Authors: Miklós Radnóti

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Hungarian poet Identity: Jewish Author Works Poetry: Pogány köszöntő, 1930 (Pagan Salute, 1980) Újmódi pásztorok éneke, 1931 (Song of the Modem Shepherds, 1980) Lábadozó szél, 1933 (Convalescent Wind, 1980) Újhold, 1935 (New Moon, 1980) Járkálj csak, halálraíélt!, 1936 (Walk On, Condemned!, 1980) Meredek út, 1938 (Steep Road, 1980) Naptár, 1942 (Calendar, 1980) Tajtékos ég, 1946 […]

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Authors: Ann Radcliffe

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English novelist and poet who established many conventions of the gothic novel. Born: July 9, 1764 Birthplace: London, England Died: February 7, 1823 Place of death: London, England Biography Ann Radcliffe was considered the greatest romanticist of her age, both for her imaginative plotting and for her poetic prose. Her novels became a […]

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Authors: Jean Racine

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French playwright Author Works Drama: La Thébaïde: Ou, Les Frères ennemis, pr., pb. 1664 (The Theban Brothers, 1723) Alexandre le Grand, pr. 1665 (Alexander the Great, 1714) Andromaque, pr. 1667 (Andromache, 1674) Les Plaideurs, pr. 1668 (The Litigants, 1715) Britannicus, pr. 1669 (English translation, 1714) Bérénice, pr. 1670 (English translation, 1676) Bajazet, pr., pb. 1672 […]

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Authors: François Rabelais

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Pantagruel, 1532 (English translation, 1653) Gargantua, 1534 (English translation, 1653) Tiers Livre, 1546 (Third Book, 1693) Le Quart Livre, incomplete 1548, complete 1552 (Fourth Book, 1694) Le Cinquième Livre, 1564 (Fifth Book, 1694) Gargantua et Pantagruel, (collective title for all of the above; Gargantua and Pantagruel, 1653-1694, 1929) Nonfiction: […]

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Authors: David Rabe

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright and screenwriter Biography David Rabe (rayb) is one of America’s most uncompromising dramatic commentators on the Vietnam War. The three major Rabe plays, sometimes referred to as “the Vietnam trilogy” (Sticks and Bones, The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, and Streamers), are intense, compelling analyses of a society forever altered by a controversial […]

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Authors: Wilhelm Raabe

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

German novelist Biography Wilhelm Raabe (RAHB-uh) is a major representative of German realism, along with such writers as Gottfried Keller and Theodor Storm. Born in the small town of Eschershausen in the duchy of Braunschweig, Raabe was raised in Holzminden, where his grandfather, August Heinrich Raabe, a postmaster and local historian, had a great influence […]

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Authors: Raymond Queneau

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist and poet Biography Raymond Queneau (kuh-noh), novelist, poet, critic, editor, playwright, filmmaker, philosopher, mathematician, and painter, is regarded as one of the most audacious and ingenious French writers of the twentieth century, with a career spanning the period from Surrealism to the New Novel. Queneau was born in Le Havre at the beginning […]

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Authors: Rachel de Queiroz

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Brazilian novelist Author Works Long Fiction: O quinze, 1930 João Miguel, 1932 Caminho de pedras, 1937 As três Marias, 1939 (The Three Marias, 1963) Dôra Doralina, 1975 (English translation, 1984) O galo de ouro, 1985 Memorial de Maria Moura, 1992 Drama: Lampião, pr., pb. 1953 A beata Maria do Egito, pr., pb. 1958 Children’s/Young Adult […]

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Authors: Salvatore Quasimodo

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Italian poet, critic, and translator Author Works Poetry: Acque e terre, 1930 Oboe sommerso, 1932 Odore di eucalyptus, ed altri versi, 1933 Erato e Apollion, 1935 Poesie, 1938 Ed è subito sera, 1942 Con il piede straniero sopra il cuore, 1946 Giorno dopo giorno, 1947 La vita non è sogno, 1949 Il falso e vero […]

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Authors: Thomas Pynchon

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Biography Thomas Ruggles Pynchon (PIHN-chuhn), Jr., is the most controversial, the most discussed, and the most mysterious of the post-World War II writers who pioneered what is called metafiction (roughly, any fiction that calls attention to its fictive nature). Descended from eminent Massachusetts Puritans and raised in a conventional upper-middle-class Long Island family, […]

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Authors: Barbara Pym

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Some Tame Gazelle, 1950 Excellent Women, 1952 Jane and Prudence, 1953 Less than Angels, 1955 A Glass of Blessings, 1958 No Fond Return of Love, 1961 Quartet in Autumn, 1977 The Sweet Dove Died, 1978 A Few Green Leaves, 1980 An Unsuitable Attachment, 1982 Crampton Hodnet, 1985 An Academic […]

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Authors: Mario Puzo

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and screenwriter Author Works Long Fiction: The Dark Arena, 1955, revised 1985 The Fortunate Pilgrim, 1964 The Godfather, 1969 Fools Die, 1978 The Sicilian, 1984 The Fourth K, 1990 The Last Don, 1996 Omerta, 2000 The Family, 2001 (completed by Carol Gino) Screenplays: The Godfather, 1972 (adaptation of his novel; with Francis Ford […]

