Time Line for Summary

  • Last updated on November 11, 2022

A time line of important events during the Middle Ages.

Date Region Event 5th-6th c. East Asia Confucianism Arrives in Japan 455 Europe Vandals sack Rome c. 456 Europe Saint Patrick begins his missionary work in Ireland 476-493 Europe Reign of Odoacer, first barbarian king of Italy 481-511 Europe Reign of Clovis, king of the Franks 484 Central and South Asia White Huns Raid India 493-511 Europe Reign of Saint Clotilda, queen consort of France 493-1364 Europe and Middle East Bulgarian-Byzantine wars for control of the area south of the Danube River and the border between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarian kingdom 495-516 Europe Battle of Mount Badon puts a stop to Anglo-Saxon expansion 496 Europe Baptism of Clovis 499 South Asia Āryabhaṭa the Elder writes his magnum opus on mathematics and astronomy, The Aryabhatiya 500-534 Europe Burgundian-Frankish wars for control of Burgundy c. 500-1000 Africa Rise of Swahili Cultures c. 500-1000 Americas Tiwanaku Civilization Flourishes in Andean Highlands 6th-8th c. Central Asia Sogdians Dominate Central Asian Trade Aug. 502-591 Europe and Middle East Byzantine-Persian wars for control of Asia between the Bosporus and beyond the Euphrates River Feb. 2, 506 Europe Alaric II Drafts the Breviarum Alarici 507 Europe Clovis defeats the Visigoths at Vouillé and unifies Gaul 524 Europe Imprisonment and Death of Boethius 526 Europe Priscian writes Institutiones grammaticae Before 527 Central Asia Translator and church historian Dionysius Exiguus devises the Christian-based calendar 527-548 Europe Reign of Theodora, Byzantine empress 529 Europe Saint Benedict of Nursia founds the Benedictine monastic order at Monte Cassino in southern Italy 529-534 Middle East Justinian’s Code Is Compiled: Justinian definitively codifies Roman law, wages war against the Germans and Persians, and changes the nature of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire to an absolute monarchy 531-579 Middle East Reign of Khosrow I, king of Persia 532-537 Middle East Building of Hagia Sophia 534-535 Europe Reign of Amalasuntha, queen of the Ostrogoths 534-554 Europe Gothic wars for control of the Italian peninsula 538-552 East Asia Buddhism Arrives in Japan 543-1189 South Asia Cālukyan wars for control of southern India c. 550 East Asia The Tuque (T’u-chüeh), a Turkish steppe people, create a loose dominion north of China, stretching from Korea to Karashar July 552 Europe Battle of Taginae: Justinian’s general Narses defeats the Ostrogoths in Italy 563 Europe, Middle East, East Asia Silk Worms Are Smuggled to the Byzantine Empire 567-568 Central and South Asia Sāsānians and Turks Defeat the White Huns 567-597 Europe Reign of Fredegunde, queen of Neustria 568-571 Europe Lombard Conquest of Italy and reign of Alboin Late sixth c. Europe Irish abbess Saint Brigit makes Kildare a center of scholarship and a school of art Late sixth c. Europe Gregory of Tours writes his history of the Franks, Historia Francorum 581 East Asia Sui Dynasty Reunifies China 590-604 Europe Reforms of Pope Gregory the Great 593-604 East Asia Regency of Shōtoku Taishi 593-628 East Asia Reign of Suiko, Japanese empress c. 595/598 Europe Battle of Catraeth, ground battle in defense of Britain 595-665 East and South Asia Invention of Decimals and Negative Numbers, including the zero value 596-597 Europe See of Canterbury Is Established 598-668 East Asia Sino-Korean wars: Chinese conquest of north Korea c. 600-950 Americas El Tajín Is Built 7th c. Africa Aksumite kingdom is weakened by the spread of Islam throughout Arabia and North Africa 7th-early 8th c. Americas Maya Build Astronomical Observatory at Palenque 7th-8th c. East Asia Papermaking Spreads to Korea, Japan, and Central Asia 7th-13th c. Americas Mogollons Establish Agricultural Settlements 605-610 East Asia Building of the Grand Canal 606 East Asia National University Awards First Doctorate 606-647 South Asia Reign of Harṣa of Kanauj 607-839 East Asia Japan Sends Embassies to China c. 610-632 Middle East Muḥammad Receives Revelations 610-638 Europe Constantinople’s Sergius I is patriarch of the Orthodox Church 610-641 Europe Heraclius reigns over the Byzantine Empire, Hellenizing the culture and introducing a system of provinces ruled by military governors c. 611-642 South Asia Reign of Pulakeśin II 618 East Asia Founding of the Tang Dynasty 619 Middle East Death of Khadīja, wife of the Prophet Muḥammad and first convert to Islam 622 Middle East The Prophet Muḥammad flees from Mecca to Medina to avoid persecution 627-649 East Asia Reign of Taizong, Chinese emperor 627-650 Central and South Asia Reign of Songtsen Gampo c. 628 South Asia Indian mathematician Brahmagupta completes his masterwork on astronomy, the Brahmasphuṭasiddhānta 629-645 East, Central, and South Asia Pilgrimage of Xuanzang 630-668 South Asia Reign of Narasi Mhavarman I Mahāmalla 630-711 Africa Islam Expands Throughout North Africa June 8, 632 Middle East Death of the Prophet Muḥammad, followed by creation of the Islamic caliphate 633 Europe At the Fourth Council of Toledo, Isidore of Seville orders the establishment of liberal arts schools in all dioceses of Hispania 634-644 Middle East Reign of ՙUmar I, first caliph 635-800 Europe Founding of Lindisfarne and Creation of the Book of Kells Aug. 15-20, 636 Middle East Battle of Yarmūk: Muslim forces capture the holy regions of Syria and Palestine from the Byzantine Empire 637 Middle East Battle of Qadisiyah: Arab forces destroy the Sāsānian Persians, heralding the decline of their empire 637-657 Middle East Islam Expands Throughout the Middle East 641-642 Middle East Siege of Nahavand: Muslims invade the Persian highlands 645-646 East Asia Adoption of Nengo System and Taika Reforms c. 650 East Asia Portraitist Yan Liben paints his Scroll of the Emperors, depicting thirteen of China’s emperors 652-c. 1171 Africa Christian Nubia and Muslim Egypt Sign Treaty 657-661 Middle East Muslim Civil War for control of the Islamic world: ՙAlī’s claim to the caliphate creates a rift in Islamic unity between Syrian and Iraqi Muslims, leading to the formation of the Shīՙite and Sunni sects c. 667-c. 702 Africa Reign of the Berber queen Damia al-Kāhina 668-935 East Asia Silla Unification of Korea 674-678 Europe The flammable liquid Greek fire is used by the Byzantines against Arab ships during the Siege of Constantinople c. 675-719 Europe Frankish civil wars for control of the Frankish kingdom c. 680 Europe Cædmon composes the earliest known English poetry Oct. 10, 680 Middle East Martyrdom of Prophet’s Grandson Ḥusayn at the Battle of Karbalā՚ 682-1377 Southeast Asia Expansion of Śrivijaya 685-691 Middle East Building of the Dome of the Rock 685-705 Middle East Reign of Caliph ՙAbd al-Malik 687 Europe Pépin of Herstal wins the Battle of Tertry, solidifies rule over all Franks, and unifies the office of Mayor of the Palace 687-701 Europe Saint Sergius I is pope Nov. 17, 689 Europe Death of Saint Hilda of Whitby, English abbess c. 690 Europe Death of Paul of Aegina, Byzantine physician and writer 690-705 East Asia Reign of Empress Wu c. 700 Americas Bow and Arrow Spread into North America c. 700 East Asia Porcelain is invented in China c. 700 Middle East Windmills are invented in Persia c. 700-1000 Americas Building of Chichén Itzá c. 700-1000 Europe Heavy Plow Helps Increase Agricultural Yields c. 700-1100 Australia/Pacific Settlement of the South Pacific Islands c. 700-1253 Southeast Asia Confederation of Thai Tribes 8th c. Europe Composition of Beowulf, England’s national epic 8th-14th c. Americas Cahokia Becomes the First North American City 8th-15th c. Americas Hohokam Adapt to the Desert Southwest 701 East Asia Taihō Laws Reform Japanese Government c. 710 South Asia Construction of the Kāila Śanātha Temple Apr./May 711 Europe Ṭārik Crosses into Spain, overcoming the Visigoths in the seven-day Battle of La Janda 711-1492 Europe Reconquista (Reconquest) of Spain: Christian principalities launch a four-hundred-year campaign to retake the southern Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule 712-720 East Asia Writing of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki 713-741 East Asia First Newspapers in China 714 Europe Pépin’s illegitimate son, Charles Martel, seizes control of the Frankish kingdom 717-718 Europe Siege of Constantinople: The Islamic Empire expands into Europe 718-759 Europe, Middle East Frankish-Moorish wars for control of Gaul 719-741 Europe Charles Martel is Frankish mayor of the palace 721 Europe Battle of Toulouse: Eudo, duke of Aquitaine, defeats the Muslims 726-843 Europe Iconoclastic Controversy 728 Middle East Death of the Islamic sage al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī 729 Southeast Asia Founding of Nanzhao 730 South Asia Rise of the Pratihāras 730’s East Asia Li Bo is traveling through China and writing lyric poetry 731 Europe Bede Writes Ecclesiastical History of the English People Oct. 11, 732 Europe Battle of Tours: Christian victory discourages Muslim incursions beyond the Pyrenees 733-750 Europe Æthelbald’s wars for control of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercia becomes the most important power in England 734-755 East Asia Wang Wei is writing poetry in China 735 Europe Christianity Is Introduced into Germany by Saint Boniface, archbishop of Mainz 740 Europe Khazars Convert to Judaism c. 740 Middle East Abū Ḥanīfah founds the Hanifite school of Islamic law 744-840 Central Asia Uighur Turks Rule Central Asia: Uighurs destroy the Tuque (T’u-chüeh) Empire and dominate Mongolia and Central Asia 747-750 Middle East ՙAbbāsid Revolution: Establishment of a legitimate Islamic government and control of tax revenues Dec. 4, 749 Europe Death of John of Damascus, writer, monk, and religious scholar c. 750 East Asia Carbon-steel swords first appear in Japan c. 750 South Asia Śaṅkara founds the Advaita school of Hindu philosophy and makes a pilgrimage throughout the Indian subcontinent 750-1035 Europe, Middle East Byzantine-Muslim wars to determine Christian vs. Muslim influence in the Middle East c. 750-1240 Africa Rise and Fall of Ghana 751 Central Asia Battle of Talas River: Arabs defeat the Chinese near Samarqand in Central Asia 754 Europe Coronation of Pépin the Short 755-763 East Asia Rebellion of An Lushan 759-770 East Asia Chinese poet Du Fu writes his most mature lyrics 763 Central Asia Tibetans Capture Chang’an 764-770 East Asia Reign of Kōken, Japanese empress c. 770 Worldwide Iron horseshoes come into common use 770-810 