Time Line of Events Covered in Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

A time line of important events from the seventeenth century.

The time line below includes the events and developments covered in the essays in this publication (appearing in small capital letters) as well as more than 250 other important events and developments. Each event is tagged by general region or regions, rather than by smaller nations or principalities, which changed significantly over the century covered in this publication; by this means, the time line can be used to consider general trends in the same region over time. However, because many events, although occurring in one or two regions, nevertheless had a global or cross-regional impact, they have been left in strict chronological order to facilitate a better understanding of simultaneous events and their occasional interaction. The abbreviation “c.” is used below to stand for both “circa” (when it precedes the date) and “century” or “centuries” (when it follows the date).

Date Region Event Early 17th c. Europe Revenge Tragedies Become Popular in England Early 17th c. Africa Rise of Rwanda 17th c. World Advances in Medicine 17th c. Southeast Asia Age of Mercantilism in Southeast Asia 17th c. Europe Birth Control in Western Europe 17th c. Africa Emergence of Luba Governance 17th c. Europe England’s Agricultural Revolution 17th c. Europe Europe Endorses Slavery 17th c. Southeast Asia The Pepper Trade 17th c. Europe Rise of Proto-Industrial Economies 17th c. World Rise of the Gunpowder Empires 17th c. Africa Songhai Empire Dissolves 1601 Europe Caracci finishes the Galleria ceiling of the Palazzo Farnese 1601 Europe Elizabethan Poor Law c. 1601 Europe Emergence of Baroque Music c. 1601 Africa Emergence of the Merina Kingdom Beginning c. 1601 Africa Expansion of the Oyo Kingdom 1601 Europe Foundation of the Academy of the Lynxes c. 1601-1606 Europe Appearance of the False Dmitry c. 1601-1613 Europe Shakespeare Produces His Later Plays c. 1601-1620 Europe Emergence of Baroque Art 1601-1672 Europe Rise of Scientific Societies c. 1601-1682 Europe Spanish Golden Age Feb. 7-19, 1601 Europe Essex Rebellion July 5, 1601-Apr., 1604 Europe Siege of Oostende Dec., 1601 Southeast Asia Dutch Defeat the Portuguese in Bantam Harbor 1602 Europe Caccini publishes The New Music 1602 Europe Caravaggio paints The Taking of Christ 1602 Europe Ulster submits to England 1602-1613 East Asia Japan Admits Western Traders 1602-1639 Middle East Ottoman-Ṣafavid Wars Mar. 20, 1602 South Asia Dutch East India Company Is Founded Nov., 1602 Europe First Modern Libraries in Europe 1603 Africa Death of the last Saՙdian sultan 1603 East Asia Tokugawa Shogunate Begins 1603-1617 Middle East Reign of Sultan Ahmed I 1603-1629 East Asia Okuni Stages the First Kabuki Dance Dramas Mar. 15, 1603-Dec. 25, 1635 North America Champlain’s Voyages Mar. 24, 1603 Europe James I Becomes King of England 1604 Europe First Enclosure Act passed by English parliament 1604 Europe King James I publishes A Counterblaste to Tobacco 1604 Europe Treaty of London 1604-1680 North America Rise of Criollo Identity in Mexico Spring, 1604 North America First European Settlement in North America 1605 North America French found Acadia 1605 East Asia Tokugawa Ieyasu passes the title of shogun to his son c. 1605-1606 Europe First production of Shakespeare’s King Lear 1605 and 1615 Europe Cervantes Publishes Don Quixote De La Mancha 1605-1627 South Asia Mughal Court Culture Flourishes Beginning Spring, 1605 Southeast Asia Dutch Dominate Southeast Asian Trade Sept., 1605 Africa Egyptians Rebel Against the Ottomans Nov. 5, 1605 Europe Gunpowder Plot 1606 Southeast Asia Dutch and Portuguese first battle for control of Malacca 1606-1674 South Asia Europeans Settle in India Apr. 29, 1606 Australia First European Contact with Australia Sept., 1606-June, 1609 Middle East Great Jelālī Revolts Nov. 11, 1606 Europe Treaty of Zsitvatorok Beginning 1607 East Asia Neo-Confucianism Becomes Japan’s Official Philosophy 1607 Europe Scrooby Congregation emigrates to the Netherlands 1607 Europe Ulster’s