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Authors: Alexander Pushkin

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Russian poet Born: June 6, 1799 Birthplace: Moscow, Russia Died: February 10, 1837 Place of death: St. Petersburg, Russia Biography Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russia’s first important poet, was descended on his father’s side from a family of impoverished nobility and on his mother’s from an Abyssinian officer in the service of Peter the […]

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Authors: James Purdy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright Identity: Gay or bisexual Biography James Amos Purdy’s considerable body of work–including novels, short fiction, poetry, and plays–is remarkable for several consistent characteristics: an unrelentingly grim depiction of the American experience, a reliance on the macabre and the grotesque, an unconstrained exploration of sexuality, and an idiosyncratic stylistic fusing […]

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Authors: Manuel Puig

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Argentine novelist Identity: Gay or bisexual Biography Manuel Puig (pweeg), one of Latin America’s major writers and one of the most widely read, has been called the chronicler of middle-class Argentina. Born in the provincial town of General Villegas, where he spent his childhood and received his elementary education, Puig was the son of Baldomero […]

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Authors: Pu Songling

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Chinese short-story writer Born: June 5, 1640 Birthplace: Zichuan, Shandong, China Died: February 25, 1715 Place of death: Shandong, China Biography The ancestors of Pu Songling (pew suhng-lihng) were probably of Turkic origin and came to China with the Mongol armies around the middle of the thirteenth century. Two of them were governors […]

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Authors: Marcel Proust

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 French novelist Born: July 10, 1871 Birthplace: Auteuil, France Died: November 18, 1922 Place of death: Paris, France Biography The father of Marcel Proust (prewst) was a successful physician, wealthy enough to provide abundantly for his family. His wife, who was Jewish, was a devoted mother to her sons, but because the younger […]

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Authors: E. Annie Proulx

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and short-story writer Biography Edna Annie Proulx (prew) was born August 22, 1935, in Norwich, Connecticut, to George Proulx, vice president of a textile company and Lois Proulx, a painter who traced her family history in Connecticut back to the year 1635. Lois Proulx was an amateur naturalist who encouraged the young Annie […]

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Authors: Francine Prose

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and short-story writer Identity: Jewish Author Works Long Fiction: Judah the Pious, 1973 The Glorious Ones, 1974 Marie Laveau, 1977 Household Saints, 1981 Hungry Hearts, 1983 Bigfoot Dreams, 1986 Primitive People, 1992 Hunters and Gatherers, 1995 Guided Tours of Hell: Novellas, 1997 Blue Angel, 2000 Short Fiction: Women and Children First, and Other […]

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Authors: Sextus Propertius

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Roman poet Author Works Poetry: Monobiblos, wr. c. 30 or 29 b.c.e. Elegies, c. 24-after 16 b.c.e. (first printed version, 1472; English translation, 1854) Propertius Elegies: Book I, 1961, Book II, 1967, Book III, 1966, Book IV, 1965 (W. A. Camps, editor) Biography Sextus Propertius (proh-PUR-shee-uhs) was born in the province of Umbria, probably in […]

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Authors: Frederic Prokosch

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and poet Biography Though for some years his work has been mostly politely ignored, Frederic Prokosch (proh-KAWSH) was one of the most widely read and highly praised writers of the 1930’s. Considered equally adept in prose and verse, he was lauded by established masters such as William Butler Yeats, André Gide, and Thomas […]

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Authors: V. S. Pritchett

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English short-story writer Author Works Short Fiction: The Spanish Virgin, and Other Stories, 1930 You Make Your Own Life, and Other Stories, 1938 It May Never Happen, and Other Stories, 1945 Collected Stories, 1956 The Sailor, the Sense of Humour, and Other Stories, 1956 (also known as The Saint, and Other Stories, 1966) When My […]

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Authors: Matthew Prior

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English poet Author Works Poetry: A Satyr on the Modern Translators, 1685 Satyr on the Poets: In Imitation of the Seventh Satyr of Juvenal, 1687 An English Ballad, 1695 Carmen Saeculare for the Year 1700 to the King, 1700 Poems on Several Occasions, 1707, 1709 Solomon on the Vanity of the World, 1718 Lyric Poems, […]

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Authors: J. B. Priestley

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright Author Works Drama: The Good Companions, pr. 1931 (adaptation of his novel; with Edward Knoblock) Dangerous Corner, pr., pb. 1932 The Roundabout, pr. 1932 Laburnum Grove, pr. 1933 Eden End, pr., pb. 1934 Cornelius, pr., pb. 1935 Duet in Floodlight, pr., pb. 1935 Bees on the Boat Deck, pr., pb. 1936 Spring Tide, […]

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Authors: Katharine Susannah Prichard

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Australian novelist Biography Born during a hurricane in Fiji, Katharine Susannah Prichard took that image as the title for her autobiography, Child of the Hurricane. When Prichard was three, her Australian journalist father moved the family from Fiji to Melbourne, then to Tasmania. Prichard thrived in this rural island state, and she based her 1928 […]

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Authors: Reynolds Price

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist, short-story writer, and poet Biography When William Blackburn in the early 1950’s arranged Eudora Welty’s visit to Duke University to give a reading and comment on the work of undergraduates interested in creative writing, Edward Reynolds Price’s sample stood out among those of the others she saw. (A decade later, Price was back […]

