Index Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022
A

abolitionism; beginnings of, 663, 673; literature and, 514, 619, 668, 670; New York, 545; nonviolence in, 617

absolute monarchy; Christianity vs., 560

“Account of Shays’s Rebellion” (Benjamin Lincoln), 318

“Account of the Supremest Court of Judicature in Pennsylvania, An” (Franklin), 583–590

Adams, Abigail, 275, 299–305; letters to John Adams, 299–305

Adam, Samuel, 3–6, 20–28, 99–100, 187, 192, 212, 284

Adams, John, 12, 99–100, 110–111 255, 259–260, 300, 382–383, 387–390

“Address to the People of England, Scotland, and Ireland, An” (Macaulay), 197–205

Advertiser, The (S. Adams), 21

African Lodge, 616

Africans and African Americans, education and, 561

Alien and Sedition Acts, 147, 255, 260

American colonies; antitaxation efforts of, 99–100; profitability of, 166; social conditions, 378; Stamp Act, rejection of, 159–165

American colonists; characteristics of, 228–230; rights of, 16–18; role as British subjects, 17, 359; taxation, attitudes toward, 175

American government; constitutional powers of, 126, 128; size of, 398

American identity, formation of, 193

American Indians; alliance with Great Britain, 642; British allying with, 75; cultural conflicts with United States, 647; diplomatic relations with United States, 646; education and, 561; effect of American Revolution on, 646; gender inequality, 540; land disputes and, 638; land disputes with United States, 643, 647, 648; relations with colonists, 642; resistance to assimilation, 631

American republic; formation of, 271

American Revenue Act (1764), 89, 90, 303, 403

American Revolution, 382; American diplomacy and, 382–383, 388–390; causes and effects of, 197, 274, 279, 627; influence on women’s rights, 538; Spain and, 388; women’s role in, 275, 282, 340–343

Ames, Fisher, 264–271

Anti-Federalism, 135, 136

Anti-Federalist Papers, 392

Anti-Federalists, 139, 144, 275. See also Federalists

antigovernment movements, financial aspects, 322

aristocracy; government and, 115, 116, 368, 398

Articles of Confederation, 79 ,86, 119–120, 244, 574

assimilation; American Indians and, 631; Christian conversion and, 630

Attucks, Crispus, 183, 184

B

bail, 144

Banneker, Benjamin, 601–608

Battle of Brooklyn, 403

Battle of Fallen Timbers, 648

Battle of Golden Hill, 403, 526

Battle of Long Island, 369, 370

Battles of Lexington and Concord, 211

Beecher, Catherine, 581

“Beloved Brethren” (Occom), 627–631

benevolent associations, freedmen and, 619

biblical allusions, 465, 549 617–618

bicameral legislature, rationale for, 116

Bill of Rights, 126, 139–145, 153; importance of, 251

Bliss, Jonathan, 332–333

“Boisterous Sea of Liberty, The” (Jefferson), 427–428

Boston Massacre, 68, 99, 179–180, 187, 194, 224, 403; causes of, 181–183, 193; 
commemoration of, 192

Boston Massacre oration 
(Hancock), 187–195

Boston Tea Party, 99, 187, 192, 346, 517

Bowdoin, James, 99, 100

Brant, Joseph, 634–639, 643; 
address to Lord George 
Germain, 634–639

Brant, Molly, 635

Brant’s Volunteers, 638

Britain; American Indian alliances, 634, 637–638; constitutional monarchy of, 202; Crown vs. Parliament, 197; tax policies, 6, 181–182

British-American tensions, 11, 43–44, 169–177, 517; Edmund Burke’s proposals and, 232; escalation in, 17, 39–45, 68, 74–76, 182–184, 193, 346–347, 442, 452

British government; anti-independence tactics of, 17; basis for American government, 120; geographic difficulties, 230–231; grievances against, 34–37, 73–77, 359; moderate versus radical views of, 192, 194; tax policies, 20

