Index Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022
A

abolitionism; beginnings of, 677; racist motivations in, 655

A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (Thomas Hariot), 99, 107

Academy of Philadelphia, 608

Account of the Expedition to Cibola Which Took Place in the Year 1540, in Which All Those Settlements, Their Ceremonies and Customs, Are Described (Castañeda), 13–21

Account of Two Voyages to New-England Made During the Years 1638, 1663, An (Josselyn), 142, 149

Africans and African Americans; stereotypes of, 525, 653, 713

agriculture; development of, 591, 598

alcohol; effects on American Indians, 87, 360

Algonquians; culture of, 104; diet of, 504; linguistic similarities of, 156; military capacity of, 105–106; religious beliefs of, 105; social hierarchy of, 106

American colonies; early cooperation between, 250–252; education in, 601, 605; growth of, 209; historiography of, 352, 578; profitability of, 576, 712

American colonists; religious and cultural differences between, 198–199

American exceptionalism, 463

American Indians; Christianity and, 176–177; clothing of, 197; colonists’ assumptions about, 114, 454; colonists’ attitudes toward, 351; Connecticut settlers and, 566–567; critique of culture, 359; critique of culture, 359, 454; depictions of, 498, 502, 504; diseases, 146; early colonial contact, 137–139, 454; early history of, 138; French alliances with, 88; hunting practices, 148; intermarriage with settlers, 351–352; names for, 157; New Netherland, 47–48; North Carolina settlement and, 354–362; perceptions of, 199; reception in France, 68; religion, 146–147; Rhode Island settlers and, 156; Spanish treatment of, 23–28; speculation upon origins of, 157, 197; US policy toward, 233

Andros, Edmund, 306, 310–312, 375

Anglo-French colonial relations, 427

Anglo-French rivalry, 424

antidefamation laws, 585, 587

antimiscegenation laws, 644

Antinomian Controversy, 266, 466, 467, 476

apocalyptic beliefs. See millennialism

Arawaks, 8

aristocracy; colonial settlement and, 340, 576; competing factions of, 336–337, 342; patronage within, 608

Articles, Laws, and Orders, Devine, Politic, and Martial for the Colony in Virginia (Gates), 235–242

Articles of Confederation of the United Colonies of New England, 245–253

Ashbridge, Elizabeth, 620–627

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony. See Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, First Earl of assimilation; slaves and, 713

“At the Town-House in Boston”, 310–311

authenticity; Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges; authorship, 326

Autobiography (Franklin), 699–706

Awashonks (sachem), 365, 369–371

Aztecs; Spanish conquest of, 17

B

barbarism, 27

Barlowe, Arthur, 31–38

Bayard, Nicholas, 216

Bayley, Joseph, 515

Beauharnois, Marquis de (Charles de la Boische), 87

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; Moravian Brethren in, 76

Beverley, Robert, 345–346

biblical allusions, 125, 127, 207, 210, 652

“Boston Declaration of Grievances, The” (Mather), 305–313

Boston Revolt of 1689, effects of, 313

Bourgmont, Etienne Véniard de, 62–69

Bradford, William, 120–128, 131–132, 245, 246, 296, 320–321

Bradstreet, Simon, 306–307

Brainerd, David (Presbyterian missionary), 78

Brief and Candid Answer to a late Printed Sheet Entitled the Selling of Joseph, A (Saffin), 655

Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (White, Hariot), 36

“Brief Recognition of New England’s Errand into the Wilderness, A” (Samuel Danforth), 479–486