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Authors: Abbé Prévost

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 French novelist Born: April 1, 1697 Birthplace: Hesdin, France Died: December 23, 1763 Place of death: Courteuil, France Biography Antoine François Prévost, who called himself “Prévost d’Exiles” and is generally referred to as the Abbé Prévost, was born in 1697 at Hesdin, in Artois, Flanders. Influenced by Jesuits at the local school, he […]

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Authors: Jacques Prévert

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French poet Author Works Poetry: Paroles, 1945 Histoires, 1946 (with André Verdet) Poèmes, 1946 Contes pour enfants pas sages, 1947 La Pluie et le beau temps, 1955 Selections from “Paroles,” 1958 (Lawrence Ferlinghetti, translator) Fatras, 1966 Prévert, 1967 Arbres, 1976 Words for All Seasons, 1979 Soleil de nuit, 1980 Blood and Feathers: Selected Poems of […]

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Authors: William Hickling Prescott

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American historian Author Works Nonfiction: The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic, 1838 (3 volumes) History of the Conquest of Mexico, 1843 History of the Conquest of Peru, 1847 Biography When Washington Irving decided to write the history of Christopher Columbus and the Spanish in the New World, he found the […]

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Authors: Annis Pratt

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American feminist and critic Author Works Nonfiction: Dylan Thomas’ Early Prose: A Study in Creative Mythology, 1970 Archetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction, 1981 (with Barbara White, Andrea Loewenstein, and Mary Wyer) Dancing with Goddesses: Archetypes, Poetry, and Empowerment, 1994 Edited Text: Doris Lessing: Critical Studies, 1973 (with L. S. Dembo) Biography Professor Annis Vilas Pratt […]

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Authors: T. F. Powys

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Black Bryony, 1923 Mark Only, 1924 Mr. Tasker’s Gods, 1925 Mockery Gap, 1925 Innocent Birds, 1926 Mr. Weston’s Good Wine, 1927 Kindness in a Corner, 1930 Unclay, 1931 Make Thyself Many, 1935 Goat Green, 1937 Short Fiction: The Left Leg, 1923 Feed My Swine, 1926 A Strong Girl, 1926 […]

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Authors: Llewelyn Powys

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English essayist Author Works Nonfiction: Confessions of Two Brothers, 1916 (autobiography; with John Cowper Powys) Ebony and Ivory, 1923 Thirteen Worthies, 1923 Black Laughter, 1924 Skin for Skin, 1925 (autobiography) The Verdict of Bridlegoose, 1926 (autobiography) Henry Hudson, 1927 (biography) The Cradle of God, 1929 The Pathetic Fallacy: A Study of Christianity, 1930 A Pagan’s […]

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Authors: John Cowper Powys

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography John Cowper Powys (POH-uhs), born in Derbyshire, England, on October 8, 1872, was a member of an extraordinarily artistic family. His father was a minister of the Church of England, his mother a descendant of the poets William Cowper and John Donne. John Cowper Powys was an exceptionally prolific writer, and his […]

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Authors: Richard Powers

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Three Farmers on Their Way to a Dance, 1985 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 1988 The Gold Bug Variations, 1991 Operation Wandering Soul, 1993 Galatea 2.2, 1995 Gain, 1998 Plowing the Dark, 2000 The Time of Our Singing, 2002 Nonfiction: “Losing Our Souls, Bit by Bit,” 1998 “Life by Design: Too Many […]

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Authors: J. F. Powers

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer Author Works Short Fiction: Prince of Darkness, and Other Stories, 1947 The Presence of Grace, 1956 Lions, Harts, Leaping Does, and Other Stories, 1963 Look How the Fish Live, 1975 The Old Bird: A Love Story, 1991 (a short story, originally pb. in Prince of Darkness, and Other Stories) The Stories of […]

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Authors: Dawn Powell

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Whither, 1925 She Walks in Beauty, 1928 The Bride’s House, 1929 Dance Night, 1930 The Tenth Moon, 1932 The Story of a Country Boy, 1934 Turn, Magic Wheel, 1936 The Happy Island, 1938 Angels on Toast, 1940, 1989 (revised as A Man’s Affair, 1956) A Time to Be Born, […]

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Authors: Anthony Powell

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Biography Anthony Dymoke Powell was one of England’s most respected novelists of the twentieth century, and A Dance to the Music of Time, in twelve volumes, published over a quarter of a century, is one of the longest works of fiction written in English. Powell was born in London on December 21, 1905, […]

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Authors: Ezra Pound

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Biography Ezra Loomis Pound is a controversial poet, the lasting stature of whose poetry is greatly argued but whose importance as one of the central figures in the shaping of twentieth century literature is not. Pound was born on October 30, 1885, in Hailey, Idaho. His family moved eighteen months later to Pennsylvania, […]

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Authors: Chaim Potok

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Identity: Jewish Author Works Long Fiction: The Chosen, 1967 The Promise, 1969 My Name Is Asher Lev, 1972 In the Beginning, 1975 The Book of Lights, 1981 Davita’s Harp, 1985 The Gift of Asher Lev, 1990 I Am the Clay, 1992 Old Men at Midnight, 2001 (3 novellas) Nonfiction: Wanderings: Chaim Potok’s History […]