British military; advantages of, 350; presence in America, 43, 74, 192

Brown, Peter, 413; letter to his mother, 413

“Brutus No. 1”, 288

Burke, Edmund, 224–225

C

cannibalism, enslaved Africans’ fear of, 668–669

cash crops, slavery and, 667

Catlin, Seth, 331–332

Cato’s Letter and Petition to the Pennsylvania Assembly, 622–623

“Charge Delivered to the Brethren of the African Lodge, A” (Hall), 611–619

checks and balances, 125

Cherokees, 643

Chippewas, 643

Chisholm v. State of Georgia, 598

Christian Indians; American Revolution and, 629–630

Christianity; American Indian influence on, 630; assimilation and, 630; civil obedience and, 457; education and, 560–561; Masonic beliefs and, 617; natural law and, 458; racial divisions in, 618

church and state, 26

citizenship, 26, 597–598

Civil War Amendments, 127

Clarke, Joseph, 328–329

classical allusions, 303–304

Committee of Five, 73

Common Sense (Paine), 58–66, 69

Commonwealth of Massachusetts on the Sedition Act (Legislature of Massachusetts), 254–261

Congress; merits of, 399; powers of, 126

Connecticut, abolition of slavery in, 674

Connecticut Compromise, 392–393

Connecticut General Assembly, 398

Conoys, 643

Constitutional Convention, 120, 139–140, 264, 269, 352

constitution, British, 358

Constitution of Massachusetts, 99, 100

Constitution of New York, 88–97

Constitution of the United States, 119–128, 139, 259, 264, 269–270; amendments, 126–127, 142–145; Article V, 136; inspiration for, 107; opposition to, 248–251, 275; ratification of, 140, 244, 251, 396

Continental Army; challenges of, 350, 369; defeats, 408; George Washington’s command of, 352–369; recruitment for, 408

Cooper, Samuel, 499

court proceedings, individual’s rights in, 143–144

Creeks, 643

de Crèvecœur, J. Hector St. John, 372–373

criminal justice; Thomas Jefferson’s views on, 368

cronyism, 115

cruel and unusual punishment, 144

“Curse of Cowardice, The” (Davies), 433–439

D

“Dangers of American Liberty, The” (Ames), 264–272

Davies, Samuel, 433–439

Dawes Severalty Act of 1887, 649

Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress, The, 11–18

Declaration of Independence, 68–77; influence of, 520; 
signing of, 188

“Declaration of Rights and Grievances”, 159

Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (Jefferson, Dickinson), 48–56

declarations of independence, 528; New York mechanics, 525–530

Declaratory Act of 1766, 193

de Crèvecœur, J. Hector St. John. See de Crevecoeur, J. Hector St. John

Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America, A (J. Adams), 110–117

Delawares, 643

democracy; Constitution and, 125; definition of, 269; Greek origins of, 281; taxation in, 165

Democratic-Republican Party, 147, 152, 254, 268

Dickinson, John, 48–49, 53, 79, 308–309, 315

Discourse on the Love of Our Country, A (Williams), 461–468

dissolution of legislative bodies, 34–35

divine law, 458–459

divine providence, 279; government and, 104

Dominion of Providence over the Passions of Men, The (Witherspoon), 471–478

double jeopardy, 143

Duane, James, 647

Duer, William, 402, 404, 408–410

Dutch West India Company, 544

Duties in American Colonies Act. See Stamp Act of 1765

E

economy; education and, 561; government’s role in, 128

education; American Revolution and, 558; gender inequality,570–571; importance for women, 538, 540, 541; legal studies, 230; reform, 570–571, 574, 579–581; role in self-government, 153; women and, 540, 559, 561

election of 1800, 127, 147, 151, 154

electoral process; constitutional amendment to, 127; importance of, 153; socioeconomic class and, 368

Ellicott, Andrew, 602

Emerson, William, 503

Émile (Rousseau), 565

Enlightenment, 466, 578; education and, 559; influence of, 20, 68, 73, 76, 120, 249, 372, 457, 533, 538, 564, 611; women and, 565

equality; definitions of, 596; law and, 104, 107; right of, 25, 521, 522, 523; women and, 539, 540, 541

