Table of Contents for Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1971-2000 Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

The table of contents for the full contents of Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1971-2000.

1971

Drive-Through Services Proliferate

Growth of Organic Farming

Retailers Control Inventory Shrinkage with Computer Technology

Spanish Art Thrives After Years of Suppression

Women’s Military Roles Expand

Canadian Activists Found Greenpeace

Direct Transoceanic Dialing Begins

Earthwatch Is Founded

Federal Trade Commission Begins to Endorse Comparative Advertising

New York State Allows Offtrack Betting

Paclitaxel Is Extracted from Pacific Yew Trees

United States Suffers Its First Trade Deficit Since 1888

Civil Rights Groups Investigate the FBI and CIA

Animal Welfare Institute Launches the “Save the Whales” Campaign

Amin Regime Terrorizes Uganda

Relevance Programs Change Entertainment Standards

All in the Family Confronts Controversial Issues

Dedication of Egypt’s Aswān High Dam

Rolls-Royce Declares Bankruptcy

Swiss Women Gain the Right to Vote

Guare’s The House of Blue Leaves Joins Naturalistic and Nonrepresentational Theater

U.S. Supreme Court Bans Discrimination in Hiring

Incarcerated Mental Patients Gain Right to Treatment

Bangladesh Secedes from Pakistan

Sri Lankans Agitate for Political Reform

Russians Launch the Salyut Space Station

U.S. Supreme Court Endorses Busing to End School Segregation

Baby Doc Succeeds Papa Doc in Haiti

U.S. Advertising Industry Organizes Self-Regulation

Mars 2 Is the First Spacecraft to Impact Mars

Mariner 9 Is the First Spacecraft to Orbit Another Planet

Pentagon Papers Case

U.S. Supreme Court Establishes the Lemon Test

U.S. Voting Age Is Lowered to Eighteen

Independent Agency Takes Over U.S. Postal Service

The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour Brings Glitz to Television

Audiences Embrace Mortimer’s A Voyage Round My Father

Devaluation of the Dollar

Bahrain and Qatar Achieve Independence

Bánzer Seizes Power in Bolivian Coup

Heavy Rains Flood the Red River Delta

Prisoners Riot Against Conditions in Attica

Commoner Publishes The Closing Circle

Jesus Christ Superstar Establishes the Rock Opera

People’s Republic of China Is Seated at the United Nations

Tomlinson Sends the First E-Mail

Led Zeppelin Merges Hard Rock and Folk Music

Intel Introduces the First “Computer on a Chip”

Native Alaskans Are Compensated for Their Land

United Nations Declares Rights for the Mentally Retarded

Fungicide-Tainted Grain Poisons Thousands of Iraqis

1972

AFL-CIO Recognizes the United Farm Workers

Club of Rome Issues The Limits to Growth

Star Trek Becomes a Cult Classic

Worldwide Droughts Bring Famine

World Fertility Survey Is Conducted

“Bloody Sunday” in Northern Ireland

Nixon Opens Trade with China

U.S. Congress Updates Water Pollution Law

Manley Becomes Prime Minister of Jamaica

Pioneer 10 Explores Jupiter and the Outer Planets

Coppola’s Godfather Trilogy Explores Organized Crime

Nike Produces Its First Running Shoe

ERA Passes Congress but Falls Short of Ratification

U.S. Congress Mandates Equal Employment Opportunity

Ward and Dubos Publish Only One Earth

Professional Baseball Players Go on Strike

Nations Agree to Rules on Biological Weapons

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Is Signed

Environmentalists Are Defeated in Sierra Club v. Morton

Hounsfield Introduces the CAT Scan

Trudeau’s Doonesbury Offers Political Commentary

Burundi Commits Genocide of Hutu Majority

United States Hands Okinawa to Japan

U.S. Supreme Court Protects Home Schooling

SALT I Is Signed

United Nations Holds an Environmental Conference in Stockholm

Watergate Affair

U.S. Supreme Court Abolishes the Death Penalty

Launch of the First Earth Resources Technology Satellite

Gell-Mann Formulates the Theory of Quantum Chromodynamics

Cod Wars

Arab Terrorists Murder Israelis at Munich Olympics

U.S. Loss to the Soviet Union Sparks Basketball Controversy

M*A*S*H Reflects Antiwar Sentiments

Marcos Declares Martial Law in the Philippines

Texas Instruments Introduces the Pocket Calculator

Janowsky Publishes His Theory of Manic Depression

Oregon Bans Nonrefillable Bottles

Trail of Broken Treaties

U.S. Congress Expands Pesticide Regulations

U.S. Congress Protects Coasts and Marine Sanctuaries

U.S. Government Regulates Noise Pollution

Nixon Signs Law to Protect Consumer Safety

U.S. Government Bans DDT

1973

Cohen and Boyer Develop Recombinant DNA Technology

Invention of the Plastic Soda Bottle

ITT Actions Cause Suspicion of Involvement in a Chilean Coup

Schumacher Publishes Small Is Beautiful

The Gulag Archipelago Exposes Soviet Atrocities

Cousteau Society Is Founded

U.S. Supreme Court Expands Women’s Reproductive Rights

Vietnam Releases U.S. Prisoners of War

Ecology Party Is Founded in Great Britain

Organic Molecules Are Discovered in Comet Kohoutek

Native Americans Occupy Wounded Knee

Pynchon’s Gravity’s Rainbow Is Published

U.S. Troops Leave Vietnam

Tharp Stages Deuce Coupe for the Joffrey Ballet

International Convention Protects Endangered Species

Iran Announces Nationalization of Foreign Oil Interests

Chipko Movement Protects India’s Forests

First Cellular Phone Call

Opening of the World Trade Center

Federal Express Begins Operations

Skylab Inaugurates a New Era of Space Research

Détente with the Soviet Union

Secretariat Wins the Triple Crown

East and West Germany Establish Diplomatic Relations

Military Rule Comes to Democratic Uruguay

Northern Ireland Witnesses Passage of the Emergency Provisions Act

Habyarimana Overthrows President Kayibanda

European Space Agency Is Formed

Wonder Releases Innervisions

Caribbean Community and Common Market Is Established

Chilean Military Overthrows Allende

Tennis’s Battle of the Sexes

U.S. Congress Responds to Demands of Persons with Disabilities

Yom Kippur War

Arab Oil Producers Curtail Oil Shipments to Industrial States

Mariner 10 Uses the Gravitational Pull of One Planet to Reach Another

U.S. Congress Overrides Presidential Veto to Pass the War Powers Act

West Germany Bans Immigration of Workers from Outside the EEC

United Nations Sanctions South Africa for Apartheid

Rowland and Molina Theorize That Freon Causes Ozone Depletion

American Psychiatric Association Delists Homosexuality as a Psychiatric Disorder

The Exorcist Epitomizes 1970’s Horror Films

U.S. Congress Protects Endangered Species

Nixon Signs HMOs into Law

1974

Automakers Introduce the Catalytic Converter

D’Eaubonne Coins the Term “Ecofeminism”

