Electronic Resources for Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

A list of websites providing additional information regarding information covered in Great Events from History: The Twentieth Century, 1941-1970.

Web Sites General
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    The Long Nineteenth Century: The End of European Hegemony .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook4.html. This page is part of the highly regarded Internet Modern History Sourcebook, likely the single best online collection of primary source materials and Web links about twentieth century history, literature, and culture. The section entitled Nazism and World War II is the first of numerous sections on historical events occurring from 1941 through 1970. The section includes Web links and primary source documents about the Holocaust; the United Nations; the Cold War; America as a world leader; Europe since 1945; the end of colonization; and events in Japan, China, other countries in Asia, and in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America.

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    WebChron: Web Chronology Project .

    http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/. The Web Chronology Project was created by the History Department at North Park University in Chicago. It is now administered by David Koeller, the project’s originator, as part of his Then Again Web site. The site contains a series of hyperlinked time lines tracing developments in the United States, Africa south of the Sahara, the Middle East and west Asia, India and south Asia, China and east Asia, Russia and Eastern Europe, and western and central Europe. Other chronologies cover Islam, Christianity, and Judaism as well as art, music, literature, and speculative thought in the Western tradition.

Africa
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    African Studies Internet Resources .

    http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/africa/. Compiled by the Columbia University Libraries, this accessible and definitive site offers vast resources on Africa. Among its many features is an alphabetical listing of African resources by topic that provides links on African history and culture, African biography, human rights and governance, and numerous other subjects. There is also a geographical section covering southern Africa, eastern Africa, west Africa, North Africa, central Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Some listings are presented in languages other than English, offering a global perspective on Africa.

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    The Story of Africa: Independence .

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/. This is a section of The Story of Africa, a Web site that accompanied a series of radio programs of the same name produced by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). This section contains information examining how African countries became independent after World War II, including a description of French and British colonial styles and the move for independence in Ghana, Algeria, Kenya, Congo, and Guinea. Site visitors also can listen to the radio programs in the series, which contain speeches by Kwame Nkrumah and other African leaders. A bibliography and a list of Web links are included for further research.

American Sports, Entertainment, and Culture
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    Baseball and Jackie Robinson .

    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/robinson/.

    As part of its American Memory project, the Library of Congress created this Web site in 1997 to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the day Jackie Robinson played his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first African American in the twentieth century to play in the major leagues and breaking the “color line” that segregated baseball players by race. The site features a time line—“Baseball, the Color Line, and Jackie Robinson”—chronicling historic events in baseball from the 1860’s until 1972; a history of the Negro Leagues; and highlights of Robinson’s career. There also is an essay about the beginnings of baseball in the United States, illustrated with photographs of early major- and nonmajor-league players.

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    The Encyclopedia of Television .

    http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/.

    Maintained by the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the online version of the Encyclopedia of Television contains more than one thousand essays about “specific programs and people, historic moments and trends, major policy disputes and such topics as violence, tabloid television and the quiz show scandal.” It also provides histories of the major television networks and broadcast systems throughout the world. The essays can be accessed alphabetically by the name of the star, television program, or subject. Essays contain bibliographies for further research, and the essays about television stars lists their respective film, radio, and television credits.

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    The Literature and Culture of the American 1950’s .

    http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/home.html. Alan Filreis, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, created this outstanding collection of materials about 1950’s American culture. The majority of the site contains readings about the decade that can be accessed through an alphabetized list. Subjects covered include anti-Communist films and other motion pictures of the era, fallout shelters, the House Un-American Activities Committee, Sigmund Freud in the 1950’s, an obituary of sex researcher Alfred Kinsey, and the works of prominent authors and playwrights. In addition, the page has a search engine, links to reading lists for college courses related to the 1950’s, and links to other Web sites about the 1950’s, the Cold War, and the Stalin era.

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    The Psychedelic ’60’s: Literary Tradition and Social Change .

    http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/sixties/.