“Britain’s Mercies, and Britain’s Duties” (Whitefield), 551

British-American tensions; competing aristocracy in, 336–337, 343

British government; anti-independence tactics of, 339

Bull, William, 680–687, 689–690

Burnet, William, 441

Byrd, William, 352, 571–578

C

Cammerhof, Johann Friedrich, 79

capital punishment; biblical basis for, 281; social control through, 241

Captain Arthur Barlowe’s Narrative of the First Voyage to the Coast of America (Barlowe), 31–39

captivity narratives, 503, 505; spiritual pilgrimage, as, 504

Carolinas; compared to other colonies, 389

Carver, John, 296, 448

Castañeda, Pedro de, 13–14, 21

Cato’s Letters (Gordon and Trenchard), 437

Cawtantowit (god), 157

Charles I, King of England; execution, 265

Chaumonot, Pierre-Joseph-Marie (Jesuit missionary), 52, 53

Christian Indians; Roman Catholic teachings and, 57; social standing of, 79

Christianity, 187; American Indians and, 188, 359–360; cultural development through, 157, 654; higher education and, 606; legal issues, 525; slavery, changing views on, 642, 664–665; Spanish Empire and, 28; trade and, 60

church and state, 542; Christians vs. non-Christians in Pennsylvania government, 331; Crown vs. Massachusetts Puritans, 339; natural law in, 379–380; New England, 369; Pennsylvania, 290–291

Church, Benjamin, 364–371

“Churches Quarrel Espoused, The” (Wise), 374

Church of England, 703; conversion of slaves, 713; differences with Separatists, 198–199; founding of, 274; influence in Virginia, 708; Quakerism and, 620, 624–625; suppression of dissenters, 488–489, 492

Church, Thomas, 364

civil religion. See also theocracy

civil society, individual and, 380

class; colonization and, 117

clothing; women’s pocket, 504

Coggeshall, John, 475

colonial government; religious aspects, 265–272

colonialism; Spanish, 182

colonial warfare; international implications, 428

colonization; American Indian subjugation key to, 117; conformity and, 242; critique of, 360; doubts about, 109; impact on American Indians, 38–39; promotion of, 136–139, 192, 196, 206, 345, 349–352; secular account of, 346, 349–351, 576

colony formation; economic aspects, 462; ethical guidelines, 462

Columbus, Christopher, 3–10

“Conference Between Governor Burnet and the Indians” (Burnet and the Five Nations), 441

conflict of interest; judges and, 587

congregationalism, 268

Connecticut; conflict with Dutch, 252; militia, 393

consensus; Iroquois system of, 231, 232; majority rule vs., 230

Constitution of the Iroquois Nations: The Great Binding Law, (Gayanashagowa), 225–232

conversion narrative; characteristics of, 625

convict labor system, 709, 714–715

copper, importance of, 37

Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de, 13–21

Cortes, Hernán, 17–18

Cosby, William, 581

Cotton, John, 265–272, 466, 467, 474, 475

Council for New England, 192

coureurs des bois (French woodsmen), 429

Court of Oyer and Terminer, 515

court proceedings; guilt by association, 493; individual’s rights in, 282; jury nullifaction, 588; precedent in, 586

Cousins, John, 665

Cuba; Columbus’s voyage, 9

cultural bias; European settlement and, 361; missionary work and, 57, 79

cultural relativism, 197; Europeans vs. American Indians, 359, 360; social critique through, 361; Virginia planter society and Britain, 712

culture loss; reasons for, 59, 360

currency, colonial, 418–421

Currency Reform Act, 419–422

Curse of Ham, 654

Cushman, Robert, 126, 296, 447–448

Cuzco, 18

D

Dale, Thomas, 242

Danforth, Samuel, 479, 480, 483–486

Dauphin Island, 67

Declaration of Indulgences, 495

Dekanawidah, 225–226

Delaware Colony; founding of, 333

Delawares; Moravian mission work among, 78

De la Warr, Lord. See West, Thomas

Description of the New Netherlands (van der Donck), 41–49

diplomacy; Iroquois and French negotiations, 59

Discourse Concerning the Currencies of the British Plantations in America (W. Douglass), 630