nobility flees to the Continent Feb. 24, 1607 Europe First Performance of Monteverdi’s La favola d’Orfeo May 14, 1607 North America Jamestown Is Founded Nov. 28, 1607 North America Martin Begins Draining Lake Texcoco 1608 Europe Establishment of the Evangelical Union 1608 Latin America Jesuits Found Paraguay 1608 North America Quebec is founded Sept., 1608 Europe Invention of the Telescope 1609 Europe Bank of Amsterdam Invents Checks 1609 East Asia/Europe China Begins Shipping Tea to Europe 1609 East Asia Dutch traders establish factory on Hirado Island, Japan 1609 Europe Establishment of the Catholic League 1609 Europe Kepler publishes his New Astronomy 1609 Europe Spain expels the Moriscos 1609-1617 Middle East Construction of the Blue Mosque 1609-1619 Europe Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion 1610 North America Franciscans found a mission in Santa Fe 1610 Europe Galileo Confirms the Heliocentric Model of the Solar System 1610-1614 Europe Rubens paints his triptychs of Christ on the Cross 1610-1617 Europe Regency of French queen Marie de Médicis 1610-1643 Europe Reign of Louis XIII Beginning June, 1610 North America Hudson Explores Hudson Bay 1611 South Asia British East India Company establishes a factory at Masulipatam 1611 Europe Publication of the King James Bible 1611-1630’s North America Jesuits Begin Missionary Activities in New France 1612 North America Introduction of Tobacco Farming in North America 1612 Africa Rise of the Arma in Timbuktu 1612 Europe Sanctorius Invents the Clinical Thermometer Aug., 1612 Europe Expulsion of Polish forces from Moscow Feb. 7, 1613 Europe Election of Michael Romanov as Czar June 29, 1613 Europe Burning of the Globe Theatre July-Nov., 1613 North America Captain Samuel Argall, admiral of Virginia, destroys French settlements at Port Royal, Saint Croix, and Saint Sauveur 1614-1615 East Asia Siege of Ōsaka Castle Jan. 27, 1614 East Asia Japanese Ban Christian Missionaries July-Nov., 1613 North America Captain Samuel Argall, admiral of Virginia, destroys French settlements at Port Royal, Saint Croix, and Saint Sauveur Beginning c. 1615 Europe Coffee Culture Flourishes 1615 Europe The Inquisition condemns the Copernican model of the solar system 1615 Latin America Guamán Poma Pleas for Inca Reforms 1615 Europe Polish landowners invade Ottoman Moldavia 1615 East Asia Promulgation of the Buke Shohatto and Kinchū Narabini Kuge Shohatto 1615-1696 Europe Invention and Development of the Calculus 1616 South Asia Danish East India Company is founded 1616 East Asia Nurhaci founds the Hou Jin Dynasty 1616-1643 East Asia Rise of the Manchus 1617 Africa Dutch purchase Gorée Island 1617 East Asia Edo’s Floating World District 1617-1619 Southeast Asia Sultan of Banten besieges Dutch headquarters at Jacatra (Jakarta) 1617-1628 Europe Harvey Discovers the Circulation of the Blood 1617-1693 Africa European Powers Vie for Control of Gorée 1617-c. 1700 North America Smallpox Epidemics Kill Native Americans Mar., 1617 Europe Spain and the Habsburgs agree to cooperate in Catholic military ventures 1618-1648 Europe Thirty Years’ War May 23, 1618 Europe Defenestration of Prague Beginning c. 1619 North America Indentured Servitude Becomes Institutionalized in America 1619-1622 Europe Jones Introduces Classicism to English Architecture 1619-1633 Europe Filaret, patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, rules Russia alongside Michael 1619-1636 Central Asia Construction of Samarqand’s Shirdar Madrasa 1619-c. 1700 Americas/Africa The Middle Passage to American Slavery May, 1619 Southeast Asia Jacatra is destroyed and renamed Batavia July 30-Aug. 4, 1619 North America First General Assembly of Virginia Aug. 20, 1619 North America Africans Arrive in Virginia 1620 Europe Bacon Publishes Novum Organum 1620 Middle East Construction of the Lab-i Haws July, 1620-Sept., 1639 Europe Struggle for the Valtelline Pass July 3, 1620 Europe Treaty of Ulm Nov. 8, 1620 Europe Battle of White Mountain Dec. 26, 1620 North America Pilgrims Arrive in North America 1621 Southeast Asia Dutch invade Banda Islands 1621 Caribbean Dutch West India