V, king of England1414-1418EuropeCouncil of Constance ends the Great SchismJuly 6, 1415EuropeMartyrdom of Jan HusOct. 25, 1415EuropeBattle of Agincourt: English rout the French in the first of a string of English victories in the Hundred Years’ War1415-1460EuropePrince Henry the Navigator Promotes Portuguese Exploration: Portuguese establish contact along West African coast1417East AsiaThe Confucian texts known as the Great Compendium of the Philosophy of Human Nature appear; with the Five Classics and the Four Books, they set the standard for Chinese scholarship1418-1450East AsiaThe reign of the Yi Dynasty emperor Sejong is marked by the creation of a written Korean language1419-1436EuropeHussite wars: Prompted by the martyrdom of Jan Hus, a Bohemian civil war in which Czech Hussites, nationalist followers of Hus, attack clerics and churchesc. 1420AmericasCozumel, an island off the coast of Yucatan, becomes a destination for women seeking to worship the Mayan fertility goddess Ixchel1420’sEuropeThe works of Masaccio, the foremost painter of the early fifteenth century, mark the transition from medieval to Renaissance art1423EuropeBattle of Cravant: English defeat French1423EuropeAppearance of the earliest dated woodcut, depicting Saint Christopher1423-1454EuropeVenetian-Milanese wars result in a strong Venetian mainland with protected routes to European markets and long-term peace between Venice and Milan1424EuropeBattle of Verneuil: English defeat Frenchc. 1425EuropeThe corning, or granulating, process is developed to grind gunpowder into smaller grains1425AmericasGrowth of the Zuni villages of New Mexico1425-1462EuropeRussian civil war determines principle of succession from father to son1426-1435East AsiaReign of the Ming emperor Xuande, known for his patronage of the artsc. 1427EuropeThomas à Kempis writes The Imitation of Christ1427Southeast AsiaBattle of Chi Lang Pass: Vietnam is liberated1427?-1440AmericasReign of Itzcóatl, king of the Aztecs: The Aztec Empire begins when the Mexica of Tenochtitlán form the Triple Alliance with Tlacopan and Texcoco and defeat Azcapotzalco1428East and Southeast AsiaLe Loi Establishes Later Le DynastyMay 4-8, 1429EuropeJoan of Arc’s Relief of Orléans1429EuropeAlain Chartier writes about Joan of Arc in Epistola de Puella1430EuropePhilip the Good creates the Order of the Golden Fleece, which he awards to nobles in the Low Countries as a means of uniting them politically under his Burgundian control1430’sEuropeFlorentine painter Fra Angelico is painting his Annunciation1430’sEuropeThe Van Eyck brothers are painting their masterpiece, a polyptych known as The Ghent Altarpiecec. 1430’s-1450EuropeLeonello d’Este establishes Ferrara as a major center for Humanism and the arts1431Southeast AsiaThe Khmer Empire falls to Thais after they sack AngkorMay 30, 1431EuropeJoan of Arc is burned for heresy1431-1447EuropeEugene IV is pope1431-1449EuropeThe Council of Basel rejects and weakens papal authority in the wake of scandals over church corruption; the Church is in a state of crisis, which paves the way for the Reformationc. 1435-1464EuropeArchitect Leon Battista Alberti writes his influential treatises on painting, architecture, and sculpturec. 1436EuropeEnglish mystic Margery Kempe dictates her memoirs, The Book of Margery Kempe1436EuropeFilippo Brunelleschi completes his revolutionary dome for the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence1438-1769East and Southeast AsiaBurmese-Chinese wars: Border ambiguity gives rise to this conflict, but both sides tire of war, sign a treaty, and resume peaceful trade1439-1459EuropeFrederick III of Habsburg is elected Holy Roman Emperor; during his reign, the German principalities will become increasingly independent1440EuropeDonation of Constantine Is Exposedc. 1440-1480AfricaOba Ewedo rules Benin, establishing a highly centralized, autocratic form of government and devising new military weapons and tactics1442-1456EuropeJános Hunyadi Defends Hungary Against the Ottomans1443-1468AfricaThe Tuareg, a group of nomadic, semisedentary tribes and slave traders, take control of Timbuktu and Gao1443-1478Middle East, EuropeAlbanian-Turkish wars: Albania becomes part of the Ottoman EmpireNov. 10, 1444HungaryBattle of Varna: Murad defeats János Hunyadi and Władysław1444-1446EuropeAlbanian Chieftains Unite Under Prince Skanderbeg1447EuropeVisconti rule of Milan ends with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti and the ascension of the Sforza family1447-1450EuropePope Nicholas V’s Roman Jubilee year (1450) is preceded by massive building and renovation projects, including the Senators’ Palace on Capitoline Hill, the Vatican Palace, and an expansion of Saint Peter’s1448-1471EuropeBohemian civil war over control of the Bohemian crown1448-1471EuropeSweden breaks from Denmark and Norway and becomes independentc. 1450EuropeGutenberg Pioneers the Printing Press: The ability to print and publish a broad variety of documents, combined with the rise in use of vernacular languages, has a revolutionary impact on European civilization and helps lay a foundation for the Reformation and the proliferation of Humanist thought1450AfricaSonghai incorporates the former kingdom of Mali and becomes one of the largest empires in Africa1450EuropeBattle of Formigny: French defeat English and Normandy becomes French territory1450-1550East AsiaJapanese civil wars for control of Japanese provinces eventually lead to consolidation of power on a national scale1451-1481Middle EastReign of the great Ottoman sultan Mehmed II1452EuropeFlorentine sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti completes work on the bronze doors of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence1452EuropeThe great Renaissance artist and engineer Leonardo da Vinci is born in Tuscany1453EuropeEnglish Are Driven from France after the Battle of Castillon, marking the virtual end of English possessions on the Continent and the end of the Hundred Years’ WarMay 29, 1453EuropeFall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the ascendancy of the Muslim-Turkish Ottoman Empire