South Asia Reign of Dharmapāla 771-786 Europe Offa’s wars for Mercian hegemony in England 771-814 Europe Wars of Charlemagne: expansion and protection of the Frankish empire 775-802 Europe Reign of Saint Irene, Byzantine empress 775-840 Southeast Asia Building of Borobuḍur 780 Middle East Beginning of the Harem System 780 Southeast Asia Rise of the Sailendra Family 781 Europe Alcuin Becomes Adviser to Charlemagne 782 Europe Saxon chieftain Widukind leads a revolt against the Franks near the Weser River 786-809 Middle East Reign of Hārūn al-Rashīd 788-850 South Asia Śaṅkara Expounds Advaita Vedānta 791 Central Asia Buddhism Becomes Tibetan State Religion 792 East Asia Rise of the Samurai June 7, 793 Europe Norse Raid Lindisfarne Monastery 794-1185 East Asia Heian Period c. 796 Europe Completion of Offa’s Dyke, built on the Welsh border to defend the Mercian kingdom 800 Europe Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor c. 800 East Asia Kana Syllabary Is Developed 9th-11th c. Africa Kanem-Bornu Sultanate expands throughout western Sudan c. 800-1100 Australia/Pacific Polynesians make unique stone images on Necker Island in Hawaii c. 800-1350 Americas Mississippian Mound-Building Culture Flourishes 9th-14th c. Africa Rise of the Toutswe Kingdom 9th-15th c. Americas Plains Village Culture Flourishes 9th-15th c. Middle East, Africa Throughout the Islamic world, mamlūks (military slaves) are recruited into elite regiments, providing military support to many Islamic emirates and caliphates 801 Middle East Death of Sufi mystic Rābiՙah al-ՙAdawiyah 802 Southeast Asia Founding of the Khmer Empire 802-839 Europe Reign of Egbert, king of England 809 Middle East First Islamic Public Hospital c. 810 Europe Rabanus Maurus’s “figural poems” revive the classical practice of joining text to pictures c. 810-815 Europe Theophanes the Confessor writes Chronographia, the main source for the history of the Byzantine Empire from about 600 to 813 812 East Asia Paper Money First Used in China 815 Middle East Death of Abū Mūsā Jābir ibn Ḥayyān, Arabian chemist and alchemist 832 Southeast Asia Nanzhao Subjugates Pyu 834 Middle East Gypsies Expelled from Persia Apr. 22, 835 East Asia Death of Japanese monk Kōbō Daishi 838-842 Central Asia Tibetan Empire Dissolves 840-846 Central Asia Uighur Migrations 840-920 Central Asia Nomadic Kirghiz horsemen invade Mongolia and drive out the Uighurs c. 841 Europe Dhuoda writes Liber Manualis, the only extant book by a woman from the Carolingian period June 25, 841 Europe Battle of Fontenay, ground battle in the Carolingian civil wars 843 Europe Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian Empire among Charlemagne’s sons 843-876 Europe Reign of Louis the German, king of Germany 845 East Asia Suppression of Buddhism Mid-9th c. East Asia Invention of Gunpowder and Guns c. 850 Europe Development of Slavic Alphabet c. 850 Middle East Death of Arabic mathematician and astronomer al-Khwārizmī c. 850 Middle East The coffee beverage is invented in Arabia c. 850-950 Europe Viking Era: Vikings raid the British Isles, Iceland, continental Europe, and Russia 850-1257 South Asia Cōla Kingdom rules much of southern India After 850 Americas Foundation of Chan Chan 852-889 Europe Reign of Boris I of Bulgaria, czar of Bulgaria July 855 Middle East Death of Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal, Muslim theologian and jurist 858 East Asia Rise of the Fujiwara Family 858 Middle East Birth of Arab astronomer and mathematician al-Battānī 858-867 Europe Nicholas the Great is pope 859-862 Europe Varangian incursion: Vikings invade northwestern Russia c. 860-879 Europe Rurik becomes the first prince of Kievan Rus 861-870 Middle East Muslim civil war for control of the caliphate in Baghdad 863 East and Southeast Asia Nanzhao Captures Hanoi 863-885 Europe In Moravia, Saints Cyril and Methodius are developing the Slavonic liturgy and alphabet 864 Europe Boris Converts to Christianity 867-886 Europe Reign of Byzantine emperor Basil the Macedonian 868 Middle East Death of Arabic zoologist and scholar al-Jāḥiẓ 868 East Asia First Book Printed: The Diamond Sutra is the earliest extant printed book 869-883 Middle East Zanj Revolt of African Slaves 871-899 Europe Reign of Alfred the Great, king of England 872 Middle East Arab historian al-Ṭabarī writes his history of the world 872-973 Middle East Publication of The History of al-Ṭabarī 875-877 Europe Reign of Charles the Bald, king of France and Holy Roman Emperor 877-889 Southeast Asia Indravarman I Conquers the Thai and the Mons 878 Europe Alfred Defeats the Danes at the Battle of Edington 886 Europe Last Viking siege of Paris 890’s Europe Magyars Invade Italy, Saxony, and Bavaria 893 Europe Beginning of Bulgaria’s Golden Age c. 896-907 Europe Reign of Árpád, founder of the first Hungarian state 899-918 Europe Reign of Æthelflæd, queen of Mercia 899-924 Europe Reign of Edward the Elder, king of England Early 10th c. Central Asia Qarakhanids Convert to Islam 10th c. Americas Cult of Quetzalcóatl Spreads Through Mesoamerica 10th c. Central and South Asia Ghaznavid Turks invade India from Afghanistan, introducing an Islamic influence that will continue until the early sixteenth century 10th-11th c. Africa First Hausa State Established 10th-11th c. Europe The crossbow makes its first European appearance, in Italy 10th-11th c. Europe Under the Umayyad caliphate, the Iberian Peninsula experiences a golden age of philosophy, literature, science, and relative religious tolerance c. 900-1150 Middle East Philosophy, science, and scholarship flourish in Iran under such figures as al-Bīrūnī, physician-philosopher Avicenna, the Islamic theologian al-Ghazzālī, and the physician al-Rāzī 907-960 East Asia Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907-1125 East Asia The Liao Dynasty rules northwestern China 911 Europe Rollo receives the county of Normandy from the French king 911-c. 932 Europe Rollo’s reign establishes the Norman Dynasty 912-961 Europe ՙAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir, Umayyad emir and caliph, rules Córdoba c. 915 Africa Arab historian and geographer al-Masՙūdī begins his extensive travels through the Middle East and Asia 915 South Asia Parāntaka I Conquers Pāṇḍya: Parāntaka expands Cōla territory into southern India with his victory against the Pāṇḍyas at the Battle of Vellur 918-936 East Asia Foundation of the Koryŏ Dynasty 920 East Asia Khitans drive out Kirghiz and establish an empire in Mongolia and China Sept. 15, 921 Europe Death of Saint Ludmilla, duchess of Bohemia c. 922 Middle East Persian physician al-Rāzī writes his treatise on smallpox 927 East Asia Compilation of the Engi Shiki c. 930 Europe Vikings settle Iceland c. 930 Middle East Islamic theologian al-Ashՙarī founds Ashՙarism, a movement to achieve a true synthesis of purely logical argument and the transcendental elements of revealed Islam 936 East Asia Khitans Settle Near Beijing 937 Europe Battle of Brunanburgh: Æthelstan defeats Scots and Vikings 939-944 Southeast Asia Reign of Ngo Quyen 945-964 Europe Reign of Saint Olga, princess of Rus 945-1055 Middle East The Buyid Dynasty dominates the ՙAbbāsid caliphate in Iraq c. 950 Europe Court of Córdoba Flourishes in Spain c. 950-1100 Middle East Rise of Madrasas c. 950-1150 Americas Toltecs Build Tula, the largest city in central Mexico, with a population of about 60,000 and covering some 5 square miles Aug. 10, 955 Europe Otto I Defeats the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld 956 Central Asia Oğhuz Turks Migrate to Transoxiana 958-1076 East Asia Koreans Adopt the Tang Civil Service Model 960 East Asia Founding of the Song Dynasty c. 960 Europe Jews Settle in Bohemia 960-1279 East Asia Scholar-Official Class Flourishes Under Song Dynasty 962 Europe Foundation of the Mount Athos Monasteries 962-973 Europe Coronation of Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor c. 963 Europe German-Saxon poet, playwright, and historian Hrosvitha is writing plays in Gandersheim 969-1171 Africa Reign of the Fāṭimids: Shīՙite Muslims based in Cairo, the Fāṭimids challenge Baghdad’s Sunni ՙAbbāsid caliphate for control of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina 972 Africa Building of al-Azhar Mosque 972-1152 Africa The Zirid and Hammadid Berbers, under the Fāṭimid caliphate, dominate Tunisia and eastern Algeria 973 South Asia Foundation of the Western Cālukya Dynasty 976-1025 Europe Reign of Basil II 977-1186 Central and South Asia The Ghaznavid Empire, based in modern-day Afghanistan, is the first Islamic state dominated by a Turkic military class, spreading Islam into India 978-980 Europe Franco-German war for control of the province of Lorraine 978-1016 Europe Reign of Ethelred II, the Unready, king of England 980-1015 Europe Reign of Vladimir I, grand prince of Kiev 982 Southeast Asia Le Dai Hanh Invades Champa c. 983-998 Middle East Persian mathematician and astronomer Abul Wefa develops his theory of sines and cosines c. 985-1014 South Asia Reign of Rājarāja I 987 Europe Hugh Capet Is Elected to the French Throne 988 Europe Baptism of Vladimir I 989 Europe Byzantine princess Anna marries Vladimir I and lays the foundation for the Christian conversion of Russia 990’s Europe The first stone keeps appear in northwestern Europe 991 Europe Battle of Maldon: Danish Vikings defeat the English and force them to pay Danegeld 992-1054 Africa Ghana Takes Control of Awdaghust 995-1000 Europe Reign of Olaf I, king of Norway 997-1038 Europe Reign of Stephen I, king of Hungary 998-1030 Central and South Asia Reign of Maḥmūd of Ghazna 999-1003 Europe Sylvester II is pope c. 1000 Americas Collapse of the Huari and Tiwanaku Civilizations c. 1000 Americas Pueblo villages are built and black-on-white ceramics are manufactured in New Mexico’s Mimbres Valley c. 1000 East Asia Footbinding Develops in Chinese Society c. 1000 South Asia Hindi Becomes India’s Dominant Language c. 1000 South Asia Construction of the Lingaraja and Rajarani temples in Orissa on India’s east coast c. 1000 Americas Metalworkers in southern Costa Rica and western Panama produce gold pendants depicting figures with the heads of frogs, turtles, bats, and crocodiles c. 1000 Europe Death of Leif Eriksson, Norwegian explorer Sept. 9, 1000 Europe Battle of Svalde, a naval conflict during the Viking raids 1000-1471 Southeast Asia Vietnamese-Cham wars for control of the kingdom of Champa (southern Vietnam) 11th c. Africa Expansion of Sunni Islam in North Africa and Iberia 11th c. Central Asia Tibet undergoes a Buddhist renaissance, with growth of