Company is founded 1621 Europe Siege of Khotin Mar. 31, 1621-Sept. 17, 1665 Europe Reign of Philip IV Apr., 1621 Europe Treaty of Madrid Dec. 18, 1621 Europe The Great Protestation 1622 East Asia The Great Martyrdom: Fifty-five Japanese Christians are executed Jan., 1622 Middle East Ṣafavids take Hormuz from the Portuguese Mar. 22, 1622-Oct., 1646 North America Powhatan Wars Apr. 25, 1622 Europe Battle of Wiesloch May 19, 1622 Middle East Janissary Revolt and Osman II’s Assassination 1623 Southeast Asia Dutch massacre English traders at Amboina 1623 Europe Publication of Shakespeare’s First Folio 1623-1624 Middle East ՙAbbās the Great invades Iraq 1623-1640 Middle East Murad IV Rules the Ottoman Empire 1623-1674 Europe Earliest Calculators Appear 1624 Europe Donne publishes Devotions upon Emergent Occasions 1624 Latin America Dutch launch naval strikes against Salvador 1624 Europe English parliament abolishes monopolies 1624 Middle East Oman expels Portuguese and establishes Al-Yaՙruba Dynasty 1624 North America Virginia becomes a royal colony 1624-1627 East Asia Imperial eunich Wei Zhongxian acts as de facto dictator of China 1624-1640’s East Asia Japan’s Seclusion Policy 1625 Africa/Americas Dutch enter the transatlantic slave trade c. 1625 Africa Formation of the Kuba Kingdom 1625 Europe Grotius Establishes the Concept of International Law c. 1625 Europe Strozzi paints The Cook 1625-Oct. 28, 1628 Europe Revolt of the Huguenots May 14, 1625-1640 Caribbean English Discover and Colonize Barbados July, 1625-Aug., 1664 North America Founding of New Amsterdam Oct., 1625-1637 Africa Dutch and Portuguese Struggle for the Guinea Coast 1626 Europe Treaty of Monzon 1626-1673 Southeast Asia Civil War Ravages Vietnam Apr. 10-21, 1626 Europe Battle of Dessau Bridge May 6, 1626 North America Algonquians “Sell” Manhattan Island Aug. 26, 1626 Europe Battle of Lutter 1627 Europe Cardinal de Richelieu reforms French colonial policy Apr. 27, 1627 North America Company of New France Is Chartered Aug. 10, 1627-Oct. 28, 1628 Europe Siege of La Rochelle 1628-1631 Europe War of Mantuan Succession May-July, 1628 Europe Siege of Strasund May 6-June 7, 1628 Europe Petition of Right 1629 Europe Grace of Alais 1629 East Asia Japan bans women from the stage 1629 Middle East Ṣafavid Dynasty Flourishes Under ՙAbbās the Great Mar., 1629-1640 Europe “Personal Rule” of Charles I Mar. 6, 1629 Europe Edict of Restitution May 22, 1629 Europe Peace of Lübeck 1630’s-1694 Latin America Slaves Resist Europeans at Palmares 1630 Europe Stelluti publishes the first drawings of insects as seen through a microscope 1630 Europe Treaty of Cherasco 1630-1648 Europe Destruction of Bavaria 1630-1654 Latin America Dutch establish New Holland in northeastern Brazil 1630-1660’s Latin America Dutch Wars in Brazil May, 1630-1643 Europe/North America Great Puritan Migration July-Nov., 1630 Europe Electoral assembly at Regensburg July 6, 1630 Europe Swedish army arrives in Pomerania Nov. 10, 1630 Europe The Day of Dupes 1631 East Asia Siege of Dalinghe 1631-1645 East Asia Li Zicheng’s Revolt Feb. 24, 1631 Europe Women First Appear on the English Stage May 20, 1631 Europe Fall of Magdeburg Sept. 17, 1631 Europe First Battle of Breitenfeld 1632 Central Asia Cossacks establish Yakutsk 1632 Europe Galileo Publishes Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican 1632 North America Powhatan Indians negotiate a peace treaty with English settlers 1632 North America/Europe Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye reestablishes French sovereignty over Acadia, Nova Scotia, and Quebec 1632-c. 1650 South Asia Shah Jahan Builds the Taj Mahal 1632-1667 Europe Polish-Russian Wars for the Ukraine Feb. 22-27, 1632 North America Zuñi Rebellion Apr., 1632 Europe Battle of Lech Fall, 1632-Jan. 5, 1665 North America Settlement of Connecticut Nov. 16, 1632 Europe Battle of Lützen 1633 Europe Trial of Galileo 1633-1638 Europe Van Dyck paints his portraits of Charles I Sept. 2, 1633 Middle East Great Fire of Constantinople and Murad’s Reforms 1634 Africa/Americas French enter the transatlantic slave trade Feb. 25, 1634 