Discourse Concerning Unlimited Submission, A (Mayhew), 555

disease; effects on American Indians, 360; ergot fungus and Salem witch hysteria, 515; immigrant ships and, 207; impact on American Indians, 197; Mayflower and, 127; missionary work and, 53, 57; transatlantic transmission of, 666–667

divine providence; immigration and, 207

Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America (Donnan), 658–668

Dominion of New England; formation of, 306

Donnan, Elizabeth (ed.), 658, 659

Douglass, William, 630

Dudley, Joseph, 336–343

Dudley, Thomas, 467, 474

Dudley, William, 340–341

Dukandarra, 675, 676

Dutch West India Company, 41–42, 49

E

Easton, John, 172–173

Eaton, Theophilus, 245, 246

economic opportunity; New World vs. Old World, 210

education; secular teachings and, 601, 606

Edward (slave ship), 665

Edwards, Jonathan, 528–536

Elizabeth I (England), 479

empire-building; drivers of, 117, 239, 576

encomienda system, 23, 24, 27

England; religious division in, 494; religious tolerance in, 495

“England’s Present Interest Considered, with Honour to the Prince, and Safety to the People” (Penn), 488–495

English Civil War, 256, 257; social effects of, 351

English Liberties and Deference (Dudley), 336–343

Enlightenment; influence of, 346, 351, 355, 586, 601; social impact of, 336, 571

equality; law and, 279

Essential Rights and Liberties of Protestants, The (Williams), 538–545

ethnographic writing; Eurocentric language in, 114–115; firsthand experience in, 359; guidance for colonists in, 116–117; mission work and, 52, 59; Roger Williams on Narragansetts, 156

ethnographic writing, colonial, 103

Eurocentrism; ethnography and, 114–115

European contact; intermarriage, 351, 577

European culture; Roger Williams’s critique of, 158, 159

Exact Description of Louisiana (Bourgmont), 62–69

Exhortation and Caution to Friends Concerning Buying or Keeping of Negroes, An (Keith), 721

F

family; Iroquois structure, 230; slavery’s effects on, 653

Fernandina, 8

First Church of Boston, 266

First Great Awakening, 538, 542, 544. See Great Awakening

Five Nations, 441

Fort d’Orleans, 68

forts, colonial French, 62

Fortune, 448

Forward, Jonathan, 714

“Founding Vision for Georgia” (Oglethorpe), 384–391

Frame of Government of Pennsylvania (Penn), 285–293, 325, 331

France; alliance with Spain, 428; Caribbean colonies, 429; colonial expansion, effects of, 232; colonial fur trade, 429; Indian allies, 429; rivalry with Britain, 428

Franklin, Benjamin, 601–602, 699–706; Great Law of Peace and, 232; views on education, 605–608

fraud, 280, 643

freedmen, 694

freedom of speech; arguments for, 586; early movements, 588–589

freedom of the press; early movements, 588–589

French and Indian War; alliances in, 232

French Canada, 424–430

French colonists, 62

French settlement; English view of, 577; growth of, 82

Frethorne, Richard, 717; Letter to His Parents, 717

Frisby, James, 659, 665

frontier; American identity based on, 505; heroic frontiersman archetype, 503; insecurity on, 208, 250, 351, 571, 577

fugitive slave laws, 644

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (Locke), 256–263

fur trade, 82, 89–90

G

Galissonière, Roland-Michel Barrin, Marquis de la, 424–425, 427–430

Gans, Joachim, 37

Gates, Thomas, 235–236, 239–242

Gayanashagowa. See Great Law of Peace

General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 326, 331–332

General History of Virginia, New England and the Summer Isles, The (John Smith), 109

Georgia Colony; charter, 388, 390; compared to other colonies, 389; economy, 389; financial development of, 391; financial plan for, 388; geographic location, 389–390; rationale for, 384, 388; religion in, 390; trustees, 390