monasteries, schools, and art 11th-12th c. Europe Building of Romanesque Cathedrals 11th-12th c. Americas First European-Native American Contact: Norse expeditions reach Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland, 986-1008 11th-15th c. Africa Development of the Ife Kingdom and Yoruba Culture: Ife becomes a major urban center during the Pavement period, named after mosaics constructed to form a distinctive herringbone pattern. Ife’s famous terracotta and metal heads are sculpted to represent identifiable individuals 11th-15th c. Africa Great Zimbabwe Urbanism and Architecture: develops after the city is founded by Bantu-speaking ancestors of the Shona people 11th-15th/16th c. Africa Tellem people, seeking to avoid conversion to Islam, migrate from the inland Niger River Delta and Jenne-Jeno to the Bandiagara escarpment After 1000 Europe Development of Miracle and Mystery Plays 1001 Southeast Asia Thailand’s Lopburi Kingdom requests China’s assistance in securing independence from the Khmers c. 1001 East Asia Sei Shōnagon Completes The Pillow Book c. 1004 East Asia Murasaki Shikibu Writes The Tale of the Genji 1009 Middle East Destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 1010 Middle East Firdusi Composes the Shahnamah , Iran’s national epic c. 1010 Africa Songhai Kingdom Converts to Islam c. 1010-1015 Middle East Avicenna Writes His Canon of Medicine 1012 East Asia Rice Is Introduced into China 1013 Europe Danish king Sveyn I Forkbeard defeats English king Ethelred I and forces him into exile Apr. 23, 1014 Europe Battle of Clontarf: Brian Boru and his son Murchad defeat the Norse-Leinster alliance, but Brian is killed 1014-1024 Europe Henry II the Saint reigns as Holy Roman Emperor c. 1015 Europe The two republics of Genoa and Pisa send ships to Sardinia and Corsica to oust the Arabs from those islands, then vie for their control for the next three hundred years 1016-1017 East Asia Regency of Fujiwara Michinaga 1016-1028 Europe Reign of Saint Olaf, king of Norway 1016-1035 Europe Canute Conquers England and reigns as king of England, Denmark, and Norway 1016-1070 Europe Normans migrate into southern Italy, eventually subverting Byzantine dominance c. 1017 South Asia Cōlas conquer Sri Lanka c. 1018 Middle East Arab scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī becomes official astronomer/astrologer to the court of Maḥmūd of Ghazna 1018 Europe Emperor Basil II conquers Bulgaria, expanding the Byzantine Empire to its largest extent until the second Bulgarian kingdom is established under the Asen line in 1186 1019 Central and South Asia Maḥmūd of Ghazna raids northern India and destroys Kanauj, the capital of the Gurjara-Pratihāra Empire 1019 Southeast Asia Airlangga founds the Kahuripan kingdom in Java; during his reign Hindu and Buddhist arts flourish 1020-1057 East Asia Japanese sculptor Jōchō is developing his joined-wood technique 1020’s Middle East Arab physicist Alhazen, the most important figure in optics between antiquity and the seventeenth century, writes his treatise Optics c. 1025 Europe Scholars at Chartres Revive Interest in the Classics 1025 South and Southeast Asia South India’s Cōla kingdom invades Śrivijaya After 1026 Europe Italian music theorist Guido d’Arezzo publishes the Micrologus, a manual on musical notation and one of the most influential books of its time Apr. 10, 1028 Europe Death of Saint Fulbert, founder of the cathedral school at Chartres c. 1028 Europe Death of Gershom ben Judah, French-German rabbi who played a major role in establishing the scholarly autonomy of Franco-German Jewry 1030 South Asia Al-Bīrūnī completes his history of India, Tār՚īkh al-Hind 1031 Europe Caliphate of Córdoba Falls 1031-1086 Europe Ta’ifa rulers assume power in Islamic Spain after the fall of Córdoba, becoming patrons of the arts and architecture and building huge palaces 1032-1227 East Asia Rise of the Xixia Empire in northwestern China 1037 Middle East Death of Avicenna, Persian philosopher and scholar 1038 Central Asia Battle of Nishapur: Seljuks defeat the Ghaznavids and move into the Khorāsān grazing grounds of northeastern Persia May 24, 1040 Middle East Battle of Dandāngān Castle: Seljuks overcome the Ghaznavid Masՙūd I 1040’s Europe Ibn Gabirol is writing poetry in biblical Hebrew 1040-1055 Middle East Expansion of the Seljuk Turks c. 1042 Central Asia The “second transmission,” a renaissance in Tibetan Buddhism, is born when Atisha, an Indian mystic, settles in Tibet 1043-1066 Europe Reign of Edward the Confessor, king of England c. 1044 East Asia The first book containing a formula for gunpowder appears, listing coal, saltpeter, and sulfur as the primary ingredients 1044 Southeast Asia Anawrahta founds the first Burmese kingdom, the Pagan Empire c. 1045 East Asia Bi Sheng Develops Movable Earthenware Type 1048 Africa Zīrids Break from Fāṭimid Dynasty and Revive Sunni Islam 1049-1054 Europe Leo IX is pope c. 1050 East Asia Worldwide proliferation of block-printed books and paper 1050-1203 Southeast Asia Khmer-Cham wars: Khmer territorial expansion and political control over Champa 1054 East and South Asia Chinese and American Indian astronomers observe the Crab supernova explosion 1054 Europe Beginning of the Rome-Constantinople Schism 1055 Europe Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, prince of Powys, briefly unifies Wales, but the country dissolves after his death 1055 Middle East The Seljuk Turks take Baghdad, ending Buyid rule 1059 East Asia Chinese writer and philosopher Ouyang Xiu revivifies the fu, a Chinese poetic form, with “The Sounds of Autumn” 1062-1147 Africa Almoravids Conquer Morocco and Establish the Almoravid Empire 1063-1072/73 Middle East Reign of Alp Arslan, second Seljuk sultan; Seljuk vizier Niẓām al-Mulk is in power Sept. 25, 1066 Europe Battle of Stamford Bridge: English king Harold II defeats Norwegian and Norman invaders Oct. 14, 1066 Europe Battle of Hastings: William of Normandy defeats Harold II in this decisive battle in the Norman Conquest 1066-1086 Europe The abbot Desiderius restores the abbey at Monte Cassino 1066-1087 Europe Reign of William the Conqueror, king of France 1067 East Asia Chinese statesman Sima Guang presents his Zizhi tongjian to Emperor Yingzong 1069-1072 East Asia Wang Anshi Introduces Bureaucratic Reforms 1070’s Middle East Mathematician and poet Omar Khayyám writes his Rubáiyát Aug. 26, 1071 Middle East Battle of Manzikert: marks the beginning of Byzantine decline as Seljuk Turks conquer Anatolia and Hellenistic Asia Minor; prompts the First Crusade two decades later After 1071 Europe Byzantine philosopher and historian Michael Psellus writes Chronographia 1073-1085 Europe Gregory VII is pope c. 1075-1086 Africa Hummay Founds Sefuwa Dynasty 1075 Europe In Spain, work begins on the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, the most important destination for Christian pilgrims after Rome and Jerusalem 1075-c. 1220 Africa Emergence of Mapungubwe 1076 Africa Almoravids Sack Kumbi 1076 Europe Investiture Controversy begins: Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Emperor Henry IV for insisting on his right to name bishops and other clerics within his realm c. 1077 Europe Bayeux Tapestry is created: More than 200 feet long, it tells the story of the Battle of Hastings in 1066 1077 Middle East Seljuk Dynasty Is Founded: Süleyman founds Seljuk Rum, beginning the golden age of the Seljuk Empire 1077-1095 Europe Reign of Saint László I, Polish-born king of Hungary 1077-1214 Europe German civil war over control of the Holy Roman Empire 1081-1085 Europe Norman-Byzantine wars result in Norman defeat and preservation of Byzantine autonomy 1084-1106 Europe Henry IV of Germany reigns as Holy Roman Emperor 1086 Africa Battle of Al-Zallāqah: Major battle during the Reconquista; after Castilian king Alfonso VI conquers Toledo in 1085, the Almoravid Tāshufīn enters Iberia to support the Islamic principalities and establish control in the south 1086 Europe Domesday Survey: Ordered by William the Conqueror, first Norman king of England, the Domesday Book records a systematic survey of England’s lands 1086-1091 Europe Bogomil (Bulgarian) revolt and Pecheneg-Byzantine war 1088-1099 Europe Urban II is pope 1092-1093 Europe Saint Anselm intercedes with King William Rufus on behalf of oppressed clerics in England, is named archbishop of Canterbury 1092-1094 Europe El Cid Conquers Valencia: After cavalry and infantry battles and sieges, El Cid holds Valencia during his lifetime, although Muslims reconquer it at his death Nov. 27, 1095 Europe, Middle East Pope Urban II Calls the First Crusade 1095-1105 Middle East Muslim mystic al-Ghazzālī abandons Baghdad for a life of poverty, producing The Revival of the Religious Sciences Aug. 1096 Europe Battle of Cibotus: Crossing the Bosporus into Asia, participants in the Peasants’ Crusade are annihilated by the Turks Before 1097 Europe Italian physician Trotula is writing her manuals of the treatments of women’s diseases and conditions July 1, 1097 Europe, Middle East Battle of Dorylaeum: Bohemond I defeats the Turks Mar. 21, 1098 Europe Foundation of the Cistercian Order June 3, 1098 Europe, Middle East Fall of Antioch to Bohemond I and Crusaders after an eight-month siege July 15, 1099 Middle East Crusaders retake Jerusalem c. 1100 Europe Arabic Numerals Are Introduced into Europe c. 1100 Africa Founding of Timbuktu c. 1100 Africa Origins of Swahili in Its Written Form c. 1100 Europe Rise of Courtly Love 1100 Americas Building of the Pueblo Bonito, the largest of the Chaco Canyon multistory houses 1100 Europe European knights adopt the use of the couched lance, which provides more force than previous hand-thrust weapons 1100-1125 East Asia Reign of Huizong, famous for his paintings and as a patron of the arts 1100-1135 Europe Reign of Henry I, king of England 1100-1300 Europe European Universities Emerge 12th c. Africa Gao, near the Niger River on the border between the Sudan and the Sahel, becomes a key trading center of the Songhai Empire 12th c. Africa Coins Are Minted on the Swahili Coast 12th c. Africa Trading Center of Kilwa Kisiwani Is Founded 12th c. East Asia Wang Chongyang Founds Quanzhen Daoism 12th-14th c. Europe Social and Political Impact of Leprosy 12th-15th c. Africa Creation of the Esie sculptures, soapstone images of humans and animals found near this Yoruba town in Nigeria c. 1100-1500 Australia/Pacific On Easter Island, the earliest of the giant stone figures called moai are being carved 1101 East Asia Li Qingzhao is writing her poetry 1101 Europe Tancred becomes