Bibliography Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

“Abraham Lincoln.” Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

“Abraham Lincoln: A Resource Guide.” Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., 30 July 2010. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.

“Abraham Lincoln’s Blind Memorandum and the 1864 Election.” Iron Brigader. Iron Brigader, 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

“Alexander Stephens.” GeorgiaInfo. Digital Lib. of Georgia, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

Alexander, Thomas B. Political Reconstruction in Tennessee. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP, 1950. Print.

“American President: Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865).” The Miller Center. U of Virginia, 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

“Background Document on the Lieber Code.” American Red Cross. International Committee of the Red Cross, 2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

“The Battle of Roanoke Island.” National Park Service. National Park Service, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.

“The Battle of Roanoke Island.” North Carolina Civil War Experience. North Carolina Historic Sites, 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 29 Apr. 2013. Web.

Bender, Thomas. A Nation among Nations: America’s Place in World History. New York: Hill, 2006. Print.

Benedict, Michael Less. “Preserving the Constitution: The Conservative Basis of Radical Reconstruction.” Journal of American History 61.1 (1974): 6590. Print.

Bergesen, Albert, “Nation-Building and Constitutional Amendments: The Role of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments in the Legal Reconstitution of the American Polity Following the Civil War.” Pacific Sociological Review 24.1 (1981): 315. Print.

Bernstein, Iver. The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.

Beschloss, Michael, and Hugh Sidey. “Abraham Lincoln.” White House. White House Historical Association, 2009. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

“Biographies of the Secretaries of State: John Hay.” US Department of State–Office of the Historian. United States Department of State, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

“Biography: Abraham Lincoln.” American Experience. PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. WGBH Educ. Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.

“Biography: Edwin Stanton.” Freedom: A History of US. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 25 Apr 2013.

Birkhimer, William E. Military Government and Martial Law. Kansas City: Franklin, 1914. Print.

Blight, David W. “The Civil War in History and Memory.”Chronicle of Higher Education 48.44 (2012): B7. Print.

“The Blockade of Confederate Ports, 1861–1865.” Office of the Historian. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

Bonner, M. Brem, and Peter McCord. “Reassessment of the Union Blockade’s Effectiveness in the Civil War.” North Carolina Historical Review 88.4 (2011): 375–95. Print.

Bosco, David. “Moral Principle vs. Military Necessity.” American Scholar. Phi Beta Kappa, 2008. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

Bradford, Adam. “Recollecting Soldiers: Walt Whitman and the Appreciation of Human Value.” Walt Whitman Quarterly Review 27.3 (2010): 127–52. Print.

Bradley, Mark L. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2009. Print.

“British-American Diplomacy: Treaty between United States and Great Britain for the Suppression of the Slave Trade; April 7, 1862.” Avalon Project. Lillian Goldman Law Lib., 2008. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Brown, Alexis Giradin. “The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle, 1840–1880.” Historian 6.4 (2000): 759–77. Print.

Brown, George W. “Trends toward the Formation of a Southern Confederacy.” The Journal of Negro History 18.3 (1933): 256–81. Print.

Buescher, John. “Forty Acres and a Mule.” George Mason University, n.d. Web. 2 May 2013.

Burden, Jeffrey C. “Battle of Vicksburg.” HistoryNet. Weider History Group, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.

Burt, Richard W. “Captain Richard W. Burt: Civil War Letters from the 76th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.” Ed. Larry Stevens. Larry Stevens’ Web Site. Larry Stevens, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.

Burton, Harold H. “Two Significant Decisions.” American Bar Association Journal (1955): 121–25. Print.

Burton, Vernon. “Lincoln’s Last Speech.” College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Illinois. University of Illinois Board of Trustees, May 2009. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.

Campbell, Jaqueline Glass. When Sherman Marched North From the Sea: Resistance on the Confederate Home Front. Greensboro: U of North Carolina P, 2003. Print.

Carwardine, Richard. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power. New York: Vintage, 2006. Print.

Caudill, Edward, and Paul Ashdown. Sherman’s March in Myth and Memory. Lanham: Rowman, 2009. Print.