Europe Wallenstein is assassinated June, 1634 Europe Peace of Polianovka Sept. 6, 1634 Europe Battle of Nördlingen 1635 North America Jesuits found a college in Quebec 1635 East Asia Manchus establish a capital at Mukden 1635 Europe Velázquez paints the Surrender of Breda May, 1635-Dec., 1638 Middle East Murad IV invades Iraq May 30, 1635 Europe Peace of Prague Oct. 9, 1635 North America Massachusetts Bay Colony orders Roger Williams to leave its territory 1636 East Asia Abahai renames Hou Jin Dynasty as Qing Dynasty and declares himself first Qing emperor of China Jan., 1636 North America Williams flees Massachusetts June, 1636 North America Rhode Island Is Founded July 20, 1636-July 28, 1637 North America Pequot War Oct. 4, 1636 Europe Battle of Wittstock 1637 Europe Descartes Publishes His Discourse on Method 1637 Europe Archbishop Laud and Charles I attempt to impose a Book of Common Prayer on Scotland Oct., 1637-Apr. 15, 1638 East Asia Shimabara Revolt 1638 North America First Printing Press in North America 1638 North America New Haven is founded 1638 Middle East Waning of the Devshirme System 1638-1639 Central Asia Urga Becomes the Seat of the Living Buddha 1638-1669 Europe Spread of Jansenism Mar. 2, 1638 Europe Battle of Rheinfelden 1639 Caribbean Barbados holds its first Parliament 1639 North America Framing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639-1640 South Asia British East India Company Establishes Fort Saint George Mar.-June, 1639 Europe First Bishops’ War Spring, 1639 North America Pocasset (Portsmouth) is founded April 22, 1639 Europe Pope Urban VIII issues a bull outlawing slavery in the New World May, 1639 Middle East Treaty of Kasr-I Shirin June 19, 1639 Europe Pacification of Berwick Sept., 1639 Europe Capitulation of Milan Dec., 1639 East Asia Russians Reach the Pacific Ocean 1640 Africa Foundation of the Darfur Sultanate 1640 East Asia Portugal sends a diplomatic mission to reopen relations with Japan; most of the crew is executed 1640-1641 Europe Diet of Regensburg 1640-1641 Europe Publication of Jansen’s Augustinus 1640-1688 Europe Reign of Frederick William, the Great Elector Apr. 13-May 5, 1640 Europe England’s Short Parliament May, 1640-Jan. 23, 1641 Europe Revolt of the Catalans June, 1640 Europe Pope Urban VIII issues a bull condemning the enslavement of Native American peoples June-Aug., 1640 Latin America Bandeirantes Expel the Jesuits Nov. 3, 1640-May 15, 1641 Europe Beginning of England’s Long Parliament Dec., 1640 Europe Portugal asserts its independence from Spain 1641 Europe Descartes publishes Meditations on First Philosophy 1641 East Asia Dutch trade in Japan is confined to Dejima Island, Nagasaki Harbor 1641-1645 North America Kieft’s War Jan. 14, 1641 Southeast Asia Capture of Malacca Feb. 8, 1641 Europe Parliamentary debate begins on England’s Root and Branch Petition Feb. 16, 1641 Europe England’s Triennial Act Aug. 26, 1641-Sept., 1648 Africa Conquest of Luanda Oct. 23, 1641-1642 Europe Ulster Insurrection Nov., 1641 North America Massachusetts Recognizes Slavery 1642 South Asia French East India Company is founded 1642 Central Asia Gushri Kahn installs the Dalai Lama as religious and secular ruler of Tibet 1642 Europe Rembrandt paints The Night Watch 1642 and 1644 Australia Tasman Proves Australia Is a Separate Continent 1642-1651 Europe English Civil Wars 1642-1666 Middle East Reign of Shah ՙAbbās II 1642-1684 North America Beaver Wars 1642-1700 North America Westward Migration of Native Americans May, 1642 North America Founding of Montreal Sept. 2, 1642 Europe Closing of the Theaters Oct. 23, 1642 Europe Battle of Edgehill Nov. 2, 1642 Europe Second Battle of Breitenfeld Nov. 12, 1642 Europe Battle of Turnham Green 1643 Europe Fall of Olivares as Spain’s chief minister 1643 Europe Torricelli Measures Atmospheric Pressure 1643 Southeast Asia Vietnam defeats small Dutch fleet near Da Nang Nov. 24-25, 1643 Europe Battle of Tuttlingen 1643-1645 Europe Swedish-Danish War 1643-1715 Europe Louis XIV rules France June 30, 1643 Europe Battle of Adwalton Moor July, 1643-Oct. 24, 1648 Europe Peace of Westphalia