regent of Antioch July 28, 1101 East Asia Death of Chinese poet and scholar Su Dongpo Sept. 6, 1101 Middle East Battle of Ramleh, a ground battle in the Crusades 1107 East Asia Death of Chinese calligrapher Mi Fei 1112 East Asia The Miyazedi stone inscriptions, recording the earliest known written form of the Burmese language, are created 1113-1150 Southeast Asia Reign of Khmer king Suryavarman II, who captures parts of Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand, and builds Angkor Wat 1115 East Asia Foundation of the Jin Dynasty: Jurchens conquer northern China, Mongolia descends into tribal warfare between Jurchens and Khitan-Liao, and Chinese are driven south 1115 Europe Saint Bernard founds the abbey of Clairvaux and revives the Cistercian monastic order July 24, 1115 Europe Death of Matilda of Canossa, defender of the Papacy during the Investiture Controversy 1117 Europe French Scholastic philosopher and university teacher Peter Abelard is tutoring his pupil Héloïse in Paris c. 1119 East Asia Earliest known record of a compass, although the instrument was invented centuries before c. 1119-1120 Europe William of Saint-Thierry becomes abbot of the monastery at Saint-Thierry near Reims c. 1120 Middle East Order of the Knights Templar Is Founded 1122 Europe Concordat of Worms settles the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1076 1123 Europe Battle of Ascalon: Venetian fleet defeats a Muslim fleet, ensuring Christian control of the Kingdom of Jerusalem for another generation 1124-1153 Europe Reign of David I, king of Scotland 1127-1130 Europe Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily: Roger II unifies Norman territories in southern Italy, Sicily, Malta, and North Africa 1127-1279 East Asia Southern Song Dynasty 1130 East Asia Birth of Zhu Xi, who later consolidates Confucian thought into four books 1130 Central Asia Karakitai Empire Established 1130-1163 Africa Reign of ՙAbd al-Mu՚min, Berber founder of the Almohad Dynasty 1130-1170 Europe Owain Gwynedd rules in Wales, overseeing a revival of Latin scholarship and literature 1131-1153 Middle East Reign of Melisende, queen of Jerusalem 1134-1141 East Asia In China, Yo Fei, a military commander in the displaced Song Dynasty, conducts campaigns against the Jin and Qi invaders under the slogan “Give us back our rivers and mountains!” He is murdered 1135-1154 Europe Reign of King Stephen, king of England c. 1136 Europe Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain appears 1136 Europe In Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales, Gwenllian verch Gruffydd is killed fighting against Norman invaders 1136 Europe Hildegard von Bingen Becomes Abbess 1137 South Asia Death of Rāmānuja, Indian philosopher July 1137 Europe Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Louis VII, king of France, significantly increasing the size of France by adding her land holdings to the kingdom 1139 Europe Pope Innocent II prohibits the use of the crossbow in Christian Europe 1139 Europe Hebrew poet, physician, and philosopher Judah ha-Levi writes his Book of the Kuzari 1139-1185 Europe Reign of Afonso I, king of Portugal 1140’s Africa Arab geographer and cartographer al-Idrīsī produces a globe and maps of the world at the court of Roger II, king of Sicily 1140-1150 Europe Abbot Suger reforms the architecture of Saint-Denis outside Paris and furnishes it with newly commissioned artworks 1141 Central Asia Battle of Qatwan: Seljuks are defeated in a clash with the nascent Karakitai Empire near Samarqand 1142-1180 Europe Henry the Lion is duke of Saxony and Bavaria 1143 Europe Portugal becomes an independent state under the leadership of Afonso I 1143-1180 Middle East Reign of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus 1145 East Asia Kim Pu-sik Writes Samguk Sagi , Korea’s first written histories c. 1145 Europe Prester John Myth Sweeps Across Europe 1145-1232 Europe Almohad Berbers from the south overcome the Almoravids in northern Africa and Islamic Spain 1147-1149 Europe Second Crusade is prompted by Muslim conquest of the principality of Edessa in 1144, unsuccessfully led by the kings of France and Germany 1147-1186 Europe Sicilian-Byzantine wars: Byzantines fail to reconquer southern Italy and Sicily After 1148 Europe Death of Anna Comnena, Byzantine princess and historian c. 1150 Europe Moors Transmit Classical Philosophy and Medicine to Europe c. 1150 Europe Refinements in Banking 1150 Europe Venetian Merchants Dominate Trade with the East 1150 Americas Inhabitants of Chaco Canyon abandon their settlements during a long drought 1150-1160 Europe German mystic and Benedictine abbess Hildegard von Bingen is writing hymns, canticles, and morality plays c. 1150-1200 Europe Development of Gothic Architecture allows higher cathedral ceilings and more numerous windows filled with stained glass, leading to some of the most breathtaking architecture in Europe c. 1150-1200 Europe Rise of the Hansa Merchant Union: The Hanseatic League dominates trade in the Baltic and becomes the northern European hub for world trade 1152 Europe Frederick Barbarossa Is Elected King of Germany, reigns as Holy Roman Emperor until 1190 1153 East Asia Jin Move Their Capital to Beijing 1153-1186 South Asia Construction in Sri Lanka of the Parakrama Samudra, a huge artificial lake for irrigation and one of the greatest feats of engineering in the world 1154-1159 Europe Adrian IV is pope 1154-1204 Europe Angevin Empire Is Established: Henry II, the first Plantagenet, reigns in England (1154-1189) and reforms English law and its enforcement; Eleanor of Aquitaine reigns as queen, adding her domains in France to England’s holdings; the empire dissolves on her death in 1204 when their weak son King John cannot hold the empire together 1155 Europe Charter of Lorris Is Written 1156 East Asia The Hōgen disturbance in Japan, between the Minamoto (Genji) and Taira (Heike) clans, inaugurates the decline of Fujiwaras Sept. 17, 1156 Europe Austria Emerges as a National Entity 1156-1192 East Asia Minamoto Yoritomo Becomes Shogun: establishes bakufu, government by warrior chieftains (shoguns) or their regents, which will endure for seven centuries 1157-1182 Europe Valdemar I the Great reigns during Denmark’s golden age c. 1159 Europe Geographer Benjamin of Tudela embarks on his journey to Baghdad 1159-1181 Europe Alexander III is pope 1160 Europe Death of the religious mystic Christina of Markyate 1160’s Europe Marie de France is composing her Lais 1167 Europe Foundation of the Nemanjid Dynasty: emergence of an independent Serbia under Stefan Nemanja 1167-1183 Europe Wars of the Lombard League result in free government of Lombard cities and their retention of the royal revenue 1169-1172 Europe Normans Invade Ireland: English incursions into Ireland will last for more than four centuries 1170 Europe While acting as Venetian ambassador in Constantinople, Enrico Dandolo is blinded on order of the Byzantine emperor Dec. 29, 1170 Europe Murder of Thomas Becket, English statesman and archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury Cathedral 1171 Africa Saladin establishes the Ayyūbid Dynasty in Syria and Egypt 1171 Europe Averroës (Ibn Rushd) becomes physician to Alomoravid caliph Abū Yaՙqūb Yūsuf in Marrakech 1174-1178 Europe After it was destroyed by fire, Canterbury Cathedral is rebuilt in a distinctly English architectural style c. 1175 Americas The major city Tula, in central Mexico, is destroyed by peoples from northern Mexico c. 1175 Central and South Asia In Punjab, Ghūrid Turks defeat the Ghaznavids 1175 East Asia Hōnen Shōnin Founds Pure Land Buddhism c. 1175 Europe Waldensian Excommunications Usher in Protestant Movement 1175-1206 South Asia Conquests of Muḥammad of Ghor, laying the groundwork for Islamic rule in India May 29, 1176 Europe Battle of Legnano: Lombard League defeats Frederick I Barbarossa 1179-1223 Europe Reign of Philip II Augustus, the first French monarch referred to as King of France (rather than “of the Franks”) c. 1180 Europe Chrétien de Troyes Writes Perceval 1180’s East Asia Saigyo, a Buddhist monk, composes three volumes of poetry known as the Sankashu (mountain hermitage) 1180-1185 East Asia In the Gempei War, the Minamoto clan defeats the Taira clan and establishes the bakufu (shogunate) government in Kamakura c. 1180-1230 Africa Expansion of the Soso Kingdom under the Kante Dynasty, which absorbs much of ancient Ghana c. 1181-1221 Africa Lalibela Founds the Christian Capital of Ethiopia c. 1181-1243 Southeast Asia In Khmer, Jayavarman VII builds the city of Angkor Thom, supporting Mahayana Buddhism with the Bayon temple 1183 Europe Peace of Constance allows Frederick I Barbarossa to extend direct imperial administration throughout Tuscany 1184-1212 Europe Reign of Queen Tamara, Georgian queen 1185-1208 Europe Saxo Grammaticus composes his history of the Danes, Gesta Danorum July 4, 1187 Middle East Battle of Hattin: Saladin’s forces capture this walled city, prompting the Third Crusade 1189-1192 Europe Third Crusade: The participation of Richard I helps to restore some Christian possessions, including Acre and Cyprus but not Jersalem 1189-1199 Europe Reign of Richard I, king of England c. 1190 Europe Hartmann von Aue composes the first German Arthurian romance, Erec 1190 Europe Moses Maimonides Writes The Guide of the Perplexed 1190’s Europe Alexander Neckam becomes the first Scholastic theologian to teach at Oxford University c. 1190-1279 East Asia Ma-Xia School of Painting Flourishes 1191 East Asia Eisai, a Buddhist monk, is teaching Zen Buddhism in Japan, marking the growth and influence of this form of Buddhism 1192-1203 Central and South Asia The Ghūrid Empire, headed by Muḥammad Ghūri, invades India, defeats the Rājputs, and sacks Buddhist monasteries 1193 Central and South Asia Turkish Raiders Destroy Buddhist University at Nalanda 1194 Europe Pope Celestine III issues Joachim of Fiore a charter to establish new monastery at San Giovanni in Fiore 1196-1258 East Asia Ch’oe Family Takes Power in Korea 1198 Europe Pope Innocent III calls for the Fourth Crusade c. 1198-1200 Europe French musician Pérotin, a pioneer of Western music, is developing polyphonic forms 1198-1216 Europe Innocent III is pope Feb. 9, 1199 East Asia Death of Japanese shogun Minamoto Yoritomo 1199 Europe Burgundian historian and military leader Geoffroi de Villehardouin joins the Fourth Crusade 1199-1216 Europe Reign of John, king of England c. 1200 Europe As forged steel processes are refined, several European cities, including Sheffield, Brussels, and Toledo, emerge