“The Civil War’s Black Soldiers.” National Park Service. US Department of the Interior, 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

Click, Patricia C. Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen’s Colony, 1862–1867. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2001. Print.

Costa, Dora L., and Matthew E. Kahn. “Cowards and Heroes: Group Loyalty in the American Civil War.” Quarterly Journal of Economic History 118.2 (2003): 519–48. Print.

Coulter, E. Merton. William G. Brownlow: Fighting Parson of the Southern Highlands. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1937. Print.

Cross, Jerry L. “Zebulon Baird Vance.” NCPedia. State Lib. of North Carolina, 2007. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Currie, David P. “The Reconstruction Congress.” University of Chicago Law Review 75.1 (2008): 383495. Print.

David, Shannon Clark. “Confronting the Reality of Changed Lives: Love and Loss for Women in Civil War America.” Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review 1.2 (2010): 3–10. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.

“December 26, 1861: Possible War between US and Britain Is Averted.” This Day in History: Civil War, December 26. A&E Television Networks, LLC, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.

Doyle, Charles. Federal Habeas Corpus. New York: Nova, 2007. Print.

Dueholm, James A. “Lincoln’s Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus: An Historical and Constitutional Analysis.” Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 29.2 (2008): 47–66. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.

Duker, William F. A Constitutional History of Habeas Corpus. Westport: Greenwood, 1980. Print.

Durrill, Wayne K. “Ritual, Community, and War: Local Flag Presentation Ceremonies and Disunity in the Early Confederacy.” Journal of Social History 39.4 (2006): 1105–22. Print.

Edwards, Owen. “Gettysburg Address Displayed at Smithsonian.” Smithsonian. Smithsonian, Dec. 2008. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.

Ekelund, Robert B., Jr., and Mark Thornton. “The Union Blockade and Demoralization of the South: Relative Prices in the Confederacy.” Social Science Quarterly 73.4 (1992): 890–902. Print.

Elder, Robert. “A Twice Sacred Circle: Women, Evangelicalism, and Honor in the Deep South, 1784–1860.” Journal of Southern History 78.3 (2012): 579–614. Print.

Elliott, Mark. Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgée and the Quest for Racial Equality: From the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson. New York: Oxford UP, 2006. Print.

Epps, Garrett. Democracy Reborn: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Fight for Equal Rights in Post–Civil War America. New York: Holt, 2006. Print.

Faulkner, Ronnie W. “Secession.” North Carolina History Project. John Locke Foundation, 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

Faust, Drew Gilpin. “Altars of Sacrifice: Confederate Women and the Narratives of War.” Journal of American History 76.4 (1990): 1200–1228. Print.

Fellman, Michael. Citizen Sherman: A Life of William Tecumseh Sherman. New York: Random, 1995. Print.

Ferris, Norman B. The Trent Affair: A Diplomatic Crisis. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1977. Print.

“The Fight for Equal Rights: Black Soldiers in the Civil War.”National Archives. US National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 25 Apr 2013.

Flynn, Kevin Haddick. “‘Where the Murderin’ Cannons Roar…’: The American Civil War.” History of Ireland 20.5 (2012): 28–32. Print.

Folsom, Ed, and Kenneth M. Price. “Walt Whitman.” Walt Whitman Archive. Ctr. for Digital Research in the Humanities at the U of Nebraska-Lincoln, n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2013.

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. New York: Knopf, 2005. Print.

---. A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863–1877. New York: Harper, 1990. Print.

---. “The Strange Career of the Reconstruction Amendments.” Yale Law Journal 108.8 Symposium: Moments of Change: Transformation in American Constitutionalism (1999): 20039. Print.

“Fort Sumter.” Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, 2013. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

“Francis Lieber: A Biography That Is a Thesis upon His Work and Influence.” New York Times. New York Times, 27 Jan. 1900. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

Franklin, John Hope. The Emancipation Proclamation. New York: Doubleday, 1963. Print.

“Gettysburg.” Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

“The Gettysburg Address Text.” 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

Goldstone, Lawrence. Inherently Unequal: The Betrayal of Equal Rights by the Supreme Court, 1865–1903. New York: Walker, 2011. Print.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon, 2005. Print.