July 5, 1643 Europe Battle of Lansdown Hill July 13, 1643 Europe Battle of Roundway Down Aug. 17-Sept. 25, 1643 Europe Solemn League and Covenant Sept. 8, 1643 North America Confederation of the United Colonies of New England Sept. 20, 1643 Europe First Battle of Newbury Oct. 11, 1643 Europe Battle of Winceby Dec. 12, 1643 Europe Battle of Alton 1644 Europe The Globe Theatre is demolished 1644-1654 Europe Reign of Queen Christina of Sweden 1644-1671 Africa Ndongo Wars Apr. 18, 1644 North America Powhatan Indians massacre five hundred English settlers Apr. 25, 1644 East Asia End of the Ming Dynasty June 6, 1644 East Asia Manchus Take Beijing July 2, 1644 Europe Battle of Marston Moor Aug. 31-Sept. 2, 1644 Europe Battle of Lostwithiel Sept., 1644 North America Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport are united by royal patent Oct. 27, 1644 Europe Second Battle of Newbury c. 1645-1652 Europe Bernini sculpts the Ecstasy of Saint Theresa 1645-1683 East Asia Zheng Pirates Raid the Chinese Coast Spring, 1645-1660 Europe Puritan New Model Army Apr., 1645 Europe English parliament passes the Self-Denying Ordinance, purging all of its members except Cromwell from the army June 14, 1645 Europe Battle of Naseby July 10, 1645 Europe Battle of Langport Aug. 22, 1645-Sept., 1669 Europe Turks Conquer Crete 1646-1649 Europe Levellers Launch an Egalitarian Movement 1647 East Asia Russians found Pacific port of Okhotsk Mar. 14, 1647 Europe Truce of Ulm 1648 Middle East ՙAbbās II drives the Mughals out of Iran 1648 North America Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe 1648 East Asia/North America Dezhnyov and Alekseyev navigate the Bering Strait 1648 Europe Spain recognizes Dutch independence; end of the Eighty Years’ War 1648-1654 Europe Dnieper Cossacks rebel against Poland Spr., 1648-1649 Middle East Venetian fleet blockades Constantinople May 17, 1648 Europe Battle of Zusmarshausen June, 1648 Europe Wars of the Fronde Begin Aug. 18, 1648 Latin America Portuguese Brazil takes Dutch Brazilian stronghold at São Paulo Aug. 20, 1648 Europe Battle of Lens Dec. 6, 1648 Europe Pride’s Purge Dec. 6, 1648-May 19, 1649 Europe Establishment of the English Commonwealth 1649 North America Cambridge Platform unifies church and state in the Massachusetts Bay Colony 1649 Europe Treaty of Reuil Jan. 29, 1649 Europe Codification of Russian Serfdom Jan. 30, 1649 Europe Charles I is beheaded Apr. 21, 1649 North America Maryland Act of Toleration Aug., 1649 Europe Lilburne is tried and acquitted of treason Mid-17th c. Europe Dutch School of Painting Flourishes Mid-17th c. Africa Emergence of the Guinea Coast States 1650 North America Connecticut recognizes slavery 1650 Europe Guericke invents the air pump 1650 Middle East Oman takes Muscat 1650-1698 Middle East/Africa Wars for the Red Sea Trade Mar. 31, 1650 Latin America Earthquake Destroys Cuzco May 30-31, 1650 North America First College in North America Sept. 3, 1650 Europe Battle of Dunbar 1651 Europe Hobbes Publishes Leviathan 1651 Europe Scotland recognizes King Charles II in exile 1651-1652 East Asia Edo Rebellions 1651-1680 East Asia Ietsuna Shogunate Sept. 3, 1651 Europe Battle of Worcester Oct., 1651-May, 1652 Europe Navigation Act Leads to Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652 East Asia Japan bans young boys from the stage 1652-1667 Europe Patriarch Nikon’s Reforms 1652-1689 Europe Fox Organizes the Quakers Apr., 1652 Africa Dutch Begin to Colonize Southern Africa May, 1652 Europe George Fox has a revelation on Pendle Hill Oct. 13, 1652 Europe Barcelona surrenders to Spain Dec. 16, 1653-Sept. 3, 1658 Europe Cromwell Rules England as Lord Protector 1654 Europe Abdication of Sweden’s Queen Christina 1654 Europe Pascal and Fermat Devise the Theory of Probability 1654 Latin America Portugal Retakes Control of Brazil 1654-1667 Europe Thirteen Years’ War Summer, 1654-1656 North America First Jewish Settlers in North America 1655 North America Pequot nation is relocated onto two reservations on Mystic River 1655-1663 Europe Grimaldi Discovers Diffraction 1655-1664 North America Peach Wars Mar. 12-14, 