    Archivists at the University of Virginia’s department of special collections who grew up in the 1960’s compiled this collection of materials in an effort to explain that turbulent decade to younger people. Much of the site focuses on the decade’s literature, including explanations of nineteenth and twentieth century literary precursors to Ken Kesey, Richard Brautigan, Norman Mailer, and other writers of the period. There is also information about the Civil Rights movement, the Vietnam War, hippies, Woodstock, illicit drugs, and music. Special collections materials, such as posters, album covers, and photographs, have been digitized and are presented in a thumbnail format that can be enlarged with a click of the mouse.

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    Rolling Stone .

    http://www.rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone magazine’s Web site features an encyclopedic collection of materials about rock-and-roll musicians and groups. Users can click on the word “Artists” to retrieve a page that allows them to search for artists by name. Searching is a bit tricky: artists are listed alphabetically by their first names, so Bob Dylan, for example, is listed under “B,” while Elvis Presley is listed under “E.” In addition, many rock groups, like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, are listed with the word “the” in front of their name and alphabetized under “T.” Once users figure this out, they will be rewarded with a comprehensive biography of each artist or group that also contains links to related articles, album reviews, photographs, and discographies.

Art
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    Art History Resources on the Web: Twentieth Century Art .

    http://witcombe.sbc.edu/ARTH20thcentury.html.

    Chris Witcombe, a professor of art history at Sweet Briar College in Virginia, compiled this extensive list of Web sites about art history. This resources page deals specifically with twentieth century painting, sculpture, and architecture and features hundreds of links covering abstract expressionism and pop art, and artists such as Andy Warhol, Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock, and many others.

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    Jackson Pollock .

    http://www.nga.gov/feature/pollock/.

    This informative and well-illustrated site about artist Jackson Pollock was created by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. It details major events in Pollock’s life, offers a range of photographs and other information about his individual works of art, and describes the process he used to create his paintings. There also is a link to a short film that shows Pollock painting.

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    Metropolitan Museum of Art: Timeline of Art History .

    http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/. The museum’s Web site describes itself as a “chronological, geographical, and thematic exploration of the history of art from around the world, as illustrated especially by the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection.” The time line for the period from 1900 to the early twenty-first century contains works of art, maps, and chronologies organized by regions of the world, including North America, South America, Europe, Central America and Mexico, Africa, Oceania, and several areas of Asia. In addition to the time lines, the site offers a broad range of information accessible through alphabetical lists of artists, subjects, and special topics.

Asia
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    China: Fifty Years of Communism .

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1999/09/99/china_50_years_of_communism/. In October, 1999, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) created this Web site to accompany its programs commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the People’s Republic of China. The Web site includes an article analyzing the legacy of Mao Zedong and images of the Cultural Revolution of the 1960’s. The site includes a broadcast of a BBC radio series about the Long March.

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    Internet East Asian History Sourcebook .

    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html. This site provides primary source materials tracing historical and cultural developments in China, Japan, Korea, and other East Asian nations. It includes separate sections that focus on Japan’s role in World War II; the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean history since World War II..

Canada
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    Canada and the Second World War: Valour Remembered, 1939-1945 .

    http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/.

    This section of the Web site of Veterans Affairs Canada chronicles Canada’s participation in World War II. It includes numerous pages with text and photographs that describe various aspects of the war, including the first Canadian army, Canadians in Italy, the landing in Normandy, and the war at sea and in the air.

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    The Canadian Encyclopedia .

    http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com.

    The name of this site is misleading, for it actually contains five resources, only one of which is The Canadian Encyclopedia, a collection of about twenty thousand articles written in both English and French. The other resources are The Youth Encyclopedia of Canada, the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, a collection of feature articles, and a database of articles published in Maclean’s magazine. The best way to find information about Canada from 1941 through 1970 is to enter a word or term in the site’s search engine. These searches will retrieve information about John Diefenbaker and other prime ministers, Canada’s roles in World War II and the Cold War, and other topics. Some of the articles contain film clips in addition to text and photographs.

France
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    Foundation Charles de Gaulle .

    http://www.charles-de-gaulle.org. Foundation Charles de Gaulle is a nonprofit Paris-based organization that aims to collect all materials related to the former French leader and educate the public about his life and achievements. The group’s Web site contains a considerable amount of information about de Gaulle. The site features an extensive biography, excerpts from his speeches, and quotations. The thematic-files section describes de Gaulle’s military career, his role in World War II, his postwar leadership and efforts to modernize France, and his relationships with other world leaders. The resources section features a bibliography and a collection of photographs. Click on the British flag for an English-language version of the site.