Heilbroner Predicts Growth Limits

Medical Group Exposes Torture in Greece and Chile

Portugal Grants Independence to Its African Colonies

United States Plans to Cut Dependence on Foreign Oil

Worldwatch Institute Is Founded

Punk’s Antifashion Style First Appears

Sick Building Syndrome Is Recognized

World Football League’s Challenge to the National Football League Fails

Happy Days Exemplifies Escapist Television

U.S. Supreme Court Mandates Bilingual Education

U.S. Congress Protects Children Against Abuse

Military Junta Comes to Power in Ethiopia

Soviet Union Expels Solzhenitsyn

Clay Soldiers Are Discovered in China

Optical Pulses Shorter than One Trillionth of a Second Are Produced

Pirsig Publishes Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Aaron Breaks Ruth’s Home Run Record

India Joins the Nuclear Club

Tunable, Continuous-Wave Visible Lasers Are Developed

IRA Terrorists Bomb British Parliament

Use of Bar Codes Proliferates

Cyprus Crisis Erupts

Nixon Resigns from the U.S. Presidency

U.S. Congress Revises Resource Management

United States Grants Amnesty to Vietnam War Draft Evaders

U.S. Congress Protects Employee Benefits

Dalí Museum Opens in Spain

Robinson Becomes Baseball’s First African American Manager

U.S. Congress Creates the Commodity Futures Trading Commission

Ali and Foreman Rumble in the Jungle

Anthropologists Discover the Early Hominid “Lucy”

Discovery of the J/psi Subatomic Particle

Dog Soldiers Portrays Vietnam in Fiction

Silkwood Becomes a Symbol for the Antinuclear Movement

U.N. Declaration on Hunger and Malnutrition

U.S. Congress Requires Safe Drinking Water

1975

Denim Jeans Become Accepted as Fashion

Atlantic Salmon Return to the Connecticut River

The Monkey Wrench Gang Advocates “Ecotage”

U.N. Global Environment Monitoring System Is Inaugurated

Players Challenge Baseball’s Reserve Clause

Silverman Rescues ABC Television’s Ratings

Violent Action-Adventure Television Series Flourish

U.S. Congress Expands Eastern Wilderness

U.S. Congress Protects Public Against Hazardous Waste in Transit

U.S. Congress Requires Product Warranties

The Wiz Brings African American Talent to Broadway

The Jeffersons Signals Success of Black Situation Comedies

Marley’s Natty Dread Establishes Reggae’s Popularity

Southern Schools Are Found to Be the Least Racially Segregated

Khmer Rouge Comes to Power in Cambodia

Indo-Chinese Boat People Begin Fleeing Vietnam

Sony Introduces the Betamax

Joplin’s Treemonisha Is Staged by the Houston Opera

Formation of the Economic Community of West African States

World Conference on Women Sets an International Agenda

Jaws Prompts a Wave of Special-Effects Films

Civil Service Decides That Gays Are Fit for Public Service

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

Helsinki Accords Offer Terms for International Cooperation

U.S. Congress Bans Literacy Tests for Voting

Springsteen’s Born to Run Revives Mainstream Rock

U.S. Congress Admits Women to Armed Services Academies

Tokyo Declaration Forbids Medical Abuses and Torture

Saturday Night Live Is First Broadcast

Soviet Venera Spacecraft Transmit the First Pictures from the Surface of Venus

U.S. Congress Prohibits Discrimination in the Granting of Credit

Sex Pistols Spark Punk Rock’s Musical Insurrection

Dispute over the Western Sahara Erupts in the Green March

Sinking of the Edmund Fitzgerald

U.N. Resolution Denounces Zionism

Australian Constitutional Crisis

Forman Adapts One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest for Film

Death of Franco

U.S. Law Provides for Public Education of Disabled Children

East Timor Declares Independence but Is Annexed by Indonesia

United Nations Adopts a Declaration on Disabled Persons’ Rights

United Nations Issues a Declaration Against Torture

Sakharov Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Hells Canyon Is Preserved as a National Recreation Area

1976

Colombian Guerrilla War Begins

India Adopts Compulsory Birth Control

Kibble Proposes the Theory of Cosmic Strings

Peruvian Guerrilla War Begins

Speech Recognition Machines Master One Thousand Words

Argentina Conducts a “Dirty War” Against Leftists

Mutual Funds Spark Growth of Individual Investments

Wanted! The Outlaws Revitalizes Country Music

Concorde Flies Passengers at Supersonic Speeds

IRA Prisoner Dies After Hunger Strike

Inuit File Claim to a Section of Canadian Territory

First Cray-1 Supercomputer Is Shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

Assassination of King Faisal

Shange’s For Colored Girls . . . Presents the Black Female Psyche

Jobs and Wozniak Found Apple Computer

Genentech Is Founded

Teton Dam Collapses

South African Government Suppresses Soweto Student Rebellion

Canada Joins the G7

Smithsonian Opens the National Air and Space Museum

U.S. Supreme Court Reinstates the Death Penalty

Israeli Raid on Entebbe

Italian Factory Explosion Releases Dioxin

Price Club Introduces the Warehouse Club Concept

Comăneci Receives the First Perfect Score in Olympic Gymnastics

Viking Spacecraft Send Photographs to Earth from Mars

Einstein on the Beach Introduces Minimalist Music to Mainstream Audiences

Mysterious Legionnaires’ Disease Strikes

Deadly Earthquake Strikes China

Land Institute Is Founded to Develop Alternative Grains

Ebola Epidemic Kills First of Many in Africa

Death of Mao Zedong Leads to Reforms in China

EPA Is Charged with Regulating Toxic Chemicals

United States Bans PCBs

Expanded Copyright Law Reflects New Technology

“Cradle-to-Grave” Legislation Covers Hazardous Wastes

Sears Agrees to an FTC Order Banning Bait-and-Switch Tactics

U.S. Congress Secures Lands in the Public Domain

U.S. Congress Limits Forest Clear-Cutting

Atlantic City Legalizes Casino Gambling

Carter Is Elected President

Murdoch Extends His Media Empire to the United States

The Argo Merchant Spills Oil off the New England Coast

1977

Berry Publishes The Unsettling of America

Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents and New Life-Forms Are Discovered