Germantown, Pennsylvania; founding of, 202, 208

Gilbert, Humphrey, 35

Glen, James, 667

Glorious Revolution of 1688, 306, 312, 495

Glover, Elias, 665

Gnadenhutten Massacre, 72

Gnadenhutten, Pennsylvania; Moravian Brethren settlement at, 77–78

Gordon, Thomas, 437

government; natural law and, 380–381

government policies; impacts on Moravian community, 79

“Government the Pillar of the Earth” (Colman), 547

Gray, Captain, 665

Great Awakening, 414, 528–536, 699–706

“Great Awakening, The” (Jonathan Edwards), 528–536

Great Dying (plague), 197

Great Law of Peace, 225, 230–233. See also Constitution of the Iroquois Nations

Grenville, Richard, 31

Guinea, 675

Guzmán, Nuño de, 18–19

H

hagiography; Cotton Mather’s use of, 322

Hamilton, Andrew, 581–582

Hammond, John, 717

Hariot, Thomas, 36, 99–100, 103–107

Haudenosaunee. See Iroquois Confederacy

Heckewelder, John, 71–72, 76

Henry VIII (England), 479

Hiawatha, 225

Hispaniola, 9

History and Present State of Virginia, The (Beverley), 345–352

History of King Philip’s War, The (Church), 364–371

History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay, The (Hutchinson), 414–422

History of the Dividing Line, The (Byrd), 571–578

history, social and moral use of, 606

House of Burgesses, 638

Hudson, Henry, 46

human corruption, 270

human nature; politics and, 256

human rights; government protection of, 280

Hurons; Jesuit missions among, 52–53, 57–58

husquenaugh, 360

Hutchinson, Anne, 466–476; Antinomian Controversy, 266

Hutchinson, Thomas, 414–415

I

immigration; Iroquois policies on, 231; reasons for, 206, 210; ship voyage and, 207; white settlers, 714, 715

In Defense of the Indians (Las Casas), 23, 28

indentured servants 611–618; compared to African slaves, 611; diminishing importation of, 653; legal rights of, 281; opportunities for, 714; slaves versus, 643; women as, 621

Indians; Columbus and, 8–9

indigo; as South Carolina crop, 592

individual rights; Iroquois protection of, 231

Iroquoian language group, 57

Iroquois Confederacy, 225; American Revolution, reaction to, 232; Grand Council, 230; Jesuit description of, 58–59; Moravian Brethren’s interactions with, 76–77; power and influence of, 59, 60; unification of, 229–230

Iroquois League. See Five Nations

Israelites and Puritans, parallels, 463

J

James II (king of England), 306

Jamestown; early challenges of, 240; settlement of, 240; relations with American Indians, 115

Jesuit missions; expansion plans of, 57, 58; Hurons and, 52–53, 57–58

Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, The, 52

Jesuits, history of, 52

Johnston, Archibald. See Warriston, Lord

John the Baptist, 483–485

Jones, Hugh, 708–709, 713

Joseph (biblical patriarch), 652

Josselyn, John, 142, 143

Journal of Madam Knight, The (Knight), 561–568

Journal of the Expedition of the Chevalier de La Vérendrye and One of His Brothers to Reach the Western Sea Addressed to the Marquis de Beauharnois (Vérendrye), 82–90

Journal of the First Voyage of Columbus (Columbus), 3–10

Journal of the Late Actions of the French at Canada, A (Bayard), 216

Journey to Pennsylvania (Mittelberger), 611–618

Judeo-Christian tradition; Narragansett culture compared to, 157–158

K

Keith, George, 721

Key into the Language of America, A (Williams), 151–159

kidnapping, slavery and, 654

King George’s War, 424

King Philip. See Metacom

King Philip’s War, 162–169, 172–173, 175–176, 364–371, 455, 497, 502, 504; colonies united in, 252; impact, 364, 371; Mary Rowlandson’s captivity, 502–505; Narragansetts’ role in, 159, 502; Puritan perspectives, 369; Quaker perspectives, 169; religious aspects, 168; Roger Williams’s role in, 159