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    Paris Libéré! A Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Liberation of Paris, 25 August 1944 .

    http://www.paris.org/Expos/Liberation/.

    Created in 1994 to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the liberation of Paris during World War II, this site, although somewhat outdated, contains wonderful historic photographs of key figures in the liberation, German prisoners, Paris just before the liberation, and the city celebrating in triumph when it is finally freed from German control.

Germany
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    Holocaust Encyclopedia .

    http://www.ushmm.org. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., has prepared this comprehensive chronicle of the events in Nazi Germany that led to the extermination of six million Jews. The site’s more than 470 articles can be accessed via a general contents page or through an alphabetical listing. The articles contain photographs, cartoons, film clips, and other material from the museum’s holdings. Also, users can view a collection of identity cards that provide biographical information about almost six hundred people who were imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. Click on link Holocaust Encyclopedia.

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    Nuremberg Trials, 1945-1949 .

    http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/nuremberg/nuremberg.htm. The Famous Trials Web site created by the University of Missouri-Kansas School of Law includes this section about the Nuremberg Trials. The section offers a chronology, profiles of the defendants, excerpts from trial transcripts, related Web links, and a bibliography.

Great Britain
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    The Churchill Centre .

    http://www.winstonchurchill.org. Located in Washington, D.C., the Churchill Centre is dedicated to the study of the life and times of former British prime minister Winston Churchill. Its Web site features a range of information about Churchill, including a daily chronicle of events in his life, selected speeches and quotations, common myths and debates about Churchill, and descriptions of places in England associated with the former British leader.

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    Home Front: World War II .

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/.One of the many excellent resources created by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), this Web site provides a variety of materials about life in Great Britain during World War II. It includes articles about Winston Churchill’s leadership during the war, the blitz, and women under fire during the war; also, each article provides links to related Web pages. The site also provides excerpts from Churchill’s speeches and a film about wartime evacuees.

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    Prime Ministers .

    http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/pm.htm. An easy-to-use and informative resource, created by Spartacus Educational, a British organization that provides Internet-based lessons for students. This site provides portraits, biographies, and information about significant events that occurred during the terms of each of Britain’s prime ministers from 1715 through 1990. The page of each prime minister can be accessed through a list arranged in chronological order according to term in office.

India
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    Manas: India and Its Neighbors .

    http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/. Vinay Lal, an associate professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles, created this Web site about Indian history. It features a section about Mahatma Gandhi, which includes a biography, articles about his philosophy and activism, and a bibliography. Another section focuses on historical developments after India became an independent nation.

Latin America
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    Casahistoria: Latin American Home Page .

    http://www.casahistoria.net/latam.html. Casahistoria was created by a teacher in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to provide a list of Web resources for his undergraduate history students. The site contains information in English and Spanish, including a page of links about Latin American history and culture and individual pages with links to information about Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The twentieth century section of the site features information about Latin America in the 1940’s, military dictatorships after 1945, and the Fidel Castro-led revolution in Cuba.

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    Latino Studies Resources .

    http://www.latinamericanstudies.org. Antonio Rafael de la Cova, while a visiting assistant professor in Indiana University’s Latino Studies Program, created this extensive and updated collection of resources about Mexico, South and Central America, and the Caribbean Island nations. Users can click on a flag of each country to find links to Web sites on history, government, arts, economy, ecology, literature, and a range of other topics. In addition, the site’s home page lists numerous topics pertaining to Latin America, enabling users to find Web-based information about Latinos in the United States; Latin America’s relations with the United States; Mexican politics, culture, and society; Caribbean Island nations; revolutionary movements in Latin America; and other topics.

Literature
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    American Literature on the Web: American Literature Since 1945 .

    http://www.nagasaki-gaigo.ac.jp/ishikawa/amlit/. This comprehensive compendium of Web links, maintained by Akihito Ishikawa of the Nagasaki College of Foreign Languages, includes a section covering American literature since 1945, including the works of authors such as Norman Mailer, John Updike, Arthur Miller, the Beat poets, Bob Dylan, and Philip Roth. The Related Resources page provides links to Web sites about the Beats, postcolonial literature in English, postmodernism, and multicultural fiction. Additional pages contain time lines, links to Web sites about music and the visual arts, and links to sites placing the period’s literature within a broader social context.