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Authors: Charles Portis

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Norwood, 1966 True Grit, 1968 The Dog of the South, 1979 Masters of Atlantis, 1985 Gringos, 1991 Biography Charles McColl Portis is a master of the short novel and of the independent life. Indeed, it was because he asserted his independence when he abandoned a promising journalistic career to […]

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Authors: Katherine Anne Porter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer Author Works Short Fiction: Flowering Judas, and Other Stories, 1930 Hacienda, 1934 Noon Wine, 1937 Pale Horse, Pale Rider: Three Short Novels, 1939 The Leaning Tower, and Other Stories, 1944 The Old Order, 1944 The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter, 1965 Long Fiction: Ship of Fools, 1962 Poetry: Katherine Anne Porter’s […]

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Authors: Jane Porter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist Author Works Long Fiction: Thaddeus of Warsaw, 1803 The Scottish Chiefs, 1810 Biography Jane Porter was the daughter of an army officer who died when she was three years old. Soon afterward her widowed mother took the family to Edinburgh to live, but shortly before 1803 the entire family moved to London, where […]

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Authors: Hal Porter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Australian novelist, short-story writer, and memoirist Biography Although the works of Harold Edward Porter spanned many genres, he is best known for his three volumes of autobiography. An accomplished stylist, Porter broke away from the plain, realistic style that had characterized earlier Australian writing. Although he never gained an extensive international reputation, his work was […]

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Authors: Connie Porter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Identity: African American Author Works Long Fiction: All-Bright Court, 1991 Imani All Mine, 1999 Children’s/Young Adult Literature: Meet Addy: An American Girl, 1993 Addy Learns a Lesson: A School Story, 1993 Addy’s Surprise: A Christmas Story, 1993 Happy Birthday, Addy! A Springtime Story, 1994 Addy Saves the Day: A Summer Story, 1994 Changes […]

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Authors: Alexander Pope

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 English poet and letter writer Born: May 21, 1688 Birthplace: London, England Died: May 30, 1744 Place of death: Twickenham, England Biography Alexander Pope, who became known as the “prose and reason” poet, was the son of a prosperous linen merchant and his second wife. The fact that Pope’s parents were Roman Catholics […]

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Authors: Vasko Popa

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Serbian poet Author Works Poetry: Kora, 1953 (Bark, 1978) Nepočin-polje, 1956 (Unrest-Field, 1978) Sporedno nebo, 1968 (Secondary Heaven, 1978) Selected Poems, 1969 The Little Box, 1970 Uspravna zemlja, 1972 (Earth Erect, 1973) Vučja so, 1975 (Wolf Salt, 1978) Živo meso, 1975 (Raw Flesh, 1978) Kuća nasred druma, 1975 Collected Poems, 1943-1976, 1978 (includes Bark, Unrest-Field, […]

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Authors: Henrik Pontoppidan

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Danish novelist Born: July 24, 1857 Place of birth: Fredericia, Denmark Died: August 21, 1943 Place of death: Charlottenlund, Denmark Biography Henrik Pontoppidan was born in Fredericia, Denmark, on July 24, 1857, one of sixteen children of Marie F. Oxenbøll and provincial clergyman Dines Pontoppidan. At age seventeen he went to Copenhagen to […]

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Authors: Elena Poniatowska

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 French-born Mexican author and journalist. Born: May 19, 1933 Place of birth: Paris, France Biography Author Elena Poniatowska is perhaps best known for her journalistic work, a career launched by chance when, in 1954, she interviewed the US ambassador the day after meeting him at a cocktail party. Poniatowska has dedicated her writing […]

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Authors: Mary Helen Ponce

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist, short-story writer, and memoirist Identity: Mexican American Author Works Long Fiction: The Wedding, 1989 Short Fiction: Recuerdo: Short Stories of the Barrio, 1983 Taking Control, 1987 Nonfiction: Hoyt Street: An Autobiography, 1993 (reprinted in 1995 in English as Hoyt Street: Memories of a Chicana Childhood and in Spanish as Calle Hoyt: Memorias de […]

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Authors: Marco Polo

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Venetian explorer Author Works Nonfiction: Divisament dou monde, fourteenth century (The Travels of Marco Polo, 1579) Biography Much of Marco Polo’s early life is still in question, including the place and date of his birth. Marco Polo’s father was one of three Venetian brothers who had formed a business partnership as merchants. Nicolo Polo, Marco’s […]

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Authors: Poliziano

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Italian scholar and playwright Author Works Nonfiction: Miscellaneorum centuria prima, 1489 (commonly known as Miscellanea) Conjurationis pactianae commentarium, 1498 Drama: Orfeo, pr. 1480 (English translation, 1879; also known as Orpheus) Poetry: Manta, 1482 Rusticus, 1483 Ambra, 1485 Nutricia, 1491 (the 4 previousworks collectively known as Sylvae) Stanze cominciate per la giostra delmagnifico Giuliano de’Medici, 1518 […]

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Authors: Carlene Hatcher Polite