Kino, Eusebio Francisco, 92

Knight, Sarah Kemble, 561–568

L

Lallemont, Hierosme (Jesuit missionary), 52, 53

land acquisition; intermarriage and, 577; means of, 578

land ownership; royal interference in, 311

Laud, William (archbishop of Canterbury), 198

law; civil, 544; divine, 542; natural, 544; protection through, 280–281

Lawson, John, 354–362

legendary Indian cities, 18–20

Lenapes; Pennsylvania settlement and, 208

Letter Concerning Toleration, A (Locke), 262

“Letter from Governor Bull to the Royal Council Regarding the Stono Rebellion, October 1739” (William Bull), 680–687

Letters on Plantation Life (Lucas), 591–599

Leverett, Thomas, 475

Lewis and Clark Expedition, 89

Lewis, Mercy, 514

Locke, John, 256–263, 543

Loughrig, Eneas, 665

Louisiana (New France), 62–63

Lucas, Eliza, 591–599

M

Magnalia Christi Americana (Mather), 315–323

Mahicans; relocation of, 77

majority rule; consensus vs., 230

Mandans, 89

manifest destiny, 463

Manteo, 37

Ma-re Mount settlement, 193, 198

Martin, Christopher, 126

Maryland; legal documents, 659; slave laws of, 664

Mason, John, 393–394, 398–401

Massachusetts; military attacks on Block Island Indians, 399; military attacks on Pequots, 399

Massachusetts Bay Colony, 458, 479; early history of, 305, 315, 467, 519; founding of, 275, 466, 476; political disputes in, 321–322; relations with England, 162–163, 166–167; relations with French, 252; slave population in, 649, 652

Massachusetts Bay Company; complaints against, 192

Massachusetts Body of Liberties (Ward), 274–283

Massachusetts General Court, 483; establishment of, 275; guidance for, 282

Massasoit, 137, 455

Mather, Cotton, 272, 307, 311, 315–316, 379, 519–520, 523–526

Mather, Increase, 312, 379

May Day, 198

Mayflower Compact, 126–128, 295; early secular government, 137

Mayflower, 132, 447; journey, details of, 136

Mayhew, Jonathan, 555

Memoir on the French Colonies in North America, The (Galissonière), 424–430

Merchant Adventurers of London, 447; economic expectations of, 453

Merrie Mount. See Ma-re Mount settlement

Metacom, 162, 166, 173, 364, 369–371, 502, 505. See also King Philip’s War

Methodism, 703

Middle Passage; conditions of, 666

millennialism, 322–323

missionary work; competition, 577; cross-cultural exchange in, 59; material aid through, 58; physical challenges of, 53, 57, 78; settlement impeding, 79

Mississippi River; French exploration of, 67

Missouri River; American Indians, 68; French exploration of, 67

Mittelberger, Gottlieb, 611–618

mob violence, threat of, 310

Mohicans. See Mahicans

Moravian Brethren; history of, 71–72; missions, 76–79; neutrality of, 76–77

Morton, Thomas, 192–199

Mount Wollaston. See Ma-re Mount settlement

Mourt’s Relation: A Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth (Winslow and Bradford), 131–139

mutual defense, 251

N

Narragansetts, 502, 503; neutral view of Europeans, 157; rivalries of, 245; sense of religious inferiority, 157

Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, The (Rowlandson), 497–505

Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, A (Smith), 670–678

“Negro Christianized, The” (Mather), 519–526

New Amsterdam; Iroquois trade with, 59

New England; American Indian inhabitants of, 196; English colonization of, 350; founding of, 578; Promised Land comparison, 320–323