Gross, Jennifer Lynn. “‘Good Angels’: Confederate Widowhood in Virginia.” Southern Families at War: Loyalty and Conflict in the Civil War South. Ed. Catherine Clinton. Cary: Oxford UP, 2000. 133–54. Print.

Gross, Theodore L. Albion W. Tourgée. New York: Twayne, 1963. Print.

Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon, 2004. Print.

---. Abraham Lincoln as a Man of Ideas. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2009. Print.

---. Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999. Print.

Gwin, Minrose. Introduction. A Woman’s Civil War: Reminiscences of the War, from March 1862. By Cornelia Peake McDonald. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1992. 3–18. Print.

Hamilton, Daniel. The Limits of Sovereignty: Property Confiscation in the Union and the Confederacy during the Civil War. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2007. Print.

Hargrove, Hondon B. Black Union Soldiers in the Civil War. Jefferson: McFarland, 1988. Print.

Harper, Douglas. “Habeas Corpus in the Civil War.” Etymonline. Harper, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Harris, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. 279–88. Print.

Hay, John. “The Mormon Prophet’s Tragedy.” Atlantic Monthly Dec. 1869: 669–78. Utah Lighthouse Ministry. Jerald and Sandra Tanner, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler, eds. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. 5 vols. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

Heiny, Louisa M. A. “Radical Abolitionist Influence on Federalism and the Fourteenth Amendment.” American Journal of Legal History 49.2 (2007): 18096. Print.

“History of the Federal Judiciary: Ex parte Merryman and Debates on Civil Liberties during the Civil War.” Federal Judicial Center. Federal Judicial Center, n.d. Web. 2 May 2013.

Holder, Harold, Edna Greene Medford, and Frank J. Williams. The Emancipation Proclamation: Three Views. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2006. Print.

Holzer, Harold. Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President. New York: Simon, 2004. Print.

Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War. New York: Vintage, 1998. Print.

Hsu, David. “Walt Whitman: An American Civil War Nurse Who Witnessed the Advent of Modern American Medicine.” Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 65.4 (2010): 238–39. Print.

Jaffa, Harry, and Robert Johannsen, eds. In the Name of the People: Speeches and Writings of Lincoln and Douglas in the Ohio Campaign of 1859. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1959. Print.

Jenkins, Brian. “The ‘Wise Macaw’ and the Lion: William Seward and Britain, 1861–1863.” University of Rochester Library Bulletin 31.1 (1978): n. pag. River Campus Libraries: University of Rochester. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

“John Milton Hay.” The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War. Library of Congress, 22 June 2011. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

Johnson, William H. Autobiography of Dr. William Henry Johnson, Respectfully Dedicated to His Adopted Home, the Capital City of the Empire State. Albany: Argus, 1900. Print.

Juncker, Clara. “Women at War: The Civil War Diaries of Floride Clemson and Cornelia Peake McDonald.” Southern Quarterly 42.4 (2004): 90–106. Print.

Katz, William L. The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan Impact on History. Washington: Open Hand, 1986. Print.

Keith, LeeAnna. The Colfax Massacre: The Untold Story of Black Power, White Terror, and the Death of Reconstruction. New York: Oxford UP, 2008. Print.

Kerber, Linda K. “Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman’s Place: The Rhetoric of Women’s History.” Journal of American History 75.1 (1988): 9–39. Print.

Kobre, Sidney. Development of American Journalism. Dubuque: Brown, 1972. Print.

Lane, Charles. The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction. New York: Holt, 2008. Print.

Lankford, Nelson D. “Virginia Convention of 1861.” Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2013.

Latimer, Christopher P. Civilian Liberties and the State: A Documentary and Reference Guide. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2011. Print.

“Lesson 3: The Gettysburg Address (1863)–Defining the American Union.” National Endowment for the Humanities. National Endowment for the Humanities, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

Lewin, Tamar. “Calls for Slavery Restitution Getting Louder.” New York Times. New York Times, 4 June 2001. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

Lincoln, Abraham. “Abraham Lincoln’s War Address.” Furman U, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.