Heeger and MacDiarmid Discover Conducting Polymers

Kohlberg Kravis Roberts Pioneers the Leveraged Buyout

Researchers Develop an Integrated Solar Energy System

Carter Makes Human Rights a Central Theme of Foreign Policy

Soviet Citizen Group Investigates Political Abuses of Psychiatry

Fiber-Optics Revolution

Means Is Ordained by the American Episcopal Church

Roots Dramatizes the African American Experience

Pompidou Center Opens in Paris

Soviets Crack Down on Moscow’s Helsinki Watch Group

Angolan Rebels Invade Shaba Province

Astronomers Discover the Rings of Uranus

Desai Unseats Gandhi as Prime Minister of India

Apple II Becomes the First Successful Preassembled Personal Computer

Allen’s Annie Hall Captures Complexities of 1970’s Life

World Health Organization Sets a Goal of Health for All

First Commercial Test of Fiber-Optic Telecommunications

Star Wars Trilogy Redefines Special Effects

Spain Holds Its First Free Elections Since the Civil War

Zia Establishes Martial Law in Pakistan

Ogaden War Between Somalia and Ethiopia

Alaskan Oil Pipeline Opens

Watson Founds the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

U.S. Government Regulates Strip Mining

U.S. Congress Creates the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

Clean Air Act Is Revised

Canada’s Human Rights Act

Voyagers 1 and 2 Explore the Outer Planets

Declaration of Hawaii Addresses the Misuse of Psychiatry

South African Government Kills Biko

Gruentzig Uses Angioplasty to Unclog Diseased Arteries

Last Natural Case of Smallpox Occurs

United Nations Imposes an Arms Embargo on South Africa

Sadat Becomes the First Arab Leader to Visit Israel

Dissident Writer Mihajlov Is Released from Yugoslavian Prison

Amnesty International Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Two Founders of Peace People Receive the Nobel Peace Prize

Saturday Night Fever Depicts the Disco Craze

1978

AT&T Building Exemplifies Postmodernism

Volkswagen Opens the First Foreign-Owned U.S. Auto Plant

Syrian Bar Association Demands Political Reform in Syria

Rohrer and Binnig Invent the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Guatemalan Death Squads Target Indigenous Indians

Iranian Revolution

Consumer Product Safety Commission Bans Lead Paints

European Court of Human Rights Rules on Mistreatment of Prisoners

Radioactive Satellite Fragments Land in Canada

International Ultraviolet Explorer Is Launched

Global Positioning System Becomes Operational

Trigger Prices Protect the U.S. Steel Industry

Israel Invades Southern Lebanon

The Amoco Cadiz Runs Aground

Panama Canal Treaties

Terrorists Kidnap and Murder Former Italian Prime Minister

Chlorofluorocarbons Are Banned in the United States

China Promises to Correct Human Rights Abuses

Dallas Popularizes the Prime-Time Soap Opera

Canada’s Immigration Act of 1976

Sun Day Celebration Promotes Solar Energy

Italy Legalizes Abortion

Mormons Approve Ordination of Black Men of African Descent

U.S. Supreme Court Protects the Snail Darter

Shepard’s Buried Child Promotes Off-Broadway Theater

U.S. Supreme Court Bans Racial Quotas in College Admissions

Brown Gives Birth to the First “Test-Tube Baby”

World Conference Condemns Racial Discrimination

Toxic Waste Is Discovered at Love Canal

U.S. Congress Protects Native American Religious Practices

Camp David Accords

International Health Conference Adopts the Declaration of Alma-Ata

Eisner’s A Contract with God Is the First Graphic Novel

John Paul II Becomes Pope

U.S. Congress Requires Ships to Safeguard Marine Environment

Deregulation of the U.S. Airline Industry

U.S. Congress Protects Pregnant Employees

FTC Conducts Hearings on Ads Aimed at Children

U.S. Congress Lifts Regulations from Public Utilities

People’s Temple Members Commit Mass Suicide

Sadat and Begin Receive the Nobel Peace Prize

Singer Is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature

1979

Lovelock Publishes Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth

Iran Uses Executions to Establish New Order

United States and China Establish Full Diplomatic Relations

China Invades Vietnam

Scientists Correlate Lead Exposure with Intelligence

Sondheim Uses Operatic Techniques in Sweeney Todd

First Ring Around Jupiter Is Discovered

Three Mile Island Accident

Pakistan Hangs Former Prime Minister Bhutto

Carter Orders Deregulation of Oil Prices

Idi Amin Flees Uganda

U.N. Declaration Condemns Apartheid

Thatcher Becomes First Woman to Serve as British Prime Minister

Clark Is Elected Canada’s Prime Minister

Sagebrush Rebellion Begins

SALT II Is Signed

U.S. Supreme Court Rules on Affirmative Action Programs

Sony Introduces the Walkman

Saddam Hussein Takes Power in Iraq

Somoza Is Forced Out of Power in Nicaragua

Oil Tankers Collide near Tobago

Ancient Sanctuary Is Discovered in El Juyo Cave

China Announces Birthrate Reduction Plans

Apocalypse Now Expresses Antiwar Cynicism

United Nations Issues a Conduct Code for Law-Enforcement Officials

VisiCalc Spreadsheet Software Is Marketed

Gay Rights March in Washington

South Korean President Is Assassinated

Iranian Revolutionaries Hold Americans Hostage

Mother Teresa Is Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

U.N. Convention Condemns Discrimination Against Women

Soviet Union Invades Afghanistan

1980

American Firms Adopt Japanese Manufacturing Strategies

CAD/CAM Revolutionizes Engineering and Manufacturing

Decline of the Big Three Networks

Electronic Technology Creates the Possibility of Telecommuting

Female Directors Attain Prominence

Madonna Revolutionizes Popular Fashion

Marsalis Revives Acoustic Jazz

Radon Is Recognized as an Indoor Air Hazard

Schnabel Emerges as a Celebrity Artist

U.S. Regional Branch Banking Is Approved

Video Rental Outlets Gain Popularity

Multiculturalism Dominates the Dance World

Innovative Black Filmmakers Achieve Success

Rise of Video and Computer Games

Basques Are Granted Home Rule but Continue to Fight for Independence

Berg, Gilbert, and Sanger Develop Techniques for Genetic Engineering

Four Modern Masters Affirm Germany’s Place in the Art World

Inflationary Theory Explains the Early Universe

Japan Becomes the World’s Largest Automobile Producer

Mediterranean Nations Sign Antipollution Pact

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Is Founded

Presidential Advisory Commission Studies Medical and Research Ethics

Larson’s The Far Side Comic Strip Is Published

U.S. Government Bails Out Chrysler Corporation

Saudi Arabia Beheads Sixty-Three Persons for Attack on Mecca

Griess Constructs “the Monster,” the Last Sporadic Group

Abscam Affair

Von Klitzing Discovers the Quantized Hall Effect

U.S. Hockey Team Upsets Soviets

Zimbabwe Gains Independence

Olympic Boycotts

Mexico Controls Huge Leak in Offshore Oil Well

Archbishop Romero Is Assassinated

U.S. Congress Deregulates Banks and Savings and Loans

Foreman Founds Earth First!