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    The Beat Page .

    http://www.rooknet.com/beatpage/. A comprehensive overview of Beat generation authors that covers Beat literature and philosophy. Includes biographies of William S. Burroughs, Diane di Prima, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, and others. The site also features articles about Buddhism and the Beats and the Beats on film. A chronology of early Beat generation literature from 1944 through 1960 chronicles Beat activities within a cultural and historical context.

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    English Literature by Period: Modern (British and American) .

    http://vos.ucsb.edu. The twentieth century British and American literature section of Voice of the Shuttle, a highly regarded Web site created by scholars at the University of California, Santa Barbara, provides links to numerous Web sites, journals, Listservs, and other resources. It also provides links to sites about individual authors. Click on Literature (in English).

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    Literary Resources: Twentieth Century British, Irish, and Commonwealth .

    http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Lit/20th.html.

    A page created by Rutgers University professor Jack Lynch, this site is a compendium of Web links about literature. It features links to pages on individual authors, including Samuel Beckett, Ian Fleming, Graham Greene, Ted Hughes, George Orwell, and Dylan Thomas.

Middle East
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    The Middle East, 1916-2001: A Documentary Record .

    http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/mideast.htm. The Avalon Project, a Yale Law School digital archive of significant primary documents, includes a section on the history of the Middle East. The site is particularly strong in its inclusion of documents from the 1940’s and 1950’s. It contains numerous United Nations Security Council resolutions, including the 1947 resolution authorizing the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states in the region. The site also includes Israel’s declaration of independence of May 14, 1948, the Palestinian National Charter adopted in 1968, and documents relating to the wars fought in the region and the efforts to negotiate a lasting peace. The site provides a link to the Web site Question of Palestine, a United Nations site that covers the Israel-Palestinian conflict.

Music (<i>See also</i> American Sports, Entertainment, and Culture)
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    Carolina Classical Connection: Twentieth Century Music Links .

    http://www.carolinaclassical.com/twentieth.html. This site provides a collection of links to a wide variety of music-related Web sites, with biographical information on composers, descriptions of musical genres and types of compositions, and encoded music files. The page with links to the twentieth century includes information on Benjamin Britten, Samuel Barber, Leonard Bernstein, John Cage, and many other composers.

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    The Classical MIDI Connection: The Twentieth Century .

    http://www.classicalmidiconnection.com. This site offers music MIDI files. MIDI, or musical instrument digital interface, is a digital technology that allows electronic musical instruments and computers to communicate with one another and makes that music available via the Web. The site has an alphabetized list of composers with links to MIDI files of their music. The twentieth century period page contains links and MIDI files for Richard Rodgers, Leonard Bernstein, Samuel Barber, Benjamin Britten, and other composers.

Philosophy
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    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

    http://plato.stanford.edu/. This much-praised site is administered by an editorial board selected by Stanford University professors and contains articles written by scholars from a variety of respected institutions. Users can access the articles via an alphabetical listing of philosophers and subjects. Many of the subjects listed are not hyperlinked, but these refer users to other entries that are linked. Articles provide links to related entires in the encyclopedia and to related Web sites and bibliographies. Users also can find information through the site’s search feature.

Science, Medicine, and Technology
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    Eric Weisstein’s World of Science .

    http://scienceworld.wolfram.com. This reference site, compiled by a research scientist and former professor of astronomy, contains encyclopedias on astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. It also provides brief portraits of noteworthy scientists, whose biographies can be accessed via an alphabetical listing.

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    History of Western Biomedicine .

    http://www.mic.ki.se/West.html. Compiled by the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, this site contains links to Web sites that cover medical and scientific history from ancient times through the twenty-first century. The Modern Period section includes a list of sites related to twentieth century science and medicine, including World War II combat medicine, Canadian scientists, pioneers of heart surgery, artificial organ history, and Jonas Salk’s discovery of a polio vaccine.