as swordmaking centers c. 1200 Americas In North America, the southwestern Anasazi culture is destroyed, possibly by raiding Ute, Apache, Navajo, and Comanche tribes c. 1200 Europe Common-Law Tradition Emerges in England c. 1200 Europe Fairs of Champagne: Such international markets introduce Asian and other world goods into Europe c. 1200 Europe Scientific Cattle Breeding Developed c. 1200 Europe Nicholas of Verdun produces the Klosterneuburg Altarpiece, an elaborate metalwork shrine in Cologne Cathedral considered the most important metal artwork of the Middle Ages c. 1200 Australia/Pacific Polynesians reach the Chatham Islands east of New Zealand c. 1200 Australia/Pacific Construction begins on Nan Madol, a city on Pohnpei Island in Micronesia 1200 Americas Moundville, on the Black Warrior River in Alabama, is one of the largest cities in North America at this time, producing ceramic, stone, and copper tools and implements 1200 Americas In New Mexico, people are living in cliff dwellings such as those at Mesa Verde; in Arizona, Snaketown is abandoned Apr. 23, 1200 East Asia Death of Confucian scholar Zhu Xi Early 13th c. East Asia Composition of the Japanese war epic Heike monogatari (The Tale of the Heike), the tale of the Taira and Minamoto clans from the Hōgen disturbance in 1156 to the end of the Gempei War in 1185 c. 1200-1210 Europe German poet Wolfram von Eschenbach writes his epic Parzifal c. 1200-1230 Americas Manco Capac Founds the Inca State 1200-1300 Central Asia Tibetan monks translate 4,569 works in the Buddhist canon, which along with Chinese translations preserves India’s Buddhist doctrines 1200-1482 South Asia King Ari Malla founds the Malla Dynasty in the Kathmandu Valley; it will dominate the region until 1482 c. 1200-1500 Central and South Asia Development of the Urdu language, a combination of Persian, Arabic, and regional dialects 13th c. Africa The Great Mosque of Kilwa begins construction in Tanzania and marks the flowering of Swahili architecture and powerful trade cities along the East African coast 13th c. Africa The centralized city-state of Benin is founded by Edo-speaking people; kingship at Benin state is formalized in the thirteenth century, and by the mid-fifteenth century, under Oba (King) Ewuare the Great, Benin develops into an empire 13th c. Africa Muslim Soninke people found the major trade city of Jenne on the Niger Delta in West Africa, although Jenne’s founding has been dated as early as the eighth century, according to oral tradition 13th c. Africa Ndiadiane N’diaye Founds the Wolof Empire in the region of modern Senegal 13th c. East Asia Korean printers complete the Buddhist Tripitaka Koreana 13th c. Europe Rise of the guild system, in which groups formed by professional craftsmen begin to assume political as well as economic power, in turn leading to powerful city-states such as Venice and Florence 13th c. Europe The cog, a large merchant vessel associated with the Hanseatic League, is developed in northern Europe 13th-16th c. Africa Mali Empire: Through a series of successful military campaigns, the emperors of Mali created a massive kingdom stretching across a vast section of West Africa 1202 Europe The first great medieval European mathematician, Leonardo Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa), publishes Liber abaci (book of calculations), which popularizes the decimal system first devised in India 1202-1241 Europe Reign of Valdemar II, king of Denmark 1204 East and Central Asia Genghis Khan Founds Mongol Empire 1204 Europe Knights of the Fourth Crusade Capture Constantinople 1206-1210 South Asia Quṭ al-Dīn Aybak Establishes the Delhi Sultanate 1206-1526 South Asia Wars of the Delhi Sultanate: struggles for hegemony in India result in Muslim domination Apr. 16, 1209 Europe Founding of the Franciscans 1209-1229 Europe Albigensian Crusade is led by Simon de Montfort 1210 Middle East Death of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, Muslim theologian and scholar 1212 Europe Children’s Crusade 1212 Europe Saint Clare of Assisi receives the tonsure from Saint Francis of Assisi and settles at the nearby monastery of San Damiano, where she will establish the Poor Ladies of Assisi July 16, 1212 Europe Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; the armies of Aragon and Castile defeat the Almohads, a turning point in the Reconquista, the campaign of Christian kingdoms to defeat Islamic rule c. 1213 Middle East and Central Asia Muslim historian and geographer Yaqut begins his travels through the Middle East and Central Asia July 27, 1214 Europe Battle of Bouvines, during the German civil war of 1077-1214, establishes France as champion of the Catholic Church and sets a precedent for popular support of the monarchy 1215 East Asia Genghis Khan captures Beijing during the Mongol invasion of China 1215 Europe Saint Dominic establishes the Dominican monastic order June 15, 1215 Europe Signing of the Magna Carta Nov. 11-30, 1215 Europe Fourth Lateran Council reinforces the power of the Papacy and initiates the unsuccessful Fifth Crusade 1215-1217 Europe English civil war over absolute monarchy vs. baronial rule and English land in France results in King John’s victory and negotiation of the Magna Carta 1216-1272 Europe Reign of Henry III, king of England 1217-1221 Africa, Middle East Fifth Crusade: organized to attack the Islamic power base in Egypt, succeeds in capturing the port city of Damietta but ends in defeat 1217-1276 Europe Reign of James I the Conqueror, king of Spain 1219 Europe While a student in Paris, Johannes de Muris begins writing his controversial treatise on musical notation, Ars novae musicae 1219-1333 East Asia Hōjō Family Dominates Shoguns, Rules Japan c. 1220 Europe Saint Elizabeth of Hungary establishes the first orphanage for homeless children in Central Europe 1220’s Europe Walther von der Vogelweide is writing poetry in Germany 1220’s Europe Franciscan theologian Saint Anthony of Padua is preaching to large crowds throughout Italy 1220’s Middle East Ibn al-ՙArabī formulates the doctrines of Sufism 1220-1250 Europe Reign of Frederick II, king of Sicily and Holy Roman Emperor 1221 Middle East Battle of Eşfahān: Mongols retreat from Iran to Central Asia 1221-1256 Middle East Mongols invade and dominate Iran 1221-1259 Africa Mai Dunama Dibbalemi Expands Kanem Empire 1223 East Asia Death of Japanese sculptor Unkei 1223-1252 Europe Reign of Blanche of Castile, queen of France c. 1225 East Asia Death of Chinese painter Ma Yuan 1225 Europe Mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) publishes his numbers theory in Liber quadratorum (the book of square numbers), dedicated to his patron, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II 1225 Southeast Asia Tran Thai Tong Establishes Tran Dynasty 1225-1231 Middle East Jalāl al-Dīn Expands the Khwārizmian Empire 1226 East Asia Battle of Yellow River destroys the Western Xia kingdom and leaves the Song Dynasty vulnerable to Mongol attack Oct. 3, 1226 Europe Death of Saint Francis of Assisi 1226-1270 Europe Reign of Louis IX, king of France 1227-1230 Middle East Frederick II Leads the Sixth Crusade 1227-1241 Europe Gregory IX is pope 1227-1502 Middle East The Golden Horde khanate rules the western Mongol Empire, stretching from the Caucasus Mountains and the Volga River Basin to the Irtysh River in Siberia 1228 Europe William of Auvergne becomes bishop of Paris 1228-1229 Middle East In what is sometimes referred to as the Sixth Crusade, the excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II sails to the Holy Land and negotiates a reoccupation of Jerusalem 1228-1231 Europe Teutonic Knights Bring Baltic Region Under Catholic Control: in particular East Prussia, which, together with Brandenburg, forms the nucleus of the Prussian state 1228-1454 Middle East The Rasulid sultanate rules in Yemen 1229-1574 Africa The Hafsid Berbers replace the Almohads as the dominant force in northwestern Africa’s Maghrib c. 1230 Europe German mystic Mechthild von Magdeburg leaves home to join the Beguines in Magdeburg 1230 Europe Unification of Castile and León 1230 East Asia Death of Chinese painter Xia Gui Aug. 10, 1230 Middle East Battle of Erzincan: Defeat of Jalāl al-Dīn ends his westward expansion c. 1230-1235 Europe Snorri Sturluson writes the Heimskringla, his chronicle of the kings of Norway 1230’s-1255 Africa Reign of Sundiata of Mali 1231 East Asia The Koryō Dynasty is forced into exile when the Mongols begin a series of invasions into the Korean peninsula 1232-1492 Europe The Nasrid Dynasty rules Granada but becomes a vassal to northern Christian states by 1243; the Nasrids build the Alhambra, the last major monument to Islam on the Iberian Peninsula 1233 East Asia The Jin capital at Kaifeng surrenders to the Mongols 1233 Europe Papal Inquisition c. 1235 Europe Henry de Bracton writes his treatise on English common law, De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae 1235 Africa Battle of Kirina: Sundiata of Mali defeats Sumanguru of Ghana 1236-1240 South Asia Reign of Raziya, fifth sultan of Delhi 1236-1242 Europe, Middle East, Asia The Mongols make conquests in Russia, Eastern Europe, Iran, and Transcaucasia July 15, 1240 Europe Alexander Nevsky Defends Novgorod from Swedish Invaders Apr. 11, 1241 Europe Battle of Sajó River, during the third Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe 1243 Middle East Battle of Köse Dagh: fall of the Seljuks to the Il-Khanids 1243-1254 Europe Innocent IV is pope 1243-1295 Southeast Asia Reign of Jayavarman VIII and restoration of Hinduism in the Khmer nation 1244 Middle East Muslim Turks retake Jerusalem from Christian Crusaders Apr. 16, 1245 Europe Franciscan missionary Giovanni da Pian del Carpini leaves Lyon to lead a mission to the Mongols in Kiev, three thousand miles away 1248-1254 Middle East Failure of the Seventh Crusade 1248-1257 Europe Saint Bonaventure is writing his theological works 1249-1250 Middle East Battle of Mansura (Al Manṣūrah), ground battle in the Seventh Crusade: King Louis IX’s forces are routed, and Louis is taken for ransom 1249-1286 Europe Alexander III of Scotland unifies mainland Scotland Late 13th c. Australia/Pacific Maoris Hunt Moa to Extinction in New Zealand c. 1250 Europe Improvements in Shipbuilding and Navigation c. 1250 Americas Chichén Itzá is abandoned as a population center but remains a destination for Mayan pilgrims c. 1250 Americas The Toltecs conquer the major religious and cultural center at Cholula, east of the Mexican Basin 1250 Americas The Hohokam settlement of Casas Grandes, in