Mariel Boatlift

Pluto’s Atmosphere Is Discovered

Death of Tito

Rioters Protest Miami Police Brutality

Mount St. Helens Erupts

Radar Reveals Canals at Mayan Agricultural Centers

Cable News Network Debuts

Scientists Find Evidence of an Asteroid Impact at the End of the Cretaceous Period

U.S. Supreme Court Grants a Patent for a Living Organism

U.S. Supreme Court Rules on Water Rights

Soviet Union Passes Environmental Legislation

Paraguayan Torturer Is Convicted of Violating the Law of Nations

The Global 2000 Report Is Issued

Solidarity Leads Striking Polish Workers

Baryshnikov Becomes Artistic Director of American Ballet Theatre

Iran-Iraq War

China Conducts Atmospheric Nuclear Test

Reagan Is Elected President

U.S. Congress Protects Alaskan Lands and Wildlife

Assassination of John Lennon

Superfund Is Established to Pay for Hazardous-Waste Cleanup

U.S. Congress Addresses “Low-Level” Nuclear Waste

1981

Activists Oppose Deployment of the MX Missile

Citizens’ Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste Is Founded

Missouri Program Promotes Parental Involvement in Education

The Ultimate Resource Argues in Favor of Population Growth

Geneticists Create Giant Mice

Hill Street Blues Defines Hard-Reality Television

The Group of Ten Meets for the First Time

Watt Announces Expansion of Energy Leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf

Federal Regulators Authorize Adjustable-Rate Mortgages

Sands Begins Hunger Strike

Hinckley Attempts to Assassinate President Reagan

Mahathir Begins Rule in Malaysia

Bell Labs Improves Solar Cells

Mitterrand Is Elected to the French Presidency

World Health Organization Adopts a Code on Breast-Milk Substitutes

Saudi Arabia Establishes Gulf Cooperation Council

Cassinelli and Associates Discover the Most Massive Star Known

Organization of African Unity Adopts the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

U.S. Centers for Disease Control Recognizes AIDS

Israel Destroys Iraqi Nuclear Reactor

Brown Orders Medfly Spraying in California

South African Rugby Team Tour Provokes Protests

San Diego Trolley Opens

MTV Revolutionizes American Popular Culture

Air Traffic Controllers Declare a Strike

The United States Announces Production of Neutron Bombs

IBM Introduces Its Personal Computer

Reagan Promotes Supply-Side Economics

EWTN Begins Religious Broadcasting

Clewell Performs Surgery on a Fetus to Correct Hydrocephalus

O’Connor Is the First Woman to Serve as Supreme Court Justice

New Dance U.S.A. Festival

Greek Socialists Win Parliamentary Majority

“Yellow Rain” Hearing

Columbia’s Second Flight Proves the Practicality of the Space Shuttle

Soviets Begin Construction of Siberian Gas Pipeline

United Nations Votes to Protect Freedom of Religion and Belief

Poland Imposes Martial Law and Bans Solidarity

1982

Baulieu Develops a Pill That Induces Abortion

Cech Demonstrates That RNA Can Act as an Enzyme

Peters Gains Prominence as a Writer on Management

Compact Disc Players Are Introduced

Daffos Uses Umbilical Cord Puncture to Diagnose Fetal Disease

Astronomers Discover an Unusual Ring System of Planet Neptune

AT&T Undergoes Divestiture

“MASTER HAROLD” . . . and the Boys Examines Apartheid

Falkland Islands War

Solar One Begins Operation in the Mojave Desert

Canada’s Constitution Act

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Is Enacted

Braniff International Suspends Flight Operations

Eli Lilly Releases the First Commercial Genetically Engineered Medication

Release of Blade Runner Heralds a Science-Fiction Classic

Fierstein’s Torch Song Trilogy Meets with Unexpected Success

E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial Opens to Great Success

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Right of Noncitizens to Social Services

Great Britain Announces Plans to Privatize British Telecom

Seven People Die After Taking Cyanide-Laced Tylenol

USA Today Is the First National Newspaper

Palestinians Are Massacred in West Beirut

Pro-Iran Radicals Form Hezbollah

EPCOT Center Opens

Kohl Becomes Chancellor of West Germany

Thriller Marks Jackson’s Musical Coming-of-Age

DeVries Implants the First Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart

United Nations Issues Principles of Medical Ethics

United Nations Responds to the Homeless Crisis

U.S. Congress Addresses “High-Level” Nuclear Waste

Dioxin Contamination Forces Evacuation of Times Beach

1983

Rubbia and van der Meer Isolate the Intermediate Vector Bosons

Sudanese Civil War Resumes

Festivals Mark a Peak in the Dance Created by Black Artists

National Commission Against Torture Studies Human Rights Abuses

Nigeria Expels West African Migrant Workers

First Successful Human Embryo Transfer

Payment-in-Kind Program Compensates U.S. Farmers to Abstain from Planting

Anderson’s United States Popularizes Performance Art

West German Green Party Gains Seats in Parliament

Workers Buy Weirton Steel

Mullis Develops the Polymerase Chain Reaction

Reagan Proposes the Strategic Defense Initiative

Tracking and Data-Relay Satellite System Revolutionizes Space Communications

Government Reveals Oak Ridge Mercury Releases

Martial Law Ends in Poland

Tamil Separatist Violence Erupts in Sri Lanka

Assassination of Philippine Opposition Leader Benigno Aquino

Murray and Szostak Create the First Artificial Chromosome

Soviet Jets Shoot Down Korean Air Lines Flight 007

Continental Airlines Declares Bankruptcy

Amnesty International Works to Prevent Torture

Europeans Demonstrate Against Nuclear Weapons

United States Invades Grenada

Aspartame Is Approved for Use in Carbonated Beverages

Jackson Becomes the First Major Black Candidate for U.S. President

Spacelab 1 Is Launched Aboard the Space Shuttle

United States Announces Its Withdrawal from UNESCO

Nigerian Military Topples President Shagari

1984

“Deep Ecology” Platform Is Drafted

Introduction of Optical Discs for Data Storage

Limbaugh Begins Talk Radio in Sacramento

Lovejoy Proposes the Debt-for-Nature Swap

Sibley and Ahlquist Discover Human-Chimpanzee Genetic Relationship

Introduction of the Apple Macintosh

Pennzoil Sues Texaco for Interfering in Getty Oil Deal

Willadsen Clones the First Farm Animal by Nuclear Transfer

South Africa and Mozambique Sign Nkomati Accord

Project Displays Hominid Heritage

Sixteen Candles Starts a Wave of Teen Films

Sikhs and Indian Government Clash at the Golden Temple

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Seniority Systems

New York State Imposes the First Mandatory Seat-Belt Law

Two Women Walk in Space

U.S. Government Bails Out Continental Illinois Bank

United Nations Holds a Population Conference

U.S. Court of Appeals Upholds the Navy’s Ban on Homosexuality

Radioactive Cargo Sinks in the North Sea

Mulroney Era Begins in Canada

The Cosby Show Makes Television History

Britain Signs Agreement to Leave Hong Kong in 1997

Hong Kong’s Citizens Prepare for Chinese Takeover

American Psychiatric Association Addresses the Homeless Mentally Ill

Ethiopia Resettles Famine Victims from the North to Southern Ethiopia

Indira Gandhi Is Assassinated

Evacuation of Ethiopian Jews to Israel

Toxic Gas Leaks from a Union Carbide Plant in Bhopal, India

Tutu Receives the Nobel Peace Prize

Simon’s Biloxi Blues Emphasizes Serious Themes

1985

Construction of the Keck Telescope Begins in Hawaii

Ecodefense Advocates “Monkeywrenching”

Yugo Begins Selling Cars in the United States

Rainforest Action Network Boycotts Burger King

Minnesota Gives Parents Broader Choices in Public Education

New Zealand Closes Ports to U.S. Nuclear Warships

Jeffreys Discovers the Technique of Genetic Fingerprinting

Gorbachev Initiates a Policy of Glasnost

Democracy Returns to Brazil

Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge Is Closed

Coca-Cola Introduces a New Formula

First Woman Conservative Rabbi Is Ordained

Researchers Discover a Hole in the Ozone Layer

Home Shopping Service Is Offered on Cable Television

French Agents Sink the Rainbow Warrior

Live Aid Generates Millions for Famine Relief

Ballard Discovers the Lost Ship Titanic

Europe Takes the Ryder Cup

Earthquake Devastates Mexico City

Christo Wraps the Pont Neuf

Tevatron Particle Accelerator Begins Operation at Fermilab

Anglo-Irish Agreement Is Signed

U.S.-Soviet Summit

Microsoft Releases the Windows Operating System

European Nations Open Superphénix

Argentine Leaders Are Convicted of Human Rights Violations

Manville Offers $2.5 Billion to Victims of Asbestos Dust

U.S. Congress Revamps Farm Policy

Fossey Is Murdered over Efforts to Protect Mountain Gorillas

1986

Kamiokande Neutrino Telescope Begins Operation

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds Goals, Not Quotas, to Remedy Discrimination

Tully Discovers the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex

Bednorz and Müller Discover a High-Temperature Superconductor

United States and Canada Issue a Joint Report on Acid Rain

International Whaling Ban Goes into Effect

Portugal and Spain Enter the European Community

U.S. Government Tightens Restrictions on Lead

Museveni Captures Kampala

Challenger Accident

First Permanently Manned Space Station Is Launched

Marcos Flees the Philippines

Warren Is Named First Poet Laureate of the United States

European Economic Community Adopts the Single European Act

Palme Is Assassinated

Space Probes Begin Examination of Comet Halley

Soviet Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Undergoes Meltdown

Insider Trading Scandals Mar the Emerging Junk Bond Market

Akalaitis’s Green Card Confronts Audiences with Harsh Realities

Election of Waldheim as President of Austria Stirs Controversy

FDA Approves a Genetically Engineered Vaccine for Hepatitis B

Rap Goes Platinum with Run-D.M.C.’s Raising Hell

Pixar Studios Creates Its First Virtual Studio Film

African Lake Emits Toxic Gas

Discovery of a Gene That Suppresses Retinoblastoma

Soviet Nuclear Submarine Sinks in the Atlantic

Fox Television Network Goes on the Air

U.S. Congress Requires Governments to Inform the Public About Toxic Pollutants

Swiss Warehouse Fire Causes Toxic Spill into the Rhine

Chissano Succeeds Machel in Mozambique

U.S. Congress Enacts Major Immigration Reform

Iran-Contra Scandal

Tyson Becomes Youngest World Heavyweight Boxing Champion

Boston Celtics Sell Shares in the Team

Opening of the Musée d’Orsay

Soyinka Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

Wiesel Receives the Nobel Peace Prize

Voyager Circumnavigates the Globe Without Refueling

Kazakhstan Muslims Riot Against Russians

Platoon Explores the Vietnam Experience

1987

McToxics Campaign Begins

South African Black Workers Strike

Scientists Date a Homo Sapiens Fossil at Ninety-Two Thousand Years

Search for the Gene That Begins Male Development

Government-Supported Death Squads Quash Sri Lanka Insurrection

Cann Postulates the African Eve

Vons Opens Its First Tianguis Marketplace

Waite Is Kidnapped in Lebanon

Supernova 1987A Corroborates Theories of Star Formation

Garbage Barge Mobro Cruises U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

Iraq Uses Poison Gas Against Kurds

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds the Constitutionality of Capital Punishment

Genetically Altered Bacteria Are Released into the Environment

Our Common Future Is Published

National Museum of Women in the Arts Opens Amid Controversy

U.S. Supreme Court Rules That Laws Can Force Groups to Admit Women

Barbie Is Tried for Nazi War Crimes

Fiji’s Elected Government Is Ousted by the Military

Ontario’s Pay Equity Act

Florida Passes the Surface Water Improvement and Management Act

U.S. Congress Appropriates Funds for the Homeless

U.S. Government Introduces the Baldrige Award

FDA Approves the First Cholesterol-Lowering Drug

Miller Discovers a Dinosaur Egg Containing the Oldest Known Embryo

Radioactive Powder Injures Hundreds of Brazilians

U.S. Stock Market Crashes on “Black Monday”