1655 Europe Penruddock’s Uprising May 10, 1655 Caribbean English Capture of Jamaica July 10, 1655-June 21, 1661 Europe First Northern War 1656 Europe Popularizaiton of Chocolate 1656 Europe Velázquez paints Las Meninas 1656-1657 Europe Publication of Pascal’s The Provincial Letters 1656-1662 Middle East Persecution of Iranian Jews 1656-1667 Europe Construction of the Piazza San Pietro 1656-1676 Middle East Ottoman Empire’s Brief Recovery Feb., 1656 Europe Huygens Identifies Saturn’s Rings June, 1656 Middle East Venetian fleet destroys the Ottoman fleet at the Dardanelles 1657 East Asia Work Begins on Japan’s National History 1657-1667 Europe Italian Academy of Experiments meets Jan. 18-20, 1657 East Asia Meireki Fire Ravages Edo Sept., 1657 Europe Treaty of Wehlau 1658 South Asia Dutch drive Portuguese out of Ceylon Beginning 1658 Europe First Newspaper Ads Appear 1658-1659 East Asia Zheng Chenggong invades central China 1658-1707 South Asia Reign of Aurangzeb June 19, 1658 Europe Battle of Konotop Aug., 1658-Aug. 24, 1660 North America Explorations of Radisson and Chouart des Groseilliers Sept. 16, 1658 Europe Treaty of Hadiach 1659 Africa Expansion of the Alawis May, 1659-May, 1660 Europe Restoration of Charles II Nov. 7, 1659 Europe Treaty of the Pyrenees 1660’s-1700 Europe First Microscopic Observations 1660 Europe English theaters reopen 1660 Europe Marcello Malpighi discovers capillaries 1660-1665 Africa Oman occupies Mombasa 1660-1677 Africa A Jihad Is Called in Senegambia 1660-1692 Europe Boyle’s Law and the Birth of Modern Chemistry Sept. 13, 1660-July 27, 1663 Europe/North America British Navigation Acts 1661 Europe Absolute Monarchy Emerges in France 1661 East Asia Zheng Chenggong seizes control of Taiwan from the Dutch 1661-1665 Europe Clarendon Code 1661-1672 Europe Colbert Develops Mercantilism Feb. 17, 1661-Dec. 20, 1722 East Asia Height of Qing Dynasty Mar., 1661-1705 North America Virginia Slave Codes June 23, 1661 South Asia Portugal Cedes Bombay to the English 1662 Europe English Quaker Act 1662 North America Half-Way Covenant 1662-May 3, 1695 Europe England’s Licensing Acts Mar. 18, 1662 Europe Public Transportation Begins May 3, 1662 North America Connecticut secures a royal charter May 19, 1662 Europe England’s Act of Uniformity July 15, 1662 Europe Royal Society of London is chartered 1663 North America Maryland recognizes slavery 1663 North America New France becomes a royal colony 1663 Europe Ruisdael paints The Jewish Cemetary 1663 East Asia Tokugawa Ietsuna outlaws Junshi, or ritual suicide by samurai upon the death of their lord Mar. 24, 1663-July 25, 1729 North America Settlement of the Carolinas July 18, 1663 North America Rhode Island receives a royal charter codifying its policy of freedom of conscience 1664 and 1670 Europe English Conventicle Acts 1664 Caribbean French West India Company is established 1664 Europe Hals paints Regentesses of the Old Men’s Almshouse 1664 Europe Molière Writes Tartuffe 1664 North America New York and New Jersey recognize slavery 1664 Europe Willis Identifies the Basal Ganglia Mar. 22, 1664-July 21, 1667 North America British Conquest of New Netherland July 13, 1664 Europe Trappist Order Is Founded Aug., 1664 Europe Battle of Szentgotthárd Aug. 10, 1664 Europe Treaty of Vasvár 1665 Europe Cassini Discovers Jupiter’s Great Red Spot 1665-1681 Europe Construction of the Languedoc Canal Jan., 1665 Middle East Shabbetai Tzevi’s Messianic Movement Begins Jan. 5, 1665 North America Connecticut annexes New Haven Mar. 4, 1665-July 31, 1667 Europe Second Anglo-Dutch War Spring, 1665-Fall, 1666 Europe Great Plague in London Oct. 29, 1665 Africa Battle of Mbwila c. 1666 Europe Stradivari Makes His First Violin 1666-1667 Europe Vermeer paints Allegory of Painting c. 1666-1676 South Asia Founding of the Marāthā Kingdom Sept. 2-5, 1666 Europe Great Fire of London December 22, 1666 Europe Paris Academy of Sciences is established 1667 North America Consecration of the First Cathedral in Mexico 1667 Europe Foundation of France’s Royal Observatory 1667 Europe Milton Publishes Paradise Lost 1667 Europe Pufendorf Advocates