northern Chihuahua, undergoes major construction, including ballcourts, wells, and a sewer system 1250’s Middle East Muslim poet Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī composes Sufi lyrics of Dīwan-i Shams-i Tabrīz c. 1250-1300 Europe Homosexuality Criminalized and Subject to Death Penalty c. 1250-1532 Americas The Inca Empire conquers Chanca, Chincha, Chinchasuyu, Chimor, and other Andean states, creating the largest indigenous state in the Western Hemisphere, with an estimated thirteen million inhabitants Feb./Mar. 1252 East Asia Death of Mongolian princess and kingmaker Sorghaghtani Beki 1252-1284 Europe Reign of Alfonso X, king of Castile and León 1252-1517 Middle East The Mamlūk sultans, former slaves to the declining Ayyūbids, assume rule in Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and the holy cities of Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula, defeating the Crusaders at the end of the thirteenth century and becoming the most important Islamic power of the Middle Ages 1253-1254 Europe Dutch geographer William of Rubrouck is traveling through Central Asia 1254-1273 Europe Great Interregnum: The Holy Roman Empire loses its authority over Italy as the Papacy invites Charles of Anjou to establish Angevin power in southern Italy and Sicily 1255 Europe Birger Jarl, regent of the Swedish crown, founds the city of Stockholm 1256 Middle East Medina’s mosque is destroyed by fire 1256 Europe French theologian William of Saint-Amour writes De periculis novissimorum temporum 1257-1258 Middle East The Persian writer Shaykh Saՙdi writes The Orchard and The Rose 1257-1266 Europe Roger Bacon is in Paris teaching mathematics, perspective, and philosophy and conducting scientific investigations 1257-1299 Europe The republics of Venice and Genoa battle for control of trade routes and ports in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea; although neither side clearly defeats the other, Venice proves more resilient and Genoa never recovers 1258 Middle East Il-Khanid Mongols sack the Islamic capital, Baghdad, and murder the caliph al-Mustaՙṣim, ending the ՙAbbāsid caliphate—a major blow to Islamic civilization 1258 Europe Provisions of Oxford Are Established 1259 Southeast Asia Mangrai Founds the Kingdom of Lan Na Sept. 3, 1260 Middle East Battle of Ain Jālūt: Mongols invade Syria and capture Damascus but are defeated by Mamlūk slave cavalry 1260-1277 Middle East Reign of Baybars I, sultan of Egypt and Syria 1260-1278 Europe William of Moerbeke translates Aristotle’s works 1260-1294 East Asia Reign of the Mongol Kublai Khan, who moves his capital to Beijing and establishes the Yuan Dynasty 1260-1315 Europe Nicola and Giovanni Pisano are creating cathedral sculptures in northern and central Italy 1261 Middle East Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus retakes Constantinople from the Venetians, who had captured the city in 1204, but the Byzantine Empire will never regain its former power 1261 Europe, Asia Civil war between Il-Khanate of Persia and the Golden Horde of Russia begins 1262-1288 Europe Salimbene writes his Chronicle 1263 Europe Jewish scholar and physician Naḥmanides is forced to debate a Dominican friar as a stratagem to convert him to Christianity; despite the rigged and unfair restrictions of the debate, Naḥmanides rebuts the Dominican’s claims and defeats him 1263-1265 Europe Barons’ War over baronial participation in English government; royalist victory results in restoration of King Henry III 1264 Europe Death of Vincent of Beauvais, French scholar and historian c. 1265-1273 Europe Thomas Aquinas Compiles the Summa Theologica Feb. 26, 1266 Europe Battle of Benevento: Charles of Anjou conquers Sicily, establishing Angevin rule 1268 Europe Death of Flemish mystic Beatrice of Nazareth 1269 Europe Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt publishes his treatise on the properties and uses of magnetism 1269-1270 Africa Eighth Crusade is organized by a now elderly Louis IX, who dies upon landing in Tunisia 1269-1465 Africa The Marinid Dynasty conquers the Maghrid and ends Almohad rule in northwestern Africa 1270-1272 Middle East Edward I, the son of Henry III of England, decides to press on alone to Palestine after the French abandon the Eighth Crusade and achieves some modest success with a truce before the ultimate fall of Acre, the last bastion of the Crusader states, in 1291 1270-1277 Europe Siger of Brabant is condemned by the Church for his heretical teaching of Averroistic doctrines and finally flees Paris for Rome 1270-1285 Africa Yekuno Amlak Founds the Solomonid Dynasty: The Solomonic period is a golden age of trade and cultural exchange for Ethiopia and the surrounding region 1271-1276 Europe Gregory X is pope 1271-1295 Europe, Mideast, and Asia Travels of Marco Polo 1272-1307 Europe Reign of Edward I, king of England 1273 Europe Catalan mystic Raymond Lull writes his Book of Contemplation 1273 Middle East Sufi Order of Mawlawīyah Is Established 1273-1291 Europe Reign of Rudolf I, Holy Roman Emperor 1274-1278 Europe Habsburg-Bohemian War: Rudolf’s victory results in establishment of the Habsburg Dynasty in Austria 1274, 1281 East Asia The Mongols attempt naval invasions of Japan but are forced to retreat by devastating typhoons 1275 Europe First Mechanical Clock 1275 East Asia Nestorian Archbishopric Is Founded in Beijing c. 1275 Europe The Zohar Is Transcribed 1275 Europe Theoleptus of Philadelphia retires as a monk to Mount Athos in northeastern Greece, where he practices a form of prayer and spirituality known as Hesychasm Jan. 6, 1275 Europe Death of Spanish religious scholar Raymond of Peñafort c. 1276-1277 Europe Adam de la Halle writes his play Jeu d’Adam Nov. 15, 1280 Europe Death of Saint Albertus Magnus, German philosopher, theologian, and scientist c. 1280-1300 Europe Guido Cavalcanti is writing love poetry in the “sweet new style” c. 1281/88-1326 Middle East Reign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire Nov. 14, 1282 East Asia Death of Japanese monk Nichiren c. 1284 Europe Arnolfo di Cambio becomes Florence’s capomaestro, or chief architect 1284 Europe The 64-meter-high vault of the Cathedral of Saint-Pierre Beauvais collapses, revealing limits to the height of Gothic cathedrals 1285 Europe Statute of Winchester 1285-1314 Europe Reign of Philip IV the Fair, king of France 1290-1306 Europe Jews Are Expelled from England, France, and Southern Italy c. 1290-1326 Middle East Reign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire in northwestern Anatolia 1290-1388 Europe Anglo-Scottish wars produce Scottish independence until the seventeenth century Apr. 1291 Middle East Fall of Acre, Palestine marks the end of the Crusader kingdom in Palestine Aug. 1291 Europe The principalities of Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden sign a written alliance for mutual defense; it will form the basis for the state of Switzerland Dec. 8, 1292 Europe Death of John Pecham, archbishop of Canterbury 1293-1310 Southeast Asia Rise of kingdom of Majapahit in Java, which emerges in the fight against the Mongols 1294 Europe Edward I of England attacks La Rochelle; in response, Philip IV seizes the English duchy of Aquitaine 1295 Europe Model Parliament establishes broad political representation in England 1295 Southeast Asia Ramkhamhaeng Conquers the Mekong and Menam Valleys 1295-1304 Middle East Reign of Maḥmūd Ghāzān, Mongol il-khan of Iran 1296 Europe Franciscans found the church of Santa Croce in Florence 1296-1316 South Asia Reign of ՙAlā՚-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī, Khaljī sultan of Delhi Sept. 11, 1297 Europe Battle of Stirling Bridge: William Wallace defeats the English in this battle in the Anglo-Scottish wars July 22, 1298 Europe Battle of Falkirk: English defeat William Wallace 1299 South Asia ՙAlā-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Khaljī Conquers Gujarat Dec. 22, 1299 Middle East Battle of Homs: Ghāzān defeats the Mamlūks 1290’s-c. 1310 Europe Arnold of Villanova develops alcohol distillation and writes numerous medical treatises 1300 Americas The mound-builder city of Etowah, in northeastern Georgia, dominates the region 1300 East Asia Japanese sword makers create the katana, a curved sword used by samurai warriors c. 1300 Americas Distinct tribal identities among North American indigenous peoples develop in response to the increasing importance of agriculture and sedentary cultures c. 1300 Europe Early oil painting on a Norwegian church altar heralds the refinement and proliferation of the technique a century later c. 1300-1350 Europe Albanians migrate southward from the Balkans into central Greece 1300’s Europe The population of France is estimated to be about 20 million, far greater than that of Germany (14 million) or England (only 4 million) c. 1300-1400 Central and South Asia Nepalese artists begin to influence Tibetan art 14th c. Africa The semilegendary founder of Benin and Oyo, Prince Oranmiyan, flourishes in West Africa 14th c. Europe The carrack, an efficient sailing ship with multiple masts, becomes popular in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters 14th-15th c. Europe The increasing predominance of firearms in Europe results in the diminishing use of archers in warfare July 11, 1302 Europe Battle of Courtrai: The eight-year battle between England’s Edward I and France’s Philip IV ends when the count of Flanders, an English ally, defeats Philip July 27, 1302 Middle East Battle of Bapheus: first battle of the Byzantine-Ottoman wars; the Byzantines attempt to meet the challenge of Ottoman power but are defeated Nov. 18, 1302 Europe Boniface VIII Issues the Bull Unam Sanctam 1302-1461 Europe, Middle East Byzantine-Ottoman wars test whether the reduced Byzantine Empire can defend itself against the growing Ottoman Empire, marking the rise of Ottoman domination of Balkans and Middle East 1304 Europe Giotto begins painting his frescoes in Padua 1305 Europe Dietrich von Freiberg investigates rainbows to understand reflection and refraction 1305-1307 Europe Scholastic theologian John Duns Scotus is teaching in Paris 1305-1417 Europe Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism Before 1306 Europe Marguerite Porete writes The Mirror of Simple Souls c. 1306 East Asia Japanese poet Nijō writes Towazugatari, or The Confessions of Lady Nijō, concerning her life at court c. 1306-1320 Europe Dante Writes The Divine Comedy 1306-1329 Europe Reign of Robert Bruce, king of Scotland 1307-1327 Europe Reign of Edward II, king of England 1308-1330 Europe Reign