Adams’s Nixon in China Premieres

Van Gogh’s Irises Sells for $53.9 Million

Palestinian Intifada Begins

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

Arias Sánchez Receives the Nobel Peace Prize

A. H. Robins Must Compensate Women Injured by the Dalkon Shield

Yucca Mountain Is Designated a Radioactive Waste Repository

FDA Approves Prozac as an Antidepressant

U.S. Congress Prohibits Marine Plastics Dumping

1988

Doppler Radar Revolutionizes Weather Forecasting

Erlich Develops DNA Fingerprinting from a Single Hair

Graf Wins Golden Grand Slam

New York Opens “Shock” Incarceration Camp for Female Prisoners

Osama Bin Laden Forms al-Qaeda

Sudanese Civil War Uses Hunger as a Weapon

Tank Collapse Releases Fuel into the Monongahela River

Ethnic Riots Erupt in Armenia

Oldest Known Galaxy Is Discovered

Pei Creates a New Entrance to the Louvre

U.S. Congress Mandates Nondiscriminatory Practices by Recipients of Public Funds

Israel Convicts Demjanjuk of Nazi War Crimes

Patent Is Granted for Genetically Engineered Mice

Canada Passes the Tobacco Products Control Act

First Monetary Damages Are Awarded to the Estate of a Cigarette Smoker

Fires Burn Much of Yellowstone National Park

Who Framed Roger Rabbit Merges Animation with Live Action

Deconstructivists Exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art

Excommunication of Archbishop Lefebvre

Medical Waste Washes onto U.S. Atlantic Beaches

Ethnic Violence Erupts in Yugoslavian Provinces

USS Vincennes Shoots Down Iranian Civilian Plane

Auspicious Day of 8/8/88 Turns Deadly in Rangoon

U.S. Congress Formally Apologizes to Japanese Internees

Prodigy Introduces Dial-Up Service

Recruit Scandal Surfaces in Japan

Brazilian President Announces Plans to Protect Rain Forests

Global ReLeaf Program Is Initiated

U.S. Welfare Reform Links Assistance to Work

U.S. Law Mandates Use of Alternative Fuels

U.S. Law Supports Indian Gaming

BRAC Commission Is Established to Close U.S. Military Bases

Bhutto Becomes the First Woman Elected to Lead a Muslim Country

Construction Begins on the Superconducting Super Collider

United Nations Creates a Panel to Study Climate Change

Bush Is Elected President

Drexel and Michael Milken Are Charged with Insider Trading

Armenian Earthquake Leads to Calls for Building Reform

Mahfouz Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

Pan Am Flight 103 Explodes over Lockerbie

Namibia Is Liberated from South African Control

1989

Amnesty International Exposes the Cruelty of the Death Penalty

Arnold and Gottlieb Publish The Wise Use Agenda

Hungary Adopts a Multiparty System

Kashmir Separatists Demand an End to Indian Rule

Kenyan Government Cracks Down on Dissent

Oregon Guarantees Basic Health Care for the Uninsured

Robertson Founds the Christian Coalition

Soviet Troops Leave Afghanistan

U.S. Surgeon General Reports on Tobacco and Health

Colombian Presidential Candidates Are Killed

Soviet Farmers Gain Control of Land and Crop Selection

Iran Issues a Fatwa Against Salman Rushdie

United States Bans Chilean Fruit After Cyanide Scare

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

NOW Sponsors a March for Abortion Rights

Lincoln Savings and Loan Declares Bankruptcy

Magellan Probe Maps Venus

Helsinki Watch Proposes Reform of Refugee Laws

Poland Forms a Non-Communist Government

China Crushes Prodemocracy Demonstration in Tiananmen Square

Mapplethorpe’s Photographs Provoke Controversy

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Flag Desecration Law

U.S. Supreme Court Rules on Execution of the Mentally Retarded and the Young

Do the Right Thing Establishes Lee as a World-Class Director

Papandreou Leaves Office in Disgrace

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds State Restrictions on Abortion