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Identity: African American Author Works Long Fiction: The Flagellants, 1967 (pb. in French as Les Flagellants, 1966) Sister X and the Victims of Foul Play, 1975 Biography Carlene Hatcher Polite is known as an experimental writer whose novels serve as forerunners for other African American authors who dare to go beyond traditional novel […]

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Authors: Michael Polanyi

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Hungarian-born scientist and philosopher Author Works Nonfiction: Atomic Reactions, 1932 (science) U.S.S.R. Economics, 1936 (social criticism) The Rights and Duties of Science, 1939 (social criticism) Contempt of Freedom, 1940 (social criticism) Full Employment and Free Trade, 1945 (social criticism) Science, Faith, and Society, 1946 (philosophy) The Logic of Liberty, 1951 (social criticism) Personal Knowledge: Towards […]

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Authors: Frederik Pohl

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American science-fiction novelist and short-story writer. Born: November 26, 1919 Place of birth: New York, New York Died: September 2, 2013 Place of death: Palatine, Illinois Biography Frederik Pohl was one of the best-known and most prolific American writers of science fiction. He was born in New York City on November 26, 1919, […]

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Authors: Edgar Allan Poe

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American short-story writer and poet Born: January 19, 1809 Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts Died: October 7, 1849 Place of death: Baltimore, Maryland Biography Few American writers have been and remain as widely appreciated, misunderstood, and influential as Edgar Allan Poe. Poe was the second of three children born to David Poe and Elizabeth Poe, […]

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Authors: Norman Podhoretz

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American literary and cultural critic Author Works Nonfiction: Doings and Undoings: The Fifties and After in American Writing, 1964 Making It, 1967 (memoir) Breaking Ranks: A Political Memoir, 1979 The Present Danger: Do We Have the Will to Reverse the Decline of American Power?, 1980 (politics) Why We Were in Vietnam, 1982 The Bloody Crossroads: […]

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Authors: Plutarch

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Greek biographer and essayist Born: ca. 46 CE Birthplace: Chaeronea, Boeotia, Greece Died: After 120 CE Place of death: Chaeronea, Boeotia, Greece Biography The biographer Plutarch (PLEW-tawrk) was born in Boeotia, a district that had always had the unlucky reputation of producing stupid men. Plutarch himself shared in the belief, though he could […]

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Authors: Pliny the Younger

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Roman orator and letter writer Born: ca. 61 ce Birthplace: Comum (now Como, Italy) Died: ca. 113 ce Place of death: Bithynia, Asia Minor (now in Turkey) Biography Pliny (PLIN-ee) the Younger, or Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, was born in Comum, Italy, in 61 c.e. His was an aristocratic family of much importance […]

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Authors: Plautus

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Roman playwright Author Works Drama: External evidence suggests the following order for the plays of Plautus. It is possible, however, to give exact dates to only two of his plays. Asinaria (The Comedy of Asses, 1774) Mercator (The Merchant, 1767) Miles gloriosus (The Braggart Warrior, 1767) Cistellaria (The Casket, 1774) Stichus, 200 b.c.e. (English translation, […]

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Authors: Andrei Platonov

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Russian short-story writer and novelist Biography Andrei Platonov (pluh-TAWN-awf), the pseudonym of Andrei Platonovich Klimentov, was a fiction writer, dramatist, poet, and critic; he was one of the most important Soviet writers of the first half of the twentieth century. His full development, however, was thwarted by political circumstances that were beyond his control. The […]

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Authors: Plato

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Greek philosopher Born: 428 BCE Birthplace: Athens, Greece Died: 347 BCE Place of death: Athens, Greece Biography Born in Athens in 427 b.c.e. and named Aristocles, the famous philosopher whose nickname, Plato, means “broad forehead” was the son of Ariston and Perictione, Athenian aristocrats. The family of Ariston traced its descent to Codrus, […]

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Authors: Sylvia Plath

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American confessional poet and novelist Born: October 27, 1932 Birthplace: Boston, Massachusetts Died: February 11, 1963 Place of death: London, England Biography Before her death in 1963, Sylvia Plath, through the eloquence of her autobiographical poetry, fiction, and prose, had established herself as one of the most promising writers of her generation and […]

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Authors: David Plante

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: The Ghost of Henry James, 1970 Slides, 1971 Relatives, 1972 The Darkness of the Body, 1974 Figures in Bright Air, 1976 The Family, 1978 The Country, 1981 The Woods, 1982 The Francoeur Novels, 1983 (includes the previous 3 novels) The Foreigner, 1984 The Catholic, 1985 The Native, 1987 The […]

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Authors: Robert M. Pirsig

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 American memoirist and philosopher Born: September 6, 1928 Birthplace: Minneapolis, Minnesota Died: April 24, 2017 Place of death: South Berwick, Maine Biography Robert Maynard Pirsig’s influential Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance is one of the most well known American books of the late twentieth century. Pirsig was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, […]

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Authors: Luigi Pirandello

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Italian dramatist, fiction writer, and poet Born: June 28, 1867 Birthplace: Girgenti (now Agrigento), Sicily, Italy Died: December 10, 1936 Place of death: Rome, Italy Biography Luigi Pirandello (pee-rahn-DEHL-loh), who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1934, became a force in twentieth century drama by calling attention to the limitations of the […]