Equiano, Olaudah, 663–671

“Essex Result” (Parsons), 105

ethnographic writing, African life versus Western society, 667–668

Evacuation Day; fallout from, 304; immediate reaction to, 304

executive branch, 116, 125

F

family; children and masculinity, 350; slavery’s effects on, 667, 678

Farmer, A. W. See Seabury, Samuel

Farmer Refuted, The (Hamilton), 215–221

farmers, early American, 322

Farmer’s Letters. See Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies (Dickinson)

federal government; role of, 252; states’ share in, 398

Federalism, 135–136; fear of, 125, 145, 397; state government vs., 153

“Federalist No. 10” (Madison), 234–241

Federalist Papers, 235, 392

Federalist Party, 144, 147, 152, 255, 268, 269

feminism, written promotion of, 538, 541

First Amendment, 142–143

First Continental Congress, 11–18, 30–37, 42, 73, 303, 347, 452, 517

fiscal policy; agriculture vs. industrialism, 153; responsibility in, 398, 399

Fort St. Jean skirmish, 634

Franklin, Benjamin, 79–80, 169–177, 382–390, 583–584

freedmen; experience in North, 611; socioeconomic challenges of, 619

freedom, colonial attitudes toward, 229, 521

freedom of religion, 142

freedom of the press, 260, 587–590

Freemasonry, 612

French and Indian War, 354, 433; American Indians, effects on, 638; financing of, 164, 165, 224, 303, 346, 403, 442; territory changes from, 203

French Revolution, 255, 259; American opinions of, 270; Christianity and, 560

“From the Commissioners for Negotiating a Peace with Great Britain” (Adams, Franklin, Jay), 382–390

G

Gage, Thomas, 54, 207–213

gender and culture, 568, 571–571

George III of Great Britain, 8, 48, 211, 528

“Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death” (Henry), 39–45

Gleaner, The (Murray), 533, 534, 538, 541

Glorious Revolution of 1688, 197

government; natural law and, 596–597; promotion of religion, 106, 108

“Great Experiment”; United States as, 280–281;

H

Hall, Prince, 611–612

Hamilton, Alexander, 215, 292

Hammon, Jupiter, 544–552

Hancock, John, 187–195, 419–422

Haynes, Lemuel, 517–523

Henry, Patrick, 39-45, 244–245, 248; Virginia ratification convention speech, 244–252

Hessian mercenaries, 75

History of England from the Accession of James I. to That of the Brunswick Line, The (Macaulay), 202

History of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution (Warren), 274–282, 336

Hobbes, Thomas, 578

Holcombe, Henry, 490–491, 494–497

honor, importance of, 350

House of Hancock, 188, 193

House of Representatives, 125

Howard, Simeon, 442–443

human rights; conception of, 105, 107; government protection of, 73

Hume, David, 202

I

Immigration, effect on American identity, 378–379

implied powers, 251

Inaugural Address (Washington), 130–137

independence; colonial attitudes toward, 229–230; political results of, 76; rationale for, 76, 459

insurrections, armed, 318

Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, The (Equiano), 663–670

interstate relations, 126

Intolerable Acts, 99, 142, 188, 192, 195, 202, 328, 346, 517

Iroquois Confederation, 637; American Revolution and, 639

Israelites, 465

J

Jay, John, 88–90, 250, 382–390

Jay, Peter, 89

Jay’s Treaty (1794), 648

Jefferson, Thomas, 30–31, 48–49, 53, 68–69, 147–148, 151–154, 363–364, 427–428, 601; correspondence with Banneker, 601–608; letter on the Virginia Constitution, 363–370

Johnson, Guy, 634, 639

Johnson, William, 635–638

Journal of the Life, Gospel Labours, and Christian Experience of that Faithful Minister of Jesus Christ, John Woolman, A (Woolman), 509–514

judicial branch, 125–126

K

Klock, George, 638

L

land ownership; disputes over, 638–639; electoral process and, 368

law; civil, 457; divine, 456, 520; natural, 457–459, 521; protection through, 107–108

legislative bodies, suspension of, 75

legislative branch, 125

Letter on the Rebellion in Springfield (Clarke), 328–334

Letters Concerning the Revolution (Hancock), 419–422

Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies (Dickinson), 308–315

Letters from an American Farmer (Crèvecœur), 219, 372–380

Letters of a Countryman (Sherman), 392–400

Letters on Education with Observations on Religious and Metaphysical Subjects (Macaulay), 564–565, 571