Kenyan President Burns a Fortune in Ivory

Mexico Renegotiates Debt to U.S. Banks

Chinese Top Leadership Changes as Jiang Zemin Takes the Party Chair

Sony Purchases Columbia Pictures

Vietnamese Troops Withdraw from Cambodia

Texas’s Method of Funding Schools Is Ruled Unconstitutional

Bakker Is Sentenced for Fraud and Conspiracy

Ford Buys Jaguar

Wilder Becomes the First Elected Black Governor

Fall of the Berlin Wall

Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia

United Nations Adopts the Convention on the Rights of the Child

Pope John Paul II Issues an Environmental Message

Tibet’s Dalai Lama Receives the Nobel Peace Prize

Chilean Voters End Pinochet’s Military Rule

United States Intervenes in Panama

Liberian Civil War

Ceauşescu Is Overthrown in Romania

1990

Algeria and Egypt Crack Down on Islamic Militants

Disney Emerges as an Architectural Patron

Libraries Transform into Information Technology Centers

Albania Opens Its Borders to Foreign Nationals

“An Anti-Environmentalist Manifesto” Signals a Backlash

Avon Begins Operations in China

Discovery of Breast Cancer Genes

United Nations Admits Many New Members

Poland Begins Switching to a Market Economy

The Simpsons Debuts, Anchoring the Fledgling Fox Network

Mandela Is Freed

Cisco Systems Goes Public

Sandinistas Are Defeated in Nicaraguan Elections

Soviet Troops Withdraw from Czechoslovakia

Soviet Parliament Allows Private Ownership

Lithuania Declares Independence from the Soviet Union

McCartney Conceives Promise Keepers

British Riot over the Poll Tax

U.S. Government Authorizes Collection of Data on Crime Against Gays

NASA Launches the Hubble Space Telescope

Merging of the Two Yemens

West Germany Wins a Third FIFA World Cup

Algeria Holds Its First Free Multiparty Elections

Lawsuits Against Mobil Draw Attention to “Green” Marketing

Massive Quake Rocks Iran

Meech Lake Accord Dies

U.S. Supreme Court Upholds the Right to Refuse Medical Treatment

U.N. Agreement Protects Ozone Layer

General Motors Sponsors a Solar-Powered Car Race

Gorbachev Agrees to Membership of a United Germany in NATO

Spotted Owl Prompts Old-Growth Timber Controversy

Bloc Québécois Forms

U.S. Congress Enacts Disability Rights

Genetically Engineered Rabies Vaccine Is Released

Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait

U.S. Congress Passes Oil Spill Legislation

The Civil War Rivets the Attention of the United States

“Killer Bees” Invade the United States

Debut of Baryshnikov’s White Oak Dance Project

United States Makes Pollution Prevention a National Goal

U.S. Congress Approves More Clean Air Act Amendments

Environmentalists Defeat the Cross-Florida Barge Canal

Major Succeeds Thatcher as British Prime Minister

Aristide Wins First Democratic Election in Haiti

1991

Captive-Bred Condors and Ferrets Are Reintroduced into the Wild

Development of HTML

Persian Gulf War

Seinfeld Takes a Regular Slot on NBC

Iraq Burns Kuwaiti Oil Wells

De Klerk Promises to Topple Apartheid Legislation

Mongolia Sheds Communism

Medical Researchers Test Promising Drugs for the Treatment of AIDS

Supreme Soviet Declares the Aral Sea a Disaster Area

Birth of the Southern Common Market

U.S. Courts Restrict Rights to Photocopy Anthologies

Swiss Banks End Secret Accounts

CDC Publicizes the Dangers of Secondhand Smoke

Eruption of Mount Pinatubo

Civil War Begins in Yugoslavia

Bush Nominates Second African American to the Supreme Court

Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact

Sweden Applies for Membership in the European Community

IBM and Apple Agree to Make Compatible Computers

Pesticides Are Released into the Sacramento River

African Countries Begin to Revive Democratization

Immigrants in Germany Become Targets of Violence

North Carolina Fire Points to Workplace Hazards

Bush Announces Nuclear Arms Reductions

Iijima Reports the Production of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Yugoslav Army Shells Dubrovnik

U.S. Congress Strengthens Equal Opportunity Laws

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Muslim Refugees Flee Persecution in Myanmar

Gordimer Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

1992

Audubon Society Opens Environmentally Responsible Headquarters

Japan Admits to Sex Slavery During World War II

Pequots Open Gaming Facility

Yankee Rowe Nuclear Plant Is Shut Down

Perot Mounts a Third-Party Bid for the U.S. Presidency

United Nations Authorizes Troop Deployment to the Balkans

Terrorists Attack Israeli Embassy and Jewish Center in Argentina

Euro Disneyland Opens

Los Angeles Riots

Hariri Begins Reconstruction of Lebanon

Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance Is Established

Earth Summit Convenes in Rio de Janeiro

Tailhook Scandal

U.S. Supreme Court Restricts Abortion Rights

Hurricane Andrew Devastates Southern Florida

U.S. Government Facilities Must Comply with Environmental Standards

Columbus Day Debates Reflect Cultural Diversity

Defeat of the Charlottetown Accord

Clinton Wins the U.S. Presidency

U.S. Marines Enter Somalia

U.N. Security Council Brokers Peace in Mozambique

United Nations Bans the Use of Drift Nets

1993

Norway Resumes Whaling in Defiance of International Ban

Czechoslovakia Splits into Two Republics

United States and Russia Reach Nuclear Arms Reduction Agreement

Trojan Nuclear Plant Is Retired

Braer Runs Aground

U.S. Congress Guarantees Job Security During Family Emergencies

World Trade Center Bombing

Intel Introduces the Pentium Processor

Mississippi and Missouri Flooding Brings Misery to Middle America

Clinton Convenes the Forest Summit

Branch Davidians’ Compound Burns

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Opens

Kushner’s Angels in America Premieres on Broadway

Paraguay Embraces Democracy

Eritrea Secedes from Ethiopia

Bomb Damages the Uffizi Gallery

World Conference on Human Rights

Campbell Becomes Canada’s First Woman Prime Minister

Brazilian Police Massacre Slum Dwellers

Mattel and Fisher-Price Form the World’s Biggest Toy Company

Frasier Dominates Television Comedy

Myst Energizes the Computer Game Market

Crew of Biosphere 2 Exits After Two Years

Bell Atlantic and TCI Announce Merger Plans

Burundian President Is Assassinated

Fires Devastate Southern California

Unification of the European Market

Chrétien Takes Charge in Canada

North American Free Trade Agreement

Astronauts Repair the Hubble Space Telescope

Ulster Peace Accord

1994

Giuliani Administration Transforms New York City

Northridge Quake Rocks Los Angeles

Schindler’s List Begins Reaping Accolades

Italy’s Voters Move Right

U.S. Gun Control Legislation Takes Effect

Rwandan Genocide

Alexander Fights to Save the National Endowment for the Arts

Genetically Engineered Food Reaches Supermarkets

Opening of the Channel Tunnel

Andy Warhol Museum Opens

Postmodernist Film Pulp Fiction Wins at Cannes

Bald Eagle Is No Longer an Endangered Species

Boeing’s 777 Takes to the Skies

Kim Jong Il Succeeds His Father in North Korea

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Collides with Jupiter

United Nations Authorizes the Use of Force in Haiti

Baseball Strike Forces Cancellation of the World Series

Ferry Sinks in the Baltic

U.S.-North Korea Pact

Oregon Voters Legalize Physician-Assisted Suicide

Republicans Regain Control of Congress

Law of the Sea Treaty Enters into Force

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Ōe Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