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Authors: Harold Pinter

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright and screenwriter Author Works Drama: The Room, pr. 1957, pb. 1960 (one act) The Birthday Party, pr. 1958 The Hothouse, wr. 1958, pr., pb. 1980 The Dumb Waiter, pr. 1959 (in German), pr. 1960 (in English; one act) The Caretaker, pr., pb. 1960 The Collection, pr. 1961 “A Slight Ache” and Other Plays, […]

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Authors: Robert Pinsky

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet Identity: Jewish Biography Robert Pinsky is an accomplished poet and critic. He was born in Long Branch, New Jersey, to Milford Pinsky, an optician, and his wife, Sylvia. All four of Pinsky’s grandparents were Jewish immigrants to America from Eastern Europe. The environment of Long Branch, which Pinsky describes as a “decayed resort […]

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Authors: Robert Pinget

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French novelist and playwright Author Works Long Fiction: Mahu: Ou, Le Matériau, 1952 (Mahu: Or, The Material, 1966) Le Renard et la boussole, 1953 Graal flibuste, 1956 Baga, 1958 (English translation, 1967) Le Fiston, 1959 (No Answer, 1961; also known as Mr. Levert) Clope au dossier, 1961 L’Inquisitoire, 1962 (The Inquisitory, 1966) Quelqu’un, 1965 (Someone, […]

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Authors: Miguel Piñero

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright and poet Identity: Puerto Rican Biography Miguel Antonio Gomez Piñero (peen-YEHR-oh) is an important member of the Nuyorican (New York and Puerto Rican) literary and political movement that crystallized in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s in New York City. Born in Puerto Rico, Piñero moved to New York City with his parents […]

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Authors: Arthur Wing Pinero

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright Author Works Drama: £200 a Year, pr. 1877 Two Can Play at That Game, pr. 1877 La Comète: Or, Two Hearts, pr. 1878 Daisy’s Escape, pr. 1879 Bygones, pr. 1880 Hester’s Mystery, pr. 1880 The Money Spinner, pr. 1880 Imprudence, pr. 1881 The Squire, pr., pb. 1881 Girls and Boys, pr. 1882 Lords […]

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Authors: Pindar

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2018 Greek poet Born: c. 518 b.c.e. Birthplace: Cynoscephalae, near Thebes, Boeotia, Greece Died: c. 438 b.c.e. Place of death: Argos, Greece Biography Pindar (PIHN-dur), also known as Pindaros or Pindarus, was born at Cynoscephalae, near Thebes, about 518 b.c.e. Through his parents, Daiphantus and Cleodice, who came from a family claiming descent from […]

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Authors: Darryl Pinckney

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and critic Identity: African American Author Works Long Fiction: High Cotton, 1992 Nonfiction: Out There: Mavericks of Black Literature, 2002 Biography Born in Indianapolis, Darryl Pinckney (PIHNGK-nee) had a comfortable middle-class childhood. The idealism of the 1950’s flavored his midwestern youth, which he later said he found unspectacular until he traveled from his […]

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Authors: Boris Pilnyak

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Russian novelist and short-story writer Author Works Long Fiction: Goly god, 1922 (The Naked Year, 1928) Ivan da Marya, 1922 Tretya stolitzya, 1923 Mashiny i volki, 1924 Mat’ syra zemlya, 1926 (Mother Earth, 1968) Krasnoye derevo, 1929 (novella; Mahogany, 1968) Volga vpadayet v Kaspiyskoye more, 1930 (The Volga Falls to the Caspian Sea, 1931) Rozhdeniye […]

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Authors: Marge Piercy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American poet and novelist Identity: Jewish Author Works Poetry: Breaking Camp, 1968 Hard Loving, 1969 Four-Telling, 1971 (with Bob Hershon, Emmett Jarrett, and Dick Lourie) To Be of Use, 1973 Living in the Open, 1976 The Twelve-Spoked Wheel Flashing, 1978 The Moon Is Always Female, 1980 Circles on the Water: Selected Poems of Marge Piercy, […]

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Authors: John Pielmeier

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American playwright and scriptwriter Author Works Drama: Soledad Brother, pr. 1971 (adaptation of George Jackson’s book) A Chosen Room, pr. 1976 Agnes of God, pr. 1980 Chapter Twelve: The Frog, pr. 1981 A Gothic Tale, pr. 1983 Cheek to Cheek, pr. 1983 Courage, pr. 1983 Haunted Lives: Three Short Plays, pb. 1984 The Boys of […]

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Authors: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Italian philosopher Author Works Nonfiction: Conclusiones, 1486 (Syncretism in the West: Pico’s “900 Theses,” 1998) Oratio de hominis dignitate, wr. 1486, pb. 1496 (Oration on the Dignity of Man, 1940) Apologia, 1487 Heptaplus, 1490 (English translation, 1977) Disputationes adversus astrologos, 1496 De ente et uno, 1496 (Of Being and Unity, 1943) Biography Giovanni Pico, count […]

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Authors: Jayne Anne Phillips