a Unified Germany 1667 North America Virginia Assembly declares that religious conversion is not grounds for slaves to be freed Jan., 1667 Europe Treaty of Andrusovo Apr., 1667-June, 1671 Europe Razin Leads Peasant Uprising in Russia May 24, 1667-May 2, 1668 Europe War of Devolution Dec. 19, 1667 Europe Impeachment of Clarendon 1668 Europe Redi demonstrates the source of maggots in rotting flesh 1668 Europe Vermeer paints The Astronomer Jan. 23, 1668 Europe Triple Alliance Forms Feb. 13, 1668 Europe Spain Recognizes Portugal’s Independence Oct. 8, 1668 Europe Peace of the Church 1669 East Asia Japanese Ainu stage a rebellion 1669 Europe Steno Presents His Theories of Fossils and Dynamic Geology Feb., 1669-Jan., 1677 Europe John of Austria’s Revolts 1670 Europe Bushnell’s Case c. 1670 East Asia/Middle East First Widespread Smallpox Inoculations 1670 Europe Popularization of the Grand Tour 1670 East Asia Promulgation of the Sacred Edict 1670-1699 Africa Rise of the Asante Empire Apr., 1670 North America Charles Town Is Founded May 2, 1670 North America Hudson’s Bay Company Is Chartered June 1, 1670 Europe France and England sign the Treaty of Dover in secret Summer, 1670 Europe Razin takes Saratov and Samara July 8, 1670 Caribbean Treaty of Madrid Beginning 1671 North America American Indian Slave Trade Nov. 29, 1671 Africa Portuguese sack Ndongo’s capital and kill its ruler Late Dec., 1671 Europe Newton Builds His Reflecting Telescope 1672 Africa England’s Royal African Company is founded 1672 Europe Plague breaks out in Lyon 1672-1684 Europe Leeuwenhoek Discovers Microscopic Life 1672-c. 1691 Europe Self-Immolation of the Old Believers Apr. 6, 1672-Aug. 10, 1678 Europe Third Anglo-Dutch War Summer, 1672-Fall, 1676 Europe/Middle East Ottoman-Polish Wars Aug. 27, 1672 Europe Ottomans take Kamieniec Podolski Oct., 1672 Europe/Middle East Treaty of Buczacz c. 1673 Europe Buxtehude Begins His Abendmusiken Concerts Beginning 1673 North America French Explore the Mississippi Valley 1673 Europe Huygens Explains the Pendulum 1673 Europe Louis XIV strips parlement of the right to remonstrate against his edicts 1673 Africa Nāṣir al-Dīn establishes a foothold in Senegal 1673 Europe Renovation of the Louvre 1673-1678 Europe Test Acts Dec., 1673-1681 East Asia Rebellion of the Three Feudatories 1674 South Asia French East India Company establishes a base at Pondicherry Late 17th c. Africa Decline of Benin Late 17th c. Africa Rise of Buganda Late 17th c. Australia Sulawesi Traders Make Contact with Australian Aborigines 1675-1708 Europe Wren Supervises the Rebuilding of St. Paul’s Cathedral June 20, 1675 North America Metacom’s War Begins June 28, 1675 Europe Battle of Fehrbellin 1676 Europe Sydenham Advocates Clinical Observation May 10-Oct. 18, 1676 North America Bacon’s Rebellion Dec. 7, 1676 Europe Rømer Calculates the Speed of Light 1677 Africa Akwamu captures Greater Accra 1677-1681 Middle East/Europe Ottoman-Muscovite Wars Nov. 1, 1677 Africa France seizes Gorée Island Feb. 18, 1678 Europe Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress Appears Aug. 10, 1678-Sept. 26, 1679 Europe Treaties of Nijmegen Aug. 13, 1678-July 1, 1681 Europe The Popish Plot Dec., 1678-Mar. 19, 1687 North America La Salle’s Expeditions 1679 Europe Habeas Corpus Act 1679 Europe Treaty of St. Germain 1679-1709 South Asia Rājput Rebellion Beginning 1680’s Latin America Guerra dos Bárboros 1680-1709 East Asia Reign of Tsunayoshi as Shogun June 30, 1680 Europe Spanish Inquisition Holds a Grandiose Auto-da-fé Aug. 10, 1680 North America Pueblo Revolt 1681 Europe Oil street lights are first used in London Mar. 4, 1681 North America “Holy Experiment” Establishes Pennsylvania Beginning c. 1682 Africa Decline of the Solomonid Dynasty 1682 Europe French Court Moves to Versailles 1682 North America South Carolina recognizes slavery 1682-1725 Europe Peter the Great rules as Czar of Russia Aug., 1682-Nov., 1683 Europe Rye House Plot July-Oct., 1683 East Asia Qing forces defeat of the Zheng pirates July 14-Sept. 12, 1683 Europe Defeat of the Ottomans at Vienna 1684 East Asia China annexes Taiwan 