New English Canaan (Morton), 192–199

New France, 82

New Haven; social practices in, 567

New Netherland, 41–49; conflict with Connecticut, 252

New Spain, 17–18

New Voyage to Carolina, A (John Lawson), 354–362

New York; diplomacy with Iroquois, 59

Nicholson, Francis, 588

Niña, 9

Nipmucs, 502

“noble savage” stereotype, 577

non liquet cases, 282

North Carolina; European settlement of, 354–362; natural history of, 354

North Carolina Biennial Act, 432

North Carolina General Assembly, 432

O

Of Plymouth Plantation (Bradford), 120–128

“Of the Fresh Hope of Progress” (Pierre-Joseph-Marie Chaumonot), 57

Oglethorpe, James Edward, 384–385, 388–390

“On Iroquois Wars” (Lallemont), 58

oral history; American Indian tradition of, 58

Otermín, Antonio de, 182–183

P

Padouca/Padocca tribe, 68

Parris, Samuel, 508

pass system; rationale for, 714

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 202–204

Pennsylvania; compared to other colonies, 389; diversity among settlers, 207, 601; early governance of, 330–332; European immigrants, 611–617; German influence in, 209; government, 285–293; growth of, 207, 601; religious tolerance in, 77, 207, 601, 620

Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges, 325–333

Pennsylvania Frame of Government. See Frame of Government of Pennsylvania (Penn)

Pennsylvania Provincial Council, 332

Penn, William, 285–286, 325–326, 488–489, 492–495

Pequots, 393; conflicts with Europeans, 245

Pequot War of 1637, 245–246, 250, 393–394, 398–401; Mystic massacre, 393

persecution, religious, 131, 626

Peru, Viceroyalty of, 18

Philip (sachem). See Metacom

Phips, William, 515, 516

Pietism, 203

Pilgrim Code of Law (Plymouth Colony), 295–303

Pilgrims, 120–128, 295; conflict with Ma-re Mount settlers, 198–199; Merchant Adventurers contract with, 452; Pokanoket Indians and, 137–139; Saints and Strangers, 132, 136–137, 452

Pinckney, Eliza Lucas. See Lucas, Eliza

Pinta, 9

Plymouth Colony, 120, 295–303; founding of, 121, 320, 448, 452; religious versus economic goals for, 451, 453

Plymouth Plantation, 447

Pocahontas, 115, 351

Pokanoket Indians; Pilgrims and, 139

politics; secular approach to, 607

politics and public policy; public participation in, 280

Popé (Pueblo leader), 182

“Positive Information from America, Concerning the Country of Pennsylvania by a German who has Migrated Thither, 1684” (Pastorius), 202–210

power, abuse of; citizens’ duty regarding, 587

Powhatan (chief). See Wahunsonacock

Powhatan confederation, 114–115

predestination, 462

Presbyterian alliance, 379

Present State of Virginia: Slave Code of South Carolina, May 1740, The (Jones), 708–715

primitive vs. civilized society, 27, 116

Proctor, Elizabeth, 509, 514, 516

Proctor, John, 508–509, 514

Promised Land image, 196, 199, 463

Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania (Franklin), 601–609

Protestant Reformation; consequences of, 494

Protestants; preachers, 542

Pueblo Indians, 182–189

Pufendorf, Samuel von, 378

Puritan church; colonial government, role in, 265; relationship to Massachusetts Bay government, 281–283

Puritanism, 703; beliefs of, 523; English, 447, 479–480; Massachusetts, 166–169, 369, 483–486; persecution of, 447; slavery and, 655

Puritan leadership; Salem witch trials and, 516–517, 520

Puritan missions; Narragansetts and, 158

Puritans, 295; Congregationalist vs. Presbyterian, 374; heresy and, 476; Holland and, 447; Massachusetts, 466, 476; mockery of, 197, 198, 454, 578; oath-swearing and, 311; persecution of, 274–275; political exclusivity of, 252; political influence of, 250; predestination and, 473, 474; providential views of, 315, 350; religious settlement of, 447; women and, 473–476, 497

Putnam, Ann, Jr., 515–517

Q

Quakerism; Anglican reaction to, 625, 626, 627; conversion to, 620–627; early feminism and, 627; gender egalitarianism and, 621, 627