Letter to President Washington, 1790 (Seneca Chiefs Big Tree, Cornplanter, Half-Town), 659

Letter to the Committee of Merchants in London, 354–361

Letter to Thomas Jefferson (Banneker), 601–608

liberty; as natural right, 520; right of, 520, 521

“Liberty Further Extended” (Haynes), 517–523

liberty poles, 332

Lincoln, Benjamin, 318–326

Lincoln, Hannah Quincy, 341

Literacy, religious aspects, 550

Livingston, Robert, 387

Locke, John, 73, 249, 457, 466

Louis XIV of France, 578

loyalists, 388

M

Macaulay, Catharine, 197–198, 202, 205, 342–343, 561–565, 571

Madison, James, 139–140, 234–235

majority rule, arguments for, 597

Mann, Horace, 580

masculinity, 350, 377

Mason, George, 354–355, 361

Massachusetts; religious diversity in, 106; religious tolerance in, 105

Massachusetts Bay Colony, 208

Massachusetts bill of rights, 105

Massachusetts Disqualification Act, 325

Massachusetts General Court, 255, 260

Massachusetts Magazine, 533, 541

Massachusetts Provincial Congress, 188

Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley (Odell and Wheatley), 683

Miamis, 643

Middle Passage; conditions of, 663; slave ships used in, 668

militias, 84, 153

ministers, colonial African American, 518

minutemen, African American members of, 518

missionary work, cross-cultural exchange in, 630

Missisaugas, 643

modernity, 378

Mohawks, Britain and, 637

Mohicans, 643

monarchy, arguments against, 63

Montesquieu, 578

Morris, Robert, 84

Munsees, 643

Murray, Judith Sargent, 533–541

N

Nanticokes, 643

Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, A (V. Smith), 673–681

nation building; education for, 559–560; exclusion from, 554; press’s role in, 554; women’s role in, 538, 539, 541

natural rights, 25–28, 221, 249

New France, 203

New York City, 403, 525

New York colony, 88–89, 403–404, 525

“New York Legislature Committee of Correspondence to George Washington” (Duer), 402–410

New York Mechanics Declaration of Independence, 525–530

New York Provincial Congress, 528

New York state, 88–89, 94–97

Northwest Ordinance, 85

Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 605

“nursing father” doctrine, 106

O

“Observations on Female Abilities” (Murray), 533–541

Observations on the New Constitution (Warren), 276

Occom, Samson, 627–628

Odell, Margaretta Matilda, 683

Of Man, as a Member of Society, Lectures on Law (Wilson), 592–599

“Of the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic” (Rush), 554–561

Ogden (slave ship), 668

Ohio River boundary dispute, 643

oligarchy, fear of, 115, 116, 398

Olive Branch Petition, 48, 58

“On American Independence” (S. Adams), 284

“On the Education of Youth in America” (Webster), 574–581

“On the Equality of the Sexes” (Murray), 533

“On the Right to Rebel against Governors” (West), 452–459

“On the Right to Tax America” (Pitt), 163–165

oppression; cause for revolution, 73; Christian duty to fight, 631

“Oration in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence, An” (W. Emerson), 503

Otis, James, 3

Ottawas, 643

P

pacificism, 631

Paine, Thomas, 58–59

Parliament; calls for reform, 204, 205; colonial grievances against, 48, 53–54; colonial trade regulation, 313–314; external opposition to, 166