---. “First Inaugural Address–Final Text.” The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy Prentice Basler. Vol. 4. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1953. Print. 262–71.

“Lincoln, Abraham.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

Livingston, Rebecca. “Civil War Cat-and-Mouse Game: Researching Blockade-Runners at the National Archives.” Prologue Magazine 31.3 (1999): n. pag. Web. 3 Mar. 2013.

“Louisiana and Black Suffrage.” Mr. Lincoln and Freedom. Lincoln Institute, 2002–13. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.

Marszalek, John F. “William Tecumseh Sherman.” American National Biography Online. Oxford UP, n.d. Web. 2 May 2013.

Masur, Louis P. Lincoln’s Hundred Days: The Emancipation Proclamation and the War for the Union. Cambridge: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 2012. Print.

Mathews, John M. Legislative and Judicial History of the Fifteenth Amendment. New York: Da Capo, 1971. Print.

McDonald, Cornelia Peake. A Woman’s Civil War: Reminiscences of the War, from March 1862. Ed. Minrose C. Gwin. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1992. Print.

McDonald, William N. A History of the Laurel Brigade. Ed. Bushrod C. Washington. Baltimore: Sun Job, 1907. Print.

McGuire, Judith White Brockenbrough. Diary of a Southern Refugee, during the War. 3rd ed. Richmond: Randolph, Print. 1889.

McIver, Stuart. “The Murder of a Scalawag.” American History Illustrated 8 (1973): 12–18. Print.

McPherson, James M. “The Ballot and Land for the Freedmen, 1861–1865.” Reconstruction: An Anthology of Revisionist Writings. Ed. Kenneth M. Stampp and Leon F. Litwick. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1969. Print.

---. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Print.

---. “Lincoln, Abraham.” American National Biography Online. American Council of Learned Societies, Feb. 2000. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

---. The Negro’s Civil War: How American Black Felt and Acted during the War for the Union. New York: Vintage, 2003. Print.

McPherson, James M., and James K. Hogue. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw, 2010. Print.

McPherson, James M., Henry Davis, and Patricia R. McPherson, eds. Lamson of the Gettysburg: The Civil War Letters of Lieutenant Roswell H. Lamson, US Navy. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. Print.

Metcalfe, N. H. “Military Influence upon the Development of Anaesthesia from the American Civil War (1861–1865) to the Outbreak of the First World War.” Anaesthesia 60.12 (2005): 1213–17. Print.

Meyer, Howard N. The Amendment That Refused to Die: Equality and Justice Deferred: The History of the Fourteenth Amendment. Lanham: Madison, 2000. Print.

Miller, Charles Dana. The Struggle for the Life of the Republic: A Civil War Narrative. Ed. Stewart Bennett and Barbara Tillery. Kent: Kent State UP, 2004. Print.

Miller, Randall M., ed. Lincoln and Leadership: Military, Political, and Religious Decision Making. New York: Fordham UP, 2012. Print.

Mindich, David T. Z. “Raymond, Henry Jarvis.” American National Biography Online (2010): 1. Biography Reference Center. Web. 2 Apr. 2013.

Mintz, Steven. Huck’s Raft: A History of American Childhood. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2004. Print.

Mitchell, Martha. “Hay, John.” Encyclopedia Brunoniana. Providence: Brown University Library, 1993. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

Moore, Frank, ed. The Rebellion Record. Vol. 10. New York: Putnam, 1867. Google Book s. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Morgan, Chad. “Alexander Stephens (1812–1883).” The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council, 2 July 2012. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

Neely, Marc. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civilian Liberties. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.

Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750–1800. Boston: Little, 1980. Print.

Nye, Russel B. “Judge Tourgée and Reconstruction.” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 50 (1941): 101–14. Print.

Olsen, Otto H. Carpetbagger’s Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgée. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1965. Print.

Ott, Victoria E. Confederate Daughters: Coming of Age during the Civil War. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2008. Print.

Oubre, Claude F. Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen’s Bureau and Black Land Ownership. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1978. Print.

Paludin, Phillip Shaw. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln. Amer. Presidency Series. Lawrence: UP of Kansas, 1994. Print.