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration .

    http://www.nasa.gov. The Web site of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) features a wealth of information about the space race—past, present, and future. The Missions section of the site includes a mission history of the U.S. space program, beginning with Project Mercury, which resulted in the first American space flight in 1958. The multimedia section features NASA images, a video gallery, and interactive features, including an Astronaut’s Flight Lounge, where users can question an astronaut and listen to his or her response.

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    A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries .

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/. This site, which provides 120 entries about twentieth century scientists and their stories, is part of the Public Broadcasting System’s (PBS) Web site. The entries can be accessed through a time line of significant scientific discoveries between 1900 and 1996 or through an alphabetical list of scientists. In addition, separate pages provide entries covering medicine and health, physics and astronomy, human behavior, technology, and Earth and life sciences. The site includes a helpful search engine.

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    Transistorized! The History of the Invention of the Transistor .

    http://www.pbs.org/transistor/. Produced in connection with a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) documentary of the same name, this site provides a history of the transistor, described here as “probably the most important invention of the 20th century,” and a time line of twentieth century events related to its invention. The site clearly explains the science behind the invention, the components of transistor technology, and the related technologies involving electrons, vacuum tubes, integrated chips, and conductors. Users can view portions of the PBS documentary, additional interviews with scientists, and early news reports. The site has a glossary, a bibliography of print resources, and links to related Web sites.

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    Twentieth Century Inventions: 1926-1950 .

    http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa122299ahtml.

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    Twentieth Century Inventions: 1951-1975 .

    http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa122999a.htm. These two pages from About.com’s time line cover inventions created from 1926 through 1975. The time line links to additional pages describing inventors and inventions of the period and provides links to other Web sites. This resource covers a wide range of inventions, from toys like the hula hoop, Slinky, Silly Putty, Mr. Potato Head, and the Barbie doll, to more complex products, such as the microwave oven, mobile telephone, microchip, compact disk, video disk, computer mouse, and oral contraceptives.

Soviet Union
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    Soviet Union: 1945-1990 .

    http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RussiaEvents45.htm. This Spartacus Educational site provides an overview of historical events in the Soviet Union after World War II. The site includes an alphabetical list of articles about the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviet Communist Party, the Hungarian Uprising, and the German Democratic Republic, as well as other topics. Each article contains numerous links to pages with additional information and includes excerpts from primary source materials.

United States
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    After the Day of Infamy: “Man on the Street” Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor .

    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/afcphhtml/. Part of the Library of Congress’s American Memory Project, this site features audio clips with more than two hundred people throughout the United States who were interviewed after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Compiled by the Library of Congress, these interviews sought the opinions of ordinary Americans; their stories reflect a wide range of views on political issues in the early 1940’s, including labor disputes and racial prejudice.

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    American President: An Online Reference Resource .

    http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/academic/americanpresident/. This accessible and inclusive site was created by the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia, a research institution devoted to the study of the American presidency. The site contains an essay about each president, his administration, a brief biography, details of his life before the presidency, campaigns and elections, domestic and foreign policies, life after the presidency, family life, the American franchise, and the respective president’s impact and legacy. The site also provides biographies of the First Ladies; lists of vice presidents, key cabinet members, and advisers for each president; biographies of vice presidents and many of the cabinet members; a list of books about each president; and a list of key events during each president’s term in office.

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    The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Documents in Law, History, Diplomacy—Twentieth Century Documents .

    http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/20th.htm. Yale Law School provides an extensive collection of digital documents relevant to the fields of law, history, economics, diplomacy, and government. Users can retrieve these primary source documents with a search engine or access them via alphabetized lists. The list of twentieth century documents includes presidential inauguration addresses and annual messages, the Truman Doctrine, and Dwight Eisenhower’s speech about the military-industrial complex. The United Nations’ (U.N.) charter and other U.N. documents are also available, as are the texts of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

    The twentieth century listings also include many documents related to World War II, such as the United States’ declaration of war against Germany, Japan, and Italy; Germany’s declaration of war on the United States; numerous armistice agreements; and documents generated at the Potsdam and Yalta conferences. Many of these documents, plus additional primary source materials related to the war, are listed on a separate World War II: Documents page.