Parsons, Theophilus, 105

patriotism, domestic duties as, 305

Paul Revere’s Engraving of the Boston Massacre, 179–184

Pelham, Henry, 183

Pennsylvania; diversity among settlers, 559

Pinckney, Charles, 139

Pitt, William, the Elder, 8, 159–166

political factions, rise of, 271

political majority; importance of, 153; responsibility of, 151

political minority; protection of, 151; role of, 153

Potawatomis, 643

power, abuse of; citizens’ duty regarding, 116, 117

power, white male, 304

predestination, 280

Presbyterians, 438

president; constitutional powers of, 126; need for, 116; term limits, 127

press; nation building and, 554

Preston, Thomas, 183, 184

Proclamation on Behalf of King George III (Gage), 207–213

profanity, 549

profiteering, 409

property; allodial ownership, 35; British destruction of, 75; marriage and, 304; right of, 27

“public religion” concept, 106

publishers, 587

Puritans, religious influence of, 105

Q

Quakers, views on slavery, 509

Quartering Act of 1774, 143

Quartering Act of 1765, 74, 403, 517, 526

Quebec Act of 1774, 75, 203

Quebec campaign, 634

Quebec colony, religion of, 16

R

race; definitions of, 642; divisions between, 617; interracial cooperation, 618–619

Randolph, Edmund, 249–251

religion; governmental promotion of, 106–108; role in pro-liberty movement, 229, 230

religious freedom, 25, 467; founding principle of, 105; views of government role in, 106

religious tolerance; American history of, 560; social benefits of, 152

“Report on the Subject of Manufactures” (Hamilton), 292–295

representatives; moral character of, 397; obligations, 264

republic; definition of, 269; education in, 558–561

Resolutions of the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, 3–9

Restraining Act of 1775, 75

retrojection, dangers of, 304

Revere, Paul, 179–180

revolutionary principles, importance of, 153

Richard II of England, 34

rights, individual vs. government, 597

“Rights of the Colonists, The” (S. Adams), 20–28

right to bear arms, 143

Roman Catholicism; British Canada, 203

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 569

“Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One” (Franklin), 169–177

Rush, Benjamin, 554–555; views on education 558–561;

S

salutary neglect, 6

satire, 588

schools, public, 580

Seabury, Samuel, 216

search and seizure, 143

Second Continental Congress, 48–56, 363, 452; presidency of, 188

Second Virginia Convention, 39, 42–45

Senate, 125

Seneca Chiefs (Big Tree, Cornplanter, Half-Town), 659

Senecas of the Glaize, 643

Senghnagenrat, 651

“Sermon Occasioned by the Death of Washington, A” (Holcombe), 490–497

“Sermon on the Day of the Commencement of the Constitution, A” (S. Cooper), 499

“Sermon Preached to the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in Boston, A” (Howard), 442–449

Seven Nations of Canada, 643

Shawnees, 643

Shays, Daniel, 318

Shays’s Rebellion, 250, 318

Sherman, Roger, 392–393; Letters to Connecticut citizens (1787), 400

Six Nations. See Iroquois Confederation

slave narrative; Equiano’s account as, 671; Venture Smith’s account as, 674, 677, 678, 679, 680

slave owners; attitudes of, 230

slavery; American Revolution and, 673; community building in, 670; conditions of, 674, 677; Connecticut, 674; contradiction of American Revolution, 520; criminal punishment of, 368; criticisms of, 520, 522, 551; debate over, 521, 522, 673; economics of, 677; effects on family, 674; effects on individuals, 679; emancipation from, 674, 677, 678; establishment in New World, 509; guarantees of freedom, 611; justifications of, 601; New Amsterdam vs. New York, 544–545; protests against, 514; religious aspects, 521, 549–552; US Congress debate over, 673; working conditions, comparison of, 678

slave ships; technology of, 670

slave trade; transatlantic, account of, 674, 677; transatlantic, overview of, 663, 677; US Congress’ debate over, 670