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer and novelist Author Works Short Fiction: Black Tickets, 1979 How Mickey Made It, 1981 Fast Lanes, 1984 Long Fiction: Sweethearts, 1976 Counting, 1978 Machine Dreams, 1984 Shelter, 1994 MotherKind, 2000 Biography Jayne Anne Phillips is recognized as one of the most gifted writers of her generation. She was born in Buckhannon, West […]

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Authors: David Graham Phillips

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist and journalist Author Works Long Fiction: The Great God Success, 1901 Golden Fleece, 1903 The Master Rogue, 1903 The Social Secretary, 1905 The Fortune Hunter, 1906 Light-Fingered Gentry, 1907 The Second Generation, 1907 Old Wives for New, 1908 The Fashionable Adventures of Joshua Craig, 1909 The Hungry Heart, 1909 The Husband’s Story, 1910 […]

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Authors: Caryl Phillips

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

British novelist and playwright Identity: African descent Author Works Long Fiction: The Final Passage, 1985 A State of Independence, 1986 Higher Ground, 1989 Cambridge, 1991 Crossing the River, 1993 The Nature of Blood, 1997 Drama: Strange Fruit, pr. 1980 Where There Is Darkness, pr., pb. 1982 The Shelter, pr. 1983 Teleplays: Welcome to Birmingham, 1983 […]

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Authors: Ann Petry

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 American novelist, short story writer, and author of children’s literature. Born: October 12, 1908 Birthplace: Old Saybrook, Connecticut Died: April 28, 1997 Place of death: Old Saybrook, Connecticut Biography Ann Petry (PEE-tree) was born Ann Lane, the younger of two daughters of Peter and Bertha Lane in Old Saybrook, Connecticut. Her father and […]

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Authors: Petronius

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Roman narrative writer Author Works Long Fiction: Satyricon, c. 60 (The Satyricon, 1694) Biography Plutarch, probably by a slip, referred to Gaius Petronius (puh-TROH-nee-uhs) Arbiter as Titus Petronius, but Tacitus in his annals for 66 c.e. tells of the death of Gaius Petronius, a brilliant, cynical man of pleasure who was as famous for his […]

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Authors: Petrarch

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Italian poet Author Works Poetry: Epistolae metricae, 1363 (Metrical Letters, 1958) Bucolicum carmen, 1364 (Eclogues, 1974) Africa, 1396 (English translation, 1977) Rerum vulgarium fragmenta, 1470 (also known as Canzoniere; Rhymes, 1976) Trionfi, 1470 (Tryumphs, 1565; also known as Triumphs, 1962) Rime disperse, 1826 (also known as Estravaganti; Excluded Rhymes, 1976) Nonfiction: Rerum familiarium libri, wr. […]

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Authors: Persius

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Roman poet Author Works Poetry: Saturae, first century (Satires, 1616) Biography Aulus Persius Flaccus, known as Persius (PUR-shee-uhs), was born in Volaterrae, Etruria (now Volterra, Italy), in 34 c.e. As both his name and his birthplace indicate, he was most likely of Etruscan descent. Although his life was short and his output slight, he produced […]

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Authors: Saint-John Perse

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French poet and diplomat Author Works Poetry: Éloges, 1911 (English translation, 1944) Amitié du prince, 1924 (Friendship of the Prince, 1944) Anabase, 1924 (Anabasis, 1930) Exil, 1942 (Exile, 1949) Pluies, 1943 (Rains, 1949) Éloges, and Other Poems, 1944 (includes Éloges and Friendship of the Prince) Neiges, 1944 (Snows, 1949) Vents, 1946 (Winds, 1953) Exile, and […]

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Authors: Benito Pérez Galdós

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Spanish novelist and playwright Author Works Long Fiction: La fontana de oro, 1868 (The Golden Fountain Cafe, 1989) El audaz, 1871 La sombra, 1871 (The Shadow, 1980) Episodios nacionales, 1873-1912 (46 historical novellas written in 5 series, many of which were also published separately and are included in this list) La corte de Carlos IV, […]

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Authors: Isaac Leib Peretz

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Polish short-story writer, playwright, and poet Identity: Jewish Author Works Short Fiction: Bekannte Bilder, 1890 Dos shtreimel, 1896 Stories and Pictures, 1906 Bontshe the Silent, and Other Stories, 1927 Peretz, 1947 (Stories from Peretz, 1964) Three Gifts and Other Stories, 1947 The Three Canopies, 1948 As Once We Were: Selections from the Works of I. […]

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Authors: S. J. Perelman

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American short-story writer, playwright, and screenwriter Identity: Jewish Author Works Short Fiction: Dawn Ginsbergh’s Revenge, 1929 Parlor, Bedlam, and Bath, 1930 (with Quentin J. Reynolds) Strictly from Hunger, 1937 Look Who’s Talking, 1940 The Dream Department, 1943 Crazy Like a Fox, 1944 Keep It Crisp, 1946 Acres and Pains, 1947 Westward Ha! Or, Around the […]

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Authors: José María de Pereda

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Spanish novelist Author Works Long Fiction: El buey suelto, 1877 De tal palo, tal astilla, 1879 El sabor de la tierruca, 1882 Pedro Sánchez, 1883 Sotileza, 1884 Nubes de estío, 1891 Peñas arriba, 1895 Short Fiction: The Last of the Bread, and Other Stories, 1914 Nonfiction: Escenas montañesas, 1864 Biography Of all Spanish regional novelists, […]