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    Brown @ 50: Fulfilling the Promise .

    http://www.brownat50.org. Howard University and the Howard University School of Law created this Web site to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education and the role the university and law school played in that decision. A chronology outlines what the site describes as “many items of general importance in the long road to equality,” including historical events, laws, and court cases. The site includes an essay that discusses the history and impact of Brown, and has biographical sketches of the lawyers who worked on the case.

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    Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive .

    http://www.lib.usm.edu/~spcol/crda/. The McCain Library and Archives at the University of Southern Mississippi sponsors this digitized collection of materials on the struggle for civil rights in Mississippi. The university is located in Hattiesburg, the location of the largest and one of the most successful voter registration drives of the Freedom Summer of 1964. By its own description, the site seeks to “document a local history with truly national significance.” Its archival material is listed in alphabetical order and includes photographs, personal papers, and diaries. In addition, there are almost 150 transcripts of oral histories, some of which include audio clips. The Historical Context section provides brief histories of the Civil Rights movement in Hattiesburg and the Mississippi Gulf Coast, a time line of civil rights activities in Mississippi, and a summary of Freedom Summer incidents throughout the state.

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    Rosie the Riveter: Women Working During World War II .

    http://www.nps.gov/pwro/collection/website/home.htm. A site of the National Park Service, which operates the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historic Park in Richmond, California. A tribute to the American women who worked in factories and held other traditionally male jobs during World War II, this site contains women’s personal accounts of working during the war, photographs of women at work, and an essay, “Image and Reality of Women Who Worked During World War II,” with a bibliography of print resources.

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    Voices of Civil Rights .

    http://www.voicesofcivilrights.org. The American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, and the Library of Congress created this Web site as part of their effort to gather personal accounts and oral histories of participants in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s. A search engine enables users to access the texts of several thousand personal stories. The site also features photographs and a time line of civil rights-related events from 1868 to the twenty-first century.

Wars
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    The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources .

    http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/. The National Security Archive (NSA), based at the Gelman Library at George Washington University, provides public access to previously secret government documents. Among the site’s contents is an NSA electronic briefing book consisting of about seventy-five primary documents regarding the United States’ decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Japan’s reaction to the action. These documents, including internal reports and memoranda, are in PDF format. The site also features fifteen photographs related to the bombings. Click on Nuclear History.

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    Cold War International History Project .

    http://wilsoncenter.org. The Cold War International History Project, a project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, provides new information, perspectives, and primary sources on the history of the Cold War, with particular emphasis on the former Communist nations. The primary source documents can be accessed via a list of subject categories, including the Warsaw Pact, the Korean War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the end of the Cold War. There also are documents about the Cold War in specific countries, such as China, Yugoslavia, France, Germany, and Algeria, as well as a link to other Cold War-related sites. Click on Programs to get to the Cold War project site.

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    Korea: The Unfinished War .

    http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/korea. This site accompanied a radio documentary about the Korean War that aired in July, 2003, to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the war’s end. The site describes the Korean conflict as “the often-overlooked war that helped define global politics and American life for the second half of the 20th century.” Users can listen to the radio documentary and read several articles, including a history of the conflict and an account of the desegregation of the U.S. armed forces during the war. The site also contains maps providing a step-by-step account of military activity and links to related Web sites.

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    Second World War .

    http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WW.htm. A comprehensive history of World War II, created by Spartacus Educational, featuring many pages on the war’s background; battles; military and civilian leaders from the United States, Europe, and Asia; and European efforts at diplomacy. There also are sections about women’s roles in the war; the French resistance; and scientists, inventors, and engineers who were involved in the conflict; among many other topics. Pages are linked and contain excerpts from primary documents.

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    The Vietnam Project .

    http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu. The Vietnam Project at Texas Tech University encourages research and education about all aspects of the American Vietnam War experience. This Web site provides a virtual archive with more than 350,000 documents housed at the university’s Vietnam Center, including more than 605,000 pages of scanned documents, photographs, oral histories, maps, films, and other material. Users can access these materials with a sophisticated search engine that offers numerous options for retrieval.