Quakers, 286; autobiographies and, 620, 627; Pennsylvania, 285, 331; persecution of, 620, 624, 626; relations with American Indians, 208; swearing oaths and, 493

quarantine; implementation of, 666

Quinnapin, 502

Quivira, 19

R

race; divisions between, 644–645; slavery codified by, 642–643

race relations; fluidity of, 566

Raleigh, Walter, 31

Randolph, Edward, 162–163

rational thought, 380

rebellion; capital punishment for, 281

Récollet missions, 57

redemptioners, 611

religion; competing Christian missions, 577; governmental enforcement of, 240–241; higher education and, 606; inspiration for settlement, 210; John Smith’s description of Powhatan practices, 116

religious freedom, 543; government protection of, 331; immigration and, 206, 209; John Locke’s view of, 262; Roger Williams’s legacy of, 159

religious persecution. See persecution, religious

religious revival. See also Great Awakening

Religious Society of Friends. See  Quakers

religious tolerance; William Penn’s arguments for, 492–494

religious writing; autobiographical, characteristics of, 620, 625, 626

Report and Relation of the New Conversions (Kino), 92

“Report of King Philip’s War in New England” (Randolph), 162–169

Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermín’s Attempted Reconquest (Otermín), 182–189

Rhode Island; founding of, 151

Roanoke Colony, 31, 38, 239

Roanoke Indians, 36

Roanoke Island, 31, 36

Route to be Followed for Ascending the Missouri River (Bourgmont), 62

Rowlandson, Mary, 497–498, 502–505

royal governors; Boston revolt against, 315

rule of law; American colonial officials and, 585

rum; American Indians and, 87, 360

S

Saffin, John, 648

Salem witch hysteria; theories about, 514–515

Salem witch trials, 316, 508–517

San Salvador, 8

Santa María de la Concepción, 8

Santa María, 9

Sassamon, James, 167

science; role in education, 607

Sea Venture (ship), 240

Selling of Joseph, The (Sewell), 648–655

Separatists, 131, 295, 447

Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, 26

“Sermon Preached at Plimmoth, in New-England, A” (Cushman).

settlement, difficulties of, 208

Seven Bishops case, 587

Seven Cities of Cibola, 13, 19. See also legendary Indian cities

Sewell, Samuel, 648–649

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, First Earl of, 257, 260

Shamokin, Pennsylvania; Moravian Brethren settlement at, 78

Sin and Danger of Self-Love, The (Cushman).

“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (Jonathan Edwards), 528–536

slave codes; South Carolina, 686, 689–697; Virginia, 637–645

slave narrative; Venture Smith, 671–678

slavery; American Indians and whites, 361; American Indian tradition of, 58; Barbary tradition of, 654; Christianity’s changing views on, 655, 664–665; conditions of, 712–713; early fugitive slave laws, 251; economics of, 642–644, 666–667; establishment in New World, 637, 658, 670; heritability of, 642; justification of, 523, 642, 655, 713; legal recognition of, 262, 281, 525, 637, 642, 665; literary omission of, 577; origins of, 519; ownership restrictions, 643; purposes of, 519; South Carolina, 597; US Congress debate over, 677

slave trade; convict labor system and, 714; development of, 659, 664, 670; legacy of, 667–668; mid-Atlantic colonies and, 665; transatlantic, 670, 677; West African involvement in, 676

smallpox, 146, 667; effects on American Indians, 360

Smith, John, 109–110, 115, 212, 350

Smith, Venture, 670–678

Smith, William, 608

socioeconomic class, 567, 568; poor whites vs. black slaves, 713

Some Grounds of the War Against the Pequots (Mason), 393–401

South Carolina, 686; demographics of, 591, 596, 666; government documents, 256, 659; indigo and, 592; planters, 591, 596–599; population of, 680; slavery in, 597, 666–667

South Carolina General Assembly, 689–690

southwest; religious importance of, 158

Spain; conquest and colonization of America, 17–21; colonists and indigenous peoples, 18–20; voyage of discovery, 3–10