Russian Troops Invade Chechnya

Premier Li Peng Announces the Three Gorges Dam Project

Release of Netscape Navigator 1.0

1995

Cable Television Challenges Network Television

Rise of the Internet and the World Wide Web

South Africa Establishes a Truth and Reconciliation Commission

Famine Strikes North Korea

Cardoso Brings Prestige to Brazilian Presidency

Kōbe Earthquake Kills Thousands

O. J. Simpson Trial

United States Bails Out Mexico

Serbs Face Charges at the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia

Arrest of Hacker Kevin Mitnick

Terrorists Use Sarin Gas in Tokyo Subway Attack

National Library of France Opens

Bombing of the Oklahoma City Federal Building

New Panchen Lama Is Named

Chirac Takes Office as President of France

Sun Microsystems Introduces Java

Popular Fiction Addresses the End Times

U.S. Supreme Court Limits Racial Preferences in Awarding Government Contracts

U.S. Supreme Court Rules on Random Drug Testing in Schools

Space Shuttle Docks with Mir

Amazon.com Sells Its First Book Online

Venona Cables Are Declassified

United States Recognizes Vietnam

Third Taiwan Strait Crisis

France Resumes Nuclear Testing

Ripken Breaks Gehrig’s Iron Man Record

DVD Technology Is Announced

Farrakhan Leads the Million Man March

Rabin Is Assassinated

Nigeria Hangs Saro-Wiwa and Other Rights Advocates

Dayton Negotiations Produce Bosnian Peace Accord

NASA Launches the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

Galileo Achieves Orbit Around Jupiter

Heaney Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

1996

Hopes for Democracy in Bangladesh Rise

Meningitis Outbreak Proves Deadly in West Africa

U.S. Congress Reforms Law Regulating Telecommunications

Comet Hyakutake Is Discovered

Deep Blue Beats Kasparov in Chess

Britain Announces Human Cases of Mad Cow Disease

Sudan Expels Osama Bin Laden

Vietnamese Refugees Riot in Hong Kong

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Colorado Antigay Law

Center-Right Government Takes Over in Spain

Wilmut Clones the First Large Mammal from an Adult Cell

Centennial Olympic Park Bombing

Kennewick Man Is Discovered

Green Party Nominates Nader for President

Dam Burst Contaminates the Pilcomayo River

Grand Staircase-Escalante Is Declared a National Monument

Taliban Begins Suppression of Human Rights in Afghanistan

Clinton Signs Legislation to Help Restore the Everglades

Asteroid Toutatis Passes Near Earth

Rawlings Wins Reelection to Ghana’s Presidency

Szymborska Receives the Nobel Prize in Literature

FARC Offensive Intensifies the Guerrilla War in Colombia

Guatemalan Peace Accords End Civil War

1997

Archaeologists Announce the Discovery of Aristotle’s Lyceum

Karen Refugee Crisis

Clinton Rejects Federal Support for Human Cloning

Heaven’s Gate Cult Members Commit Mass Suicide

Labor Party Wins Majority in British National Elections

Globe Theatre Opens in London

NATO and Russia Sign Cooperation Pact

Indonesian Forest Fires Devastate Southeast Asia

Tiger Woods Becomes World’s Top-Rated Golfer

Harry Potter Resuscitates Reading

Hong Kong Becomes Part of the People’s Republic of China

Japan Enacts a Law to Protect the Ainu People

Mississippi Settles Lawsuit with Cigarette Makers

Pathfinder Lands on Mars

Murder of Gianni Versace

Princess Diana Dies in a Car Crash

Cassini-Huygens Probe Is Launched

Temple of Hatshepsut Massacre

Kyoto Conference on Greenhouse Gases

Land Mine Activist Receives Nobel Peace Prize

First Cases of Avian Flu Are Reported

Mandela Makes Way for Mbeki

Japanese Magnetic Train Reaches Record Speed

Microsoft Acquires Hotmail

1998

AIDS Devastates Africa

Brokaw Honors the Greatest Generation

Reparations Funds for Holocaust Victims Are Established

Sexual Molestation Scandal Rocks the Catholic Church

Lunar Prospector Mission

Protocol on Antarctic Environmental Protection Enters into Force

Osama Bin Laden Declares Jihad Against “Jews and Crusaders”

Kosovo Conflict Escalates

Titanic Ties an Oscar Record

Opening of the World’s Largest Suspension Bridge

Good Friday Agreement

Los Frailes Tailings Pond Dam Ruptures in Spain

Daimler-Benz Buys Chrysler

Eritrean-Ethiopian War

India Conducts Nuclear Tests

United States Sues Microsoft

Suharto Resigns, Making Way for Habibie

World’s Exposition 1998

Druids Celebrate the Summer Solstice

U.S. Supreme Court Rules That “Decency” Can Be Required for Federal Arts Grants

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down the Line-Item Veto

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Is Adopted

Hun Sen Wins Cambodian Elections

Chang River Breaks Through Its Main Bank

Terrorists Bomb U.S. Embassies in East Africa

Omagh Car Bombing

U.N. Tribunal Convicts Rwandans of Genocide

Google Is Founded

McGwire Breaks Maris’s Home Run Record

Wye River Accords

Earth Liberation Front Resorts to Arson

Deep Space 1 Is Launched

Reform of the Copyright Act

Schröder Replaces Kohl as German Chancellor

Hurricane Mitch Floods Central America

Europe Celebrates the Restructuring of the European Court of Human Rights

First Embryonic Stem Cell Line Is Derived

Bongo Wins Fair Elections in Gabon

First Genetic Map of an Animal Reported

Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander Are Launched and Lost

Iraq Disarmament Crisis Climaxes in Air Strikes

Clinton Is Impeached

1999

Rise of the Blogosphere

Eleven European Nations Adopt the Euro

Fire Disaster Closes Mont Blanc Tunnel

Williams Sisters Meet in Historic Tennis Final

Scientists Announce Discovery of Enzyme Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease

Columbine High School Massacre

Barak Takes Charge in Israel

Restored Last Supper Goes on Display

Democracy Returns to Nigeria

Napster Is Released

Six African Nations Sign the Lusaka Peace Accord

China Suppresses Falun Gong Religious Group

NASA Launches the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

Woodstock 1999 Ends in Violence

Armstrong Wins His First Tour de France

Second Chechen War Erupts

Putin Becomes Russian Prime Minister

Petronas Twin Towers Open

Voters in East Timor Vote for Independence

Viacom Announces Plans to Buy CBS

NFL Franchise Goes to Houston

Musharraf Seizes Power in Pakistan Coup

World’s Six Billionth Person Is Born

United States and China Sign Trade Deal

Exxon-Mobil Merger Creates the World’s Second-Largest Company

Rioters Disrupt World Trade Organization Meetings

First Hybrid Car Appears on the U.S. Market

Guéï Coup in Ivory Coast

2000

Y2K “Crisis”

Peanuts Comic Strip Retires

Hague Court Convicts Bosnian Croats of 1993 Massacre

Land Reform Sparks Controversy in Zimbabwe

Endeavour Maps Earth from Space

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Spacecraft Orbits a Small Body

FMLN Wins Legislative Elections in El Salvador

King Releases the First E-Novel

Wade Ends Socialist Dominance in Senegal

Survivor Introduces Audiences to “Reality TV”

NASDAQ Dive Prompts Dot-Com Crash

ILOVEYOU Virus Attacks Computers

Scientists Release Evidence of Water on Mars

Completion of the Sequencing of the Human Genome Is Announced

U.S. Supreme Court Protects Restrictions on Membership in Private Groups

Canadian Parliament Passes the Clarity Act

Vermont’s Civil Union Law Takes Effect

PRI Rule Ends in Mexico

Organization of African Unity Moves to Establish the African Union

“Blood Diamonds” Attract World Scrutiny

Bridgestone/Firestone Announces Massive Recall

Russian Submarine Sinks

United Nations Holds the Millennium Summit

Terrorists Attack USS Cole

International Space Station Is Manned

Bush Election Stirs Political and Legal Controversy

U.S. Government Funds Everglades Restoration

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