1684-1699 Europe Holy League Ends Ottoman Rule of the Danubian Basin June 21, 1684 North America Massachusetts Bay Colony’s charter is revoked by Charles II 1685 North America First printing press in Philadelphia 1685 Europe Louis XIV Revokes the Edict of Nantes 1686 Southeast Asia Dutch take control of Banten’s pepper trade 1686 Europe Halley Develops the First Weather Map 1686 Europe Perpetual Peace (Treaty of Moscow) is signed June, 1686-Apr., 1689 North America Dominion of New England Forms 1687 South Asia British East India Company moves its headquarters to Bombay 1687 South Asia Mughal Empire defeats Golconda sultanate and annexes southeastern India Beginning 1687 Middle East Decline of the Ottoman Empire Apr. 4, 1687, and Apr. 27, 1688 Europe Declaration of Liberty of Conscience Summer, 1687 Europe Newton Formulates the Theory of Universal Gravitation 1688 South Asia Madras becomes first city in India to receive an English royal charter 1688-1702 Europe Reign of William and Mary 1688-1704 East Asia Genroku Era Nov., 1688-Feb., 1689 Europe The Glorious Revolution 1689 Middle East Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa begins to reform Ottoman army 1689 North America Leisler’s Rebellion 1689 Africa Morocco takes Al-Araish Beginning 1689 Europe Reforms of Peter the Great 1689-1694 Europe Famine and Inflation in France 1689-1697 Europe Wars of the League of Augsburg Feb. 13, 1689 Europe Declaration of Rights Mar., 1689 Europe Louis XIV declares war on William and Mary and sends troops to Ireland to support James II Apr. 18, 1689 North America Mutinous troops lead an insurrection in Boston Apr. 18-July 31, 1689 Europe Siege of Londonderry May 24, 1689 Europe Toleration Act July, 1689 Europe Battle of Killiecrankie Aug. 21, 1689 Europe Battle of Dunkeld Aug. 29, 1689 East Asia Treaty of Nerchinsk Draws Russian-Chinese Border Early 1690’s Latin America Brazilian Gold Rush Beginning 1690’s Europe Movement to Reform Manners c. 1690 Africa Extinction of the Dodo Bird 1690 Europe Locke Publishes Two Treatises of Government 1690 Europe Scottish Parliament ratifies Westminster Confession of Faith and Presbyterian Polity 1690-1698 South Asia Siege of Jinji July 1, 1690 Europe Battle of the Boyne 1691 North America Massachusetts Bay Colony annexes Plymouth Colony Mar. 10, 1691 Europe Treaty of Limerick Aug. 20, 1691 Europe Battle of Slankaman June 2, 1692-May, 1693 North America Salem Witchcraft Trials June 8, 1692 North America Corn Riots in Mexico City 1693 Africa England temporarily gains control of Gorée Island 1693 Europe Ray Argues for Animal Consciousness July 27, 1694 Europe Bank of England Is Chartered May 3, 1695 Europe End of Press Censorship in England Mar., 1696-Dec. 14, 1698 Africa Siege of Fort Jesus 1697-1702 Middle East Köprülü Reforms of Hüseyin Paşa Mar. 9, 1697-Aug. 25, 1698 Europe Peter the Great Tours Western Europe Sept. 20, 1697 Europe Treaty of Ryswick 1698 Africa Oyo invades Weme and Allada 1698 Africa Royal African Company loses its monopoly on the English slave trade July 25, 1698 Europe Savery Patents the First Successful Steam Engine Oct. 11, 1698, and Mar. 25, 1700 Europe First and Second Treaties of Partition Dec. 14, 1698 Africa Mombasa falls to Oman 1699 Africa Oman wrests control of Swahili Coast north of Mozambique from Portugal 1699 East Asia British Establish Trading Post in Canton Jan. 26, 1699 Europe Treaty of Karlowitz Mar. 30, 1699 South Asia Singh Founds the Khalsa Brotherhood May 1, 1699 North America French Found the Louisiana Colony c. 1700 Europe Bank of Amsterdam invents system to provide payment anywhere in the world 1700 North America Carolina Supreme Court is established c. 1700 Africa Introduction of ndop sculpture in Kuba kingdom c. 1700 Africa King Mwine Kadilo begins expansion of Luba kingdoms 1700 North America Pennsylvania and Rhode Island recognize slavery June, 1700 Middle East/Europe Treaty of Constantinople July 11, 1700 Europe Foundation of the Berlin Academy of Science Aug. 8, 1700 Europe Peace of Travendal Nov. 30, 1700 Europe Battle of Narva

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