of Isabella of France, queen of England 1309-1466 Europe Teutonic Knights’ wars with Poland: The Teutonic Order becomes the dominant power on the Baltic coastline 1310-c. 1350 Europe William of Ockham Attacks Thomist Ideas 1312-1337 Africa Reign of Mansa Mūsā, king of Mali 1313-1357 Europe Ghibelline-Guelph struggle for domination of Tuscany 1314 Africa Emperor Amda Tseyon comes to power in Ethiopia, expanding the Solomonid Dynasty June 23-24, 1314 Europe Battle of Bannockburn: Robert I’s victory ensures Scottish independence 1314-1325 Europe German civil war for control of the Holy Roman Empire: Wittelsbach victory confines the Habsburgs to their Austrian possessions 1315 Europe Simone Martini produces his masterpiece, the Siena Maestà Nov. 15, 1315 Europe Swiss Victory at Morgarten over Habsburg Forces 1316-1334 Europe John XXII is pope 1317-1329 Europe Jewish rabbi and philosopher Levi ben Gershom writes The Wars of the Lord c. 1320 Middle East Origins of the Bubonic Plague: The point of origin is contested but may be in Crimea, carried back to China by Mongol soldiers; epidemics begin to emerge in the 1330’s in China and spread west 1320 Europe Philippe de Vitry produces his treatise on music, Ars nova 1320-1328 Europe Luccan-Florentine war: In the Ghibelline-Guelph struggle for domination of Tuscany, a major setback for the Ghibellines 1320-1334 Europe French painter Jean Pucelle is illuminating manuscripts in Paris 1323-1326 Southeast Asia Champa Wins Independence from Dai Viet 1323-1328 Europe Peasants’ Revolt in Flanders 1324 Europe Aragon conquers Sardinia July 2, 1324 Europe Lady Alice Kyteler Is Found Guilty of Witchcraft 1324-1325 Africa Mansa Mūsā’s Pilgrimage to Mecca Sparks Interest in Mali Empire 1325-1355 Africa Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭah 1325-c. 1400 Americas Rise of the Kachina cult in the American Southwest 1325-1519 Americas Aztecs Build Tenochtitlán: Mexican people settle on a marshy island in the Basin of Mexico’s Lake Texcoco, building monuments to gods such as Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc 1327-1369 Europe Reign of Philippa of Hainaut, queen of England 1327-1377 Europe Reign of Edward III, king of England 1328 Europe Philip VI, the first French king from the Valois branch of the Capetian dynasty, ascends the French throne 1328 Europe King Edward III of England signs the Treaty of Northampton, formally recognizing Scottish sovereignty 1328 Europe William of Ockham challenges Church authority and upholds the rights of lay rulers 1328-1350 Europe Flowering of Late Medieval Physics 1329-1371 Europe Reign of David II, king of Scotland Nov. 1330 Europe Basarab Defeats the Hungarians at the Battle of Posada 1331 Europe Siege of Friuli in Italy is marked by early use of gunpowder weaponry on the battlefield 1331-1355 Europe Reign of Stefan Dušan, king of Serbia 1333 Africa Kilwa Kisiwani Begins Economic and Historical Decline 1333-1370 Europe Reign of Casimir the Great, king of Poland 1333-1466 Europe Polish wars of expansion: Poland comes into power, achieving access to trade ports and political dominance of eastern central Europe 1334-1360 Europe The bell tower at the Cathedral of Florence is built 1335 Middle East Il-Khanate of Persia ends 1336-1392 East Asia Yoshino Civil Wars: Ashikaga Takauji ousts Emperor Go-Daigo from Kyoto, establishing the Northern Court in Japan as Go-Daigo takes refuge in the south at Yoshino and founds the Southern Court; thus begins the Muromachi period, a time of intense rivalry and warfare between competing warlords known as daimyo 1337-1453 Europe Hundred Years’ War: a series of military conflicts between France and England that resulted in France’s ultimate victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, a rise in nationalism in a more unified France, England’s withdrawal from its French holdings, and England’s emergence as a preeminent naval power 1340 Africa Al-ՙUmarī Writes a History of Africa June 24, 1340 Europe Battle of Sluis: English fleet overcomes the French in this naval battle in the Hundred Years’ War 1340’s Europe Jean Buridan is writing his commentaries on the works of Aristotle c. 1343 South Asia Completion of Vijayanagar in southern India, one of the most lavishly appointed cities in the world, with palaces, temples, and huge gateways 1346 South Asia Muslim armies raid the Kathmandu valley in Nepal, destroying images and temples Aug. 26, 1346 Europe Battle of Crécy: Key battle in the Hundred Years’ War, notable for the use of longbows by the English to defeat French knights; also marked the role of gunpowder artillery. English victory at Crécy foreshadowed the decline of the mounted knight and a greater emphasis on missile warfare Oct. 17, 1346 Europe Battle of Neville’s Cross: English defeat David II and the Scots 1346-1381 Europe Hungarian-Venetian wars: Hungary gains Dalmatia 1347 Europe Siege of Calais ends when the English capture this city on the French coast of the English Channel, after a yearlong siege 1347 South Asia ՙAlā՚-ud-Dīn Bahman Shāh Founds the Bahmanī Sultanate 1347-1352 Europe Invasion of the Black Death in Europe: Traveling on flea-infested rats from the east, the plague erupts first in Constantinople and then travels west to Italy and north throughout Europe for the next three years, killing a third of the population; more than any other natural event, this epidemic shaped Europe for centuries, not only economically, as labor shortages gave rise to a new middle class, but also religiously and politically, as social reforms were instituted to cope with the epidemic’s aftermath 1347-1354 Europe Cola di Rienzo Leads Popular Uprising in Rome c. 1350 Americas Mixtecs and Zapotecs intermarry to extend their territories in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley c. 1350 Australia/Pacific On the islands of central Vanuatu (New Hebrides) in the southwestern Pacific, the legendary king Roy Mata is in power, as evidenced by a burial site containing his body and shell artifacts 1350 Americas Eastern Woodland culture, characterized by religious practices and artifacts displaying warrior, bird-man, and serpent imagery, flourishes in eastern North America 1350 Southeast Asia Ramathibodi I Creates First Thai Legal System 1350-55, 1378-80 Europe More Venetian-Genoese battles for control of trade routes and ports in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea; Venice thrives while Genoa declines c. 1350-1400 Europe Petrarch and Boccaccio Recover Classical Texts, leading to the emergence of Humanism and laying a foundation for the Renaissance 1352-1434 Southeast Asia Khmer-Thai wars: Siamese attempts to exert political dominance over Cambodia cause the decline of the Khmer Empire 1353-1373 Southeast Asia Fa Ngum founds the Lan Xang, a kingdom that controls Laos and parts of Thailand 1354 Europe Ottoman Turks capture the Byzantine fortress of Gallipoli and begin expansion into the Balkans 1354 Europe Andrea Orcagna is commissioned by Strozzi family to paint an altarpiece in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Christ Conferring Authority on Saints Peter and Thomas Aquinas 1355-1378 Europe Reign of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor 1356 Europe Golden Bull: Charles IV reiterates the power of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, thus limiting German unity Sept. 19, 1356 Europe Battle of Poitiers: English defeat the French and capture the French king John II, who is held prisoner in England until 1360 1358-1384 Middle East Persian poet Hafiz is composing his ghazal 1360 Europe Treaty of Brétigny: England gains Calais and nearly the whole of Aquitaine 1360 Europe Jean de Venette records the trauma of plague and war during his times in his Chronicon c. 1360-1406 Middle East Jalayirid Dynasty rules Iraq and northwestern Iran after the collapse of the Il-Khans c. 1360-1440 East Asia Kan’ami and Zeami Perfect Nō Drama 1361-1370 Europe Danish wars with the Hanseatic League: The League maintains its supremacy in the Baltic region 1363 Europe Guy de Chauliac completes his treatise on surgery, Chirurgia magna 1366 Europe Statute of Kilkenny 1368 Southeast Asia Burmese civil wars for provincial supremacy of Burma begin; Burma is united by 1555 1368 East Asia Establishment of the Ming Dynasty: The native Chinese population reasserts itself, burning the Mongol palaces of the Yuan Dynasty in Beijing 1368 Central Asia Tibet Gains Independence from Mongols 1369 Europe A sense of national identity begins to form in the Low Countries (Netherlands) with the marriage of Margaret of Flanders to Philip the Bold of Burgundy, inaugurating more than a century of Burgundian rule of the region 1369-1388 Europe Portuguese-Castilian war over reciprocal claims by Portugal and Castile to each other’s thrones; mutual independence is assured for Portugal and Castile, and Portugal and England begin a long alliance c. 1371 Americas In Mexico, Tezozomoc becomes king at Azcapotzalco and takes control of Tenochtitlán, naming Acamapichtli as its king 1371 Europe Battle of Marica: Turks defeat the Serbians and Bulgarians 1371-1529 Southeast Asia Thai kingdom and the provinces of Ayutthaya and Chiengmai struggle for dominance 1373-1410 Europe Jean Froissart Compiles His Chronicles 1375 Middle East The Armenian kingdom of Cilicia, in southern Anatolia, falls to the Mamlūks 1376 Africa Ibn Khaldūn abandons his political career to live among North Africa’s nomadic tribes and write 1376 Europe Catherine of Siena travels to Avignon to urge the pope to return to Rome 1377 Southeast Asia The Majapahit kingdom conquers Palembang in Sumatra, ending Śrivijayan dominance 1377 Africa Ibn Khaldūn Completes His Muqaddimah Apr.?, 1377 Europe Death of Guillaume de Machaut, French poet and composer of polyphonic music 1377-1378 Europe Condemnation of John Wyclif 1377-1399 Europe Reign of Richard II, king of England 1378-1419 Europe Reign of Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia c. 1380 South Asia Compilation of the Wise Sayings of Lal Ded Sept. 8, 1380 Europe Battle of Kulikovo: defeat of the Mongols by Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow May-June 1381 Europe Peasants’ Revolt in England, led by Wat Tyler July 15, 1381 Europe John Ball is executed near St. Albans Abbey for his part in Wat Tyler’s Peasants’ Revolt 1381-1405 Middle East Tamerlane’s Conquests: After establishing Timurid rule in Central Asia, Tamerlane gains control over most of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia, as well as southern Russia and India 1382-1395 South Asia