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Authors: Walker Percy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Long Fiction: The Moviegoer, 1961 The Last Gentleman, 1966 Love in the Ruins: The Adventures of a Bad Catholic at a Time Near the End of the World, 1971 Lancelot, 1977 The Second Coming, 1980 The Thanatos Syndrome, 1987 Nonfiction: The Message in the Bottle, 1975 Lost in the Cosmos: The […]

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Authors: Samuel Pepys

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English civil servant and memoirist Author Works Nonfiction: Memoirs Relating to the State of the Royal Navy of England, 1690 The Diary of Samuel Pepys, 1825 (partial publication, as Memoirs of Samuel Pepys . . .), 1848-1849 (as Diary and Correspondence of Samuel Pepys), 1875-1879 (6 volumes), 1893-1899 (10 volumes), 1970-1983 (11 volumes). Biography Samuel […]

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Authors: Victor Pelevin

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Russian novelist and short-story writer. Born: November 22, 1962 Place of birth: Moscow, Soviet Union (now Moscow, Russia) Biography In the wake of the Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991, Victor Pelevin emerged as an unconventional and irreverent voice among Russia’s new generation of writers. Drawing on sources as disparate as Russian folk culture, […]

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Authors: Charles-Pierre Péguy

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

French poet Author Works Poetry: Jeanne d’Arc, 1897 (as Marcel and Pierre Baudouin) La Chanson du roi Dagobert, 1903 Le Mystère de la charité de Jeanne d’Arc, 1910 (The Mystery of the Charity of Joan of Arc, 1950) Le Porche du mystère de la deuxième vertu, 1911 (The Portico of the Mystery of the Second […]

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Authors: George Peele

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English playwright and poet Author Works Drama: The Hunting of Cupid, wr. 1581-1585, pb. 1591 (no longer extant) The Arraignment of Paris, pr. c. 1584 The Battle of Alcazar, pr. c. 1589 Edward I, pr. c. 1590-1591 The Old Wives’ Tale, pr. c. 1591-1594 David and Bethsabe, pr. c. 1593-1594 “Mahomet and Hiren the Fair […]

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Authors: Richard Peck

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American novelist Author Works Children’s/Young Adult Literature: Don’t Look and It Won’t Hurt, 1972 The Creative Word, 1973 Dreamland Lake, 1973 Through a Brief Darkness, 1973 Representing Super Doll, 1974 The Ghost Belonged to Me, 1975 Are You in the House Alone?, 1976 Ghosts I Have Been, 1977 Father Figure, 1978 Secrets of the Shopping […]

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Authors: Donald Culross Peattie

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

American nature writer and novelist Author Works Nonfiction: Cargoes and Harvests, 1926 Bounty of Earth, 1926 (with Louise Redfield) Vence: The Story of the Provencal Town Through 2000 Years, 1930 Flora of the Sand Dunes and the Calumet District of Indiana, 1930 Trees of North America, 1934 An Almanac for Moderns, 1935 The Happy Kingdom, […]

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Authors: The Pearl-Poet

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English poet Author Works Poetry: Pearl Patience Cleanness (also known as Purity) Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Saint Erkenwald (attributed by some to the Pearl-Poet) Biography The Pearl-Poet, or Gawain-Poet, is regarded as one of the most important and accomplished writers in medieval literature on the basis of the four long Middle English poems […]

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Authors: Mervyn Peake

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist, poet, and artist Author Works Long Fiction: Titus Groan, 1946 Gormenghast, 1950 Mr. Pye, 1953 Titus Alone, 1959 The Gormenghast Trilogy, 1967 (includes Titus Groan, Gormenghast, and Titus Alone) Short Fiction: Captain Slaughterboard Drops Anchor, 1942 Letters from a Lost Uncle, 1948 Drama: The Wit to Woo, pr. 1957 Poetry: Shapes and Sounds, […]

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Authors: Thomas Love Peacock

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

English novelist and poet Author Works Long Fiction: Headlong Hall, 1816 Melincourt, 1817 Nightmare Abbey, 1818 Maid Marian, 1822 The Misfortunes of Elphin, 1829 Crotchet Castle, 1831 Gryll Grange, 1860 Poetry: The Monks of St. Mark, 1804 Palmyra, and Other Poems, 1806 The Genius of the Thames, 1810 The Philosophy of Melancholy, 1812 Sir Proteus: […]

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Authors: Octavio Paz

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Last reviewed: June 2017 Mexican poet and diplomat Date of birth: March 31, 1914 Place of birth: Mexico City, Mexico Date of death: April 19, 1998 Place of death: Mexico City, Mexico Biography No Mexican writer did more to explore and celebrate the mysteries of Mexican life than poet and essayist Octavio Paz (pahz), considered to be […]

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Authors: Cesare Pavese

  • Last updated on December 10, 2021

Italian novelist and poet Biography Cesare Pavese (pah-VAY-say) explored the central existential concerns of twentieth century humanity, making him one of Europe’s foremost post-World War II literary figures. Pavese was born to Eugenio, a law clerk, and his wife, Consolina, at the family summer home in Santo Stefano Belbo, a small village in the Piedmont […]

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