small states; concerns of, 396–397

Smith, Venture, 673–680

social contract of government; equitable laws in, 104; taxation in, 166

Society of Friends. See Quakers

Society of the Cincinnati, 319

soldiers, British; deployment, 35–36

Sons of Liberty, 7, 180, 182, 193, 525, 526

“Speech of Senghnagenrat, an Oneida Chief”, 651–653

“Speech of the United Indian Nations, at Their Confederate Council”, 655–657

“Speech on Conciliation with America” (Burke), 224–232

Springfield Rebellion (1774), 331

Stamp Act Congress, 3–4, 159

Stamp Act of 1765, 3–9, 20, 39, 90, 181, 193, 354, 359, 403, 526; colonial rejection of, 193; rationale for, 164, 224; repeal of, 160; requirements of, 159

starvation; antislavery resistance through, 669

state government; formation of, 397; loss of sovereignty, 399; power of, 120; republican form of, 126

states’ rights, 144–145, 252, 397

Stiles, Ezra, 481, 485–488

suffrage; arguments for universal male, 368; constitutional amendments, 127

Sugar Act, 6

suicide; response to slavery, 669

“Summary View of the Rights of British America, A” (Jefferson), 30–37

supplies, role of, 409–410

Supreme Court, US; jurisdiction of, 598; role of, 598;

T

taxation; British history of, 164–165, 193, 204; colonial merchants and, 194; colonial taxes, 308–309, 313–315; colonists’ attitudes toward, 220, 229, 359; disputes, 354; local vs. state, 399

Tea Act of 1773, 169, 194

technology; transatlantic slave trade and, 670

term limits, 367

Thayendanegea. See Brant, Joseph

Thibou, Lewis, 528

Thomas Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address (Jefferson), 147–154

Thompson, Charles, 655

three-branch system; powers among, 114; rationale for, 110, 116

tolerance, political, 151–153

Townshend Acts, 15, 182, 193–194, 346

Treason Act of 1543; 1769 revival of, 16

Treaty of Alliance (1778), 382

Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 638

Treaty of Greenville, 648

Treaty of Paris, 389; American Indians and, 642

Tresilian, Robert, 34

trial; by jury, 8; guarantees of, 144; speedy and public, 143

tyranny, 467

U

unicameral legislature, limitations of, 115

United Indian Nations, 655

United States Congress; establishment of, 125–126

United States Constitution. See Constitution of the United States

“United States Elevated to Glory and Honor, The” (Ezra Stiles), 480–488

universal brotherhood, appeal for, 618

Universalism, 534

V

vice president; role of, 127; selection of, 127

Vindication on the Rights of Women, A (Wollstonecraft), 538–539

Virginia; borders of, 368; electoral process in, 367–368; First Continental Congress delegation, 30

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 260

Virginia colony; Loyalists in, 42; Protestantism in, 438

Virginia Constitution, 363, 370

Virginia Constitutional Convention, 363–367

virtual representation; British 
opposition to, 204; colonial 
objections to, 346; William Pitt’s arguments against, 
165

virtue, 467

voting; constitutional amendments, 127; proxy, 367

voting rights, 579

W

war; women’s role in, 351, 
540

Warren, James, 275

Warren, Mercy Otis, 274, 275–276, 279–282, 336–337, 344; Anti-Federalism of, 279, 281; letters of, 336–344

Washington, George, 130–137, 346, 352, 402–403, 408–410, 424, 494–497; belief in public education, 496; death of, 490; Letter to Bushrod Washington (Nov. 1787), 424–425; letter 
to Martha Washington (June 18, 1775), 346–351; religion, 134; religious beliefs, 496

Washington, Martha, 347, 351

Webster, Noah, 574–581

We Can Retreat No Farther (Indian representatives), 649

Western Indian Confederacy, 642–643, 649

West, Samuel, 452–453, 459

Wheatley, Phillis, 683

Williams, Israel, 333

Williams, Samuel, 461–462

Wilson, James, 592–593, 597, 598

Witherspoon, John, 472–478

Wolcott, Oliver, 416; Letter to Roger Newberry, 416

Wollstonecraft, Mary, 538, 571

women, education of, 539, 559, 561

women’s rights, 304–305

Woolman, John, 509–514

Wooster, David, 408–410

Worthington, John, 332

writs of assistance, 99

Wyandottes, 643

X

XYZ Affair, 260

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