Reign of Sthitimalla 1382-1516 Middle East In the Mamlūk sultanate, the Burjī sultans, Circassian military elites, replace the Baḥrī line 1384-1399 Europe Reign of Władysław II Jagiełło and Jadwiga, king and queen of Poland 1385-1499 Europe Austro-Swiss wars: Swiss victory secures the de facto independence of Switzerland c. 1387 East Asia Chinese Create the Eight-Legged Essay 1387-1400 Europe Chaucer Writes The Canterbury Tales 1387-1412 Europe Reign of Margaret, queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1389 Europe Battle of Falköping: Margaret’s forces were victorious in this battle of the Swedish civil war June 28, 1389 Europe Turkish Conquest of Serbia: Battle of Kosovo 1389-1402 Middle East Reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, who will defeat Tamerlane and the Timurids 1391 Europe Jews on the Iberian Peninsula are persecuted and massacred c. 1392 Central Asia Foundation of the Gelugpa Order of Buddhist monks July 1392 East Asia Establishment of the Yi Dynasty Sept. 25, 1396 Middle East Battle of Nicopolis: European Christians fail to drive back the Muslim Turks, leaving them in control of the Balkans 1397 East Asia Publication of the Laws of Great Ming June 17, 1397 Europe Kalmar Union Is Formed: Sweden, Norway, and Denmark are united Dec. 17, 1399 South Asia Battle of Pānīpat, major battle during Tamerlane’s invasion of India 1399-1404 Central Asia Tamerlane Builds the Bibi Khanum Mosque in Samarqand 1399-1413 Europe Reign of Henry IV, king of England c. 1400 Americas The Mayan codexes are being created c. 1400 Americas In Mexico, the population of the Tarascan state grows to about 35,000, centered on its capital at Tzintzuntzan 1400 Africa The Kongo kingdom becomes central Africa’s largest state, with its capital at Mbanza 1400 Americas In southeastern North America, Moundville, Etowah, and Spiro are in decline 1400 Europe Iceland enters a five-century period of decline following natural disasters, climate change, disease, and depleted resources Oct. 25?, 1400 Europe Death of Geoffrey Chaucer c. 1400-1401 Middle East Tamerlane’s armies burn and loot Aleppo and Damascus in Syria and Baghdad in Iraq 1400-1402 East Asia Zeami Motokiyo writes his first treatise on the aesthetics of Nō drama, Fūshikaden 1400-1403 Europe Christine de Pizan composes Le Livre de la mutacion de fortune and Le Livre du chemin de long éstude 1400-1409 Europe Glendower’s Revolt: This struggle for Welsh independence from England results in English victory and Welsh submission, impoverishment, and social restructuring Aug. 20, 1400-11 Europe German civil war: Wenceslaus of Bohemia wins this struggle for the Holy Roman Empire and the Rhine-Main area of Germany, but his power continues to decline, enabling his brother Sigismund to replace him as king 1400-1500 Africa Foundation of the West African States of Benin 15th c. Europe The Medici merchant-banker family rules Florence, exerting not only economic and political but also cultural influence stemming from their patronage of the arts July 28, 1402 Central Asia Battle of Ankara: Tamerlane defeats Bayezid I 1402-1421 Middle East Mehmed I reestablishes a unified Ottoman state after the death of his father Bayezid I 1402-1424 East Asia Reign of Chinese Ming emperor Yonglo is marked by five military campaigns, the development of porcelains and textiles, and the proliferation of Buddhist influence 1403-1407 East Asia Yonglo Dadian Encyclopedia Is Compiled 1404-1406 Southeast Asia Malacca emerges as the most important trading center on the Malay Peninsula 1405 Central Asia Death of Tamerlane 1405-1433 East Asia Zheng He’s Naval Expeditions 1406 Europe Pisa falls to Florence c. 1406-1408 East Asia In Beijing, work begins on the Forbidden City 1406-1428 East Asia The Chinese take control of Vietnam 1408 Europe Donatello sculpts his bronze David 1409-1419 Central Asia Gelugpa Buddhists build three major monasteries in Lhasa: Ganden in 1409, Drepung in 1416, and Sera in 1419 1409-1613 Europe Kalmar wars: Sweden achieves independence July 15, 1410 Europe Battle of Tannenberg: marks the decline of the Teutonic Knights and the rise of Polish influence in the Baltic c. 1410-1440 Europe Florentine School of Art Emerges 1413-1422 Europe Reign of Henry V, king of England 1414-1418 Europe Council of Constance ends the Great Schism July 6, 1415 Europe Martyrdom of Jan Hus Oct. 25, 1415 Europe Battle of Agincourt: English rout the French in the first of a string of English victories in the Hundred Years’ War 1415-1460 Europe Prince Henry the Navigator Promotes Portuguese Exploration: Portuguese establish contact along West African coast 1417 East Asia The Confucian texts known as the Great Compendium of the Philosophy of Human Nature appear; with the Five Classics and the Four Books, they set the standard for Chinese scholarship 1418-1450 East Asia The reign of the Yi Dynasty emperor Sejong is marked by the creation of a written Korean language 1419-1436 Europe Hussite wars: Prompted by the martyrdom of Jan Hus, a Bohemian civil war in which Czech Hussites, nationalist followers of Hus, attack clerics and churches c. 1420 Americas Cozumel, an island off the coast of Yucatan, becomes a destination for women seeking to worship the Mayan fertility goddess Ixchel 1420’s Europe The works of Masaccio, the foremost painter of the early fifteenth century, mark the transition from medieval to Renaissance art 1423 Europe Battle of Cravant: English defeat French 1423 Europe Appearance of the earliest dated woodcut, depicting Saint Christopher 1423-1454 Europe Venetian-Milanese wars result in a strong Venetian mainland with protected routes to European markets and long-term peace between Venice and Milan 1424 Europe Battle of Verneuil: English defeat French c. 1425 Europe The corning, or granulating, process is developed to grind gunpowder into smaller grains 1425 Americas Growth of the Zuni villages of New Mexico 1425-1462 Europe Russian civil war determines principle of succession from father to son 1426-1435 East Asia Reign of the Ming emperor Xuande, known for his patronage of the arts c. 1427 Europe Thomas à Kempis writes The Imitation of Christ 1427 Southeast Asia Battle of Chi Lang Pass: Vietnam is liberated 1427?-1440 Americas Reign of Itzcóatl, king of the Aztecs: The Aztec Empire begins when the Mexica of Tenochtitlán form the Triple Alliance with Tlacopan and Texcoco and defeat Azcapotzalco 1428 East and Southeast Asia Le Loi Establishes Later Le Dynasty May 4-8, 1429 Europe Joan of Arc’s Relief of Orléans 1429 Europe Alain Chartier writes about Joan of Arc in Epistola de Puella 1430 Europe Philip the Good creates the Order of the Golden Fleece, which he awards to nobles in the Low Countries as a means of uniting them politically under his Burgundian control 1430’s Europe Florentine painter Fra Angelico is painting his Annunciation 1430’s Europe The Van Eyck brothers are painting their masterpiece, a polyptych known as The Ghent Altarpiece c. 1430’s-1450 Europe Leonello d’Este establishes Ferrara as a major center for Humanism and the arts 1431 Southeast Asia The Khmer Empire falls to Thais after they sack Angkor May 30, 1431 Europe Joan of Arc is burned for heresy 1431-1447 Europe Eugene IV is pope 1431-1449 Europe The Council of Basel rejects and weakens papal authority in the wake of scandals over church corruption; the Church is in a state of crisis, which paves the way for the Reformation c. 1435-1464 Europe Architect Leon Battista Alberti writes his influential treatises on painting, architecture, and sculpture c. 1436 Europe English mystic Margery Kempe dictates her memoirs, The Book of Margery Kempe 1436 Europe Filippo Brunelleschi completes his revolutionary dome for the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence 1438-1769 East and Southeast Asia Burmese-Chinese wars: Border ambiguity gives rise to this conflict, but both sides tire of war, sign a treaty, and resume peaceful trade 1439-1459 Europe Frederick III of Habsburg is elected Holy Roman Emperor; during his reign, the German principalities will become increasingly independent 1440 Europe Donation of Constantine Is Exposed c. 1440-1480 Africa Oba Ewedo rules Benin, establishing a highly centralized, autocratic form of government and devising new military weapons and tactics 1442-1456 Europe János Hunyadi Defends Hungary Against the Ottomans 1443-1468 Africa The Tuareg, a group of nomadic, semisedentary tribes and slave traders, take control of Timbuktu and Gao 1443-1478 Middle East, Europe Albanian-Turkish wars: Albania becomes part of the Ottoman Empire Nov. 10, 1444 Hungary Battle of Varna: Murad defeats János Hunyadi and Władysław 1444-1446 Europe Albanian Chieftains Unite Under Prince Skanderbeg 1447 Europe Visconti rule of Milan ends with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti and the ascension of the Sforza family 1447-1450 Europe Pope Nicholas V’s Roman Jubilee year (1450) is preceded by massive building and renovation projects, including the Senators’ Palace on Capitoline Hill, the Vatican Palace, and an expansion of Saint Peter’s 1448-1471 Europe Bohemian civil war over control of the Bohemian crown 1448-1471 Europe Sweden breaks from Denmark and Norway and becomes independent c. 1450 Europe Gutenberg Pioneers the Printing Press: The ability to print and publish a broad variety of documents, combined with the rise in use of vernacular languages, has a revolutionary impact on European civilization and helps lay a foundation for the Reformation and the proliferation of Humanist thought 1450 Africa Songhai incorporates the former kingdom of Mali and becomes one of the largest empires in Africa 1450 Europe Battle of Formigny: French defeat English and Normandy becomes French territory 1450-1550 East Asia Japanese civil wars for control of Japanese provinces eventually lead to consolidation of power on a national scale 1451-1481 Middle East Reign of the great Ottoman sultan Mehmed II 1452 Europe Florentine sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti completes work on the bronze doors of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence 1452 Europe The great Renaissance artist and engineer Leonardo da Vinci is born in Tuscany 1453 Europe English Are Driven from France after the Battle of Castillon, marking the virtual end of English possessions on the Continent and the end of the Hundred Years’ War May 29, 1453 Europe Fall of Constantinople marks the end of the Byzantine Empire and the ascendancy of the Muslim-Turkish Ottoman Empire

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