Peterson, Carla L. Black Gotham: A Family History of African Americans in Nineteenth-Century New York City. New Haven: Yale UP, 2011. Print.

Plumly, Stanley. “Whitman’s Compost.” Virginia Quarterly Review 88.2 (2012): 13–16. Print.

Powell, William S. “Zebulon Baird Vance, 13 May 1830–14 Apr. 1894.” Documenting the American South. U of North Carolina, 2004. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.

Price, Angel. “Whitman’s Drum Taps and Washington’s Civil War Hospitals.” American Studies at the University of Virginia. University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2013.

Queener, Verton M. “A Decade of East Tennessee Republicanism, 1867–1876.” East Tennessee Historical Society’s Publications 14 (1942): 59–85. Print.

Redkey, Edwin S., ed. A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army, 1861-1865. New York: Cambridge UP, 1992. Print.

Richards, David A. J. Conscience and the Constitution: History, Theory, and Law of the Reconstruction Amendments. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1993. Print.

Risley, Ford. “The South’s Capital Dilemma.” New York Times. New York Times Co., 21 Mar. 2011. Web. 17 Oct. 2012.

Roper, Robert. “Collateral Damage.” American Scholar 78.1 (2009): 75–82. Print.

Schecter, Barnet. The Devil’s Own Work. New York: Walker, 2005. Print.

Schultz, Jane E. “The Inhospitable Hospital: Gender and Professionalism in Civil War Medicine.” Signs 17.2 (1992): 363–92. Print.

Severance, Ben H. Tennessee’s Radical Army: The State Guard and Its Role in Reconstruction, 1867–1869. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 2005. Print.

Sherman, William Tecumseh. Memoirs of William T. Sherman. Vol. 2. New York: Appleton, 1891. Print.

Siddali, Silvana R. From Property to Person: Slavery and the Confiscation Acts, 1861–1862. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2005. Print.

Smith, John David, ed. Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2002. Print.

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “The Female World of Love and Ritual: Relations between Women in Nineteenth-Century America.” Signs 1.1 (1975): 1–29. Print.

Stephens, Alexander H. Recollections of Alexander H. Stephens. Ed. Myrta Lockett Avary. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1998.

Stuntz, William J. The Collapse of American Criminal Justice. Cambridge: Belknap P of Harvard UP, 2012. Print.

Syrett, John. The Civil War Confiscation Acts: Failing to Reconstruct the South. New York: Fordham UP, 2005. Print.

Talbott, John. “Combat Trauma in the American Civil War.” History Today 46.3 (1996): 41. Print.

Tourgée, Albion W. “Letter to Senator Joseph C. Abbott (1870).” Undaunted Radical: The Selected Writings and Speeches of Albion W. Tourgée. Ed. Mark Elliott and John David Smith. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2010. 47–51. Print.

Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction. New York: Harper, 1971. Print.

Trudeau, Noah Andre. Southern Storm: Sherman’s March to the Sea. New York: Harper, 2009. Print.

United States Senate. Speech of Senator Charles Sumner on the Trent Affair. Washington: US Senate, n.d. Web. 6 May 2013.

“USS Lamson.” Destroyer History Foundation. Destroyer History Foundation, 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2013.

“Vance, Zebulon Baird (1830–1894).” Biographical Dictionary of the United States Congress. US Congress, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 13.

“Vicksburg.” Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013.

Weigley, Russell F., et al. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. New York: Norton, 1982. Print.

Whitman, George Washington. Letter to Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. 6 Mar. 1864. Walt Whitman Archive. Ctr. for Digital Research in the Humanities at the U of Nebraska-Lincoln, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2013.

Wise, Stephen R. Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running During the Civil War. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1991. Print.

Wish, Harvey. “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy.” The Journal of Negro History 23.4 (1938): 435–50. Print.

Witt, John Fabian. “Lincoln Changes the Rules of War.” American History 47.6 ( 2013): 60–65. Print.

“Wound Dresser.” Revising Himself: Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass. Lib. of Cong., 16 Aug. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2013.

Ziegler, Philip. Addington: A Life of Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth. New York: Collins, 1965. Print.

Categories: History