Spanish Florida, 695

Spanish settlement; English view of, 577; justifications for, 26–27; rivalry with French, 88

spectral evidence, 514, 516

speech, restriction of, 241

Speedwell, 448

Squanto, 137

Star Chamber, 586

Stone, John, 398

Stono Rebellion, 597, 680–687, 689–690

Stranger in a Strange Land: Some Account of the Fore Part of the Life of Elizabeth Ashbridge, A (Ashbridge), 620–627

Stuyvesant, Peter, 41, 43, 49

suicide; decriminalization of, 332

T

taxation; Pennsylvania, 292; Stamp Act, 415

technology; colonization and, 116

Tejo, 18

Tenochtitlan, 17, 18

theocracy, 266, 268–271

Thoreau, Henry David, 147

Tisquantum. See Squanto

Tituba, 508, 514

tobacco; Virginia Colony and, 352, 576

“To His Loving Friends, the Adventurers for New England” (Cushman), 447, 455

trade; culture loss through, 59; intertribal conflict caused by, 60; New Haven customs of, 567–568; opportunities for, 197; restriction of, 644

trade relations; French–Indian, 68

Transcript of the trial of Anne Hutchinson (1637), 466, 476

transit, colonial, 251

“Treaty of Peace between the French, Iroquois, and Other Nations” (Barthélemy Vimont), 59

Treaty of Trois-Rivières, 59

Treaty of Utrecht, North American colonies and, 83

Trenchard, John, 437

trial by jury; guarantees of, 332

Trowbridge, Thomas, 340–342

Tuscarora War, effects of, 232

U

United Colonies of New England, 245–253

University of Pennsylvania, 609

V

Valladolid, Spain, debate, 23, 26

Valley of Mexico, 17

van der Donck, Adriaen, 41–43, 49

Vérendrye, Louis-Joseph Gaultier de la, 82–83, 87–89

Vérendrye, Pierre de la, 83

Villasur, Pedro de, 88

Vimont, Bartélemy (Jesuit missionary), 52, 53

“Vindication of the Government of New-England Churches” (Wise), 374–382

Virginia; charter of, 36; compared to other colonies, 389; early challenges in, 109, 349, 350; governance of, 349; historiography of, 352; Jamestown governing council, 115; planter society in, 345, 571, 708

Virginia Company, 239–240, 242

Virginia General Assembly, 637–638

voting rights; Pennsylvania, 291

W

Wahunsonacock, 114, 115

Wampanoags, 162, 502; Pilgrims and, 137–139, 454

wampum; uses of, 77

Wamsutta, 502

Wanchese, 37

war; American Indians as allies, 361; British vs. American Indians, 361; Iroquois requirements for, 231; public interest requirement, 252, 280

Ward, Nathaniel, 274–275, 282

warfare; Powhatan means of, 115

War of the Austrian Succession, 424

Warren, Mary, 509

Warriston, Lord (Archibald Johnston), 379

Watteville, Johannes de, 79

wealth; religious significance, 462

Weetamoo, 502

Wesley, John, 703

West Africa, 675

West Coast, settlement of, 88

West, Thomas (Lord de la Warr), 240, 242

Wethersfield, Connecticut; Pequot attack on, 398

Wheelwright, John, 466, 474

Whitefield, George, 551, 699–706

White, John, 31, 37

White Mountains (New Hampshire), 142

white supremacy, concept of, 654

Williams, Elisha, 538–545

Williams, Roger, 151–152, 466

Winchester, John, 340–342

Winslow, Edward, 131–132

Winthrop, John, 245, 246, 252, 321–322, 457, 466, 467, 474

Wiroans, 106

Wise, John, 374–375

women; Iroquois, power of, 230; nontraditional roles and, 596, 598

wood, importance of, 36

writs of intrusion, 311

Wyllys, George, 245, 246

Z

Zenger, John Peter, 581–582

Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig von, 76

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