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    The Wars for Vietnam: 1945-1975 .

    http://vietnam.vassar.edu. Robert K. Brigham, the first American scholar given access to the Vietnamese archives on the war in Hanoi, prepared this Web site for a seminar at Vassar College. It contains translations of some of the Hanoi documents and other documents related to the war, a historical overview of the conflict, information about battles of the La Drang Valley, and links to related Web sites.

Subscription Web Sites

The following Web-based databases are available only to paying subscribers. Many public, college, and university libraries subscribe to these sources. Readers can consult library Web sites or ask reference librarians about availability.

General
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    Oxford Reference Online .

    http://www.oxfordreference.com. The Core Collection of Oxford Reference Online is a virtual reference library of more than 130 subject dictionaries, language reference, and subject reference books published by Oxford University Press. The electronic versions of the books are fully indexed and cross-searchable and provide information on a wide range of subjects, including art, architecture, biological sciences, economics and business, history, law, literature, mathematics, medicine, military history, performing arts, political science, social science, religion, and philosophy. The Premium Collection contains all of the features of the Core Collection plus electronic versions of the Oxford Companions series and the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.

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    Oxford Scholarship Online .

    http:www.oxfordscholarship.com. Oxford Scholarship Online contains the electronic versions of more than one thousand books covering economics, finance, philosophy, political science, and religion that are published by Oxford University Press. The site contains the full texts of these books and advanced searching capabilities.

Art
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    Grove Art Online .

    http://www.groveart.com. Grove Art Online provides authoritative and comprehensive information about the visual arts from prehistory to the present. In addition to its more than forty-five thousand articles displaying more than three thousand images, the site contains articles on a range of subjects, including fine arts, architecture, and the art of China, South America, Africa, and other regions of the world. The database also offers biographies of artists and links to hundreds of museum and gallery Web sites.

Biography
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    Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Online .

    http://www.oxforddnb.com. The online version of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography is an authoritative reference source. The site maintains that the dictionary has “55,000 biographies of people who shaped the history of the British Isles and beyond, from the earliest times to the year 2003.”

History
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    Daily Life Through History .

    http://dailylife.greenwood.com. Daily Life Through History Online, created by Greenwood Press, contains articles describing the religious, domestic, economic, material, political, recreational, and intellectual lives of people throughout history. The site is made up of contents from The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Daily Life and Greenwood’s Daily Life Through History series, as well as other books, reference works, and primary source documents. Users also can access chronologies, time lines, and hundreds of Web links.

Music
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    Grove Music Online .

    http://www.grovemusic.com. This online version of the highly regarded New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians features more than forty-five thousand articles on musicians, instruments, musical techniques, genres, and styles. In addition to articles and biographies, the site provides more than five hundred audio clips of music and links to images and related Web sites.

Science
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    Access Science: McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online .

    http://www.accessscience.com. The online version of the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology and McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms contains resources found in the latest editions of these books. Users can access biographies, more than eighty-five hundred articles, research updates, and science news.

Electronic Databases

Electronic databases usually do not have their own URLs. Instead, public, college, and university libraries subscribe to these databases, provide links to them on their Web sites, and make them available only to library card holders or specified patrons. Readers can check library Web sites or ask reference librarians to check on availability.

Biography
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    Biography Resource Center .

    Produced by Thomson Gale, this database includes biographies of more than 335,000 prominent people throughout history that were previously published in Thomson Gale reference sources. It also features biographical articles from almost three hundred magazines.

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    Biography Resource Center: African Americans .

    This electronic collection, produced by Thomson Gale, features almost thirty thousand biographies of African Americans who have attained prominence in a number of areas, including the arts, business, government, history, literature, politics, and science. It also provides links to related Web sites, about two thousand portraits, and more than forty-two thousand articles from hundreds of magazines.

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    Wilson Biographies Plus Illustrated .

    Produced by H. W. Wilson, this database contains more than 147,000 narrative profiles, more than thirty-six thousand images, bibliographies, and links to related material. Content is derived from Wilson reference books, including Current Biography, as well as from information licensed from other reference publishers.

History
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    American History Online .

    This database, produced by Facts On File, covers more than five hundred years of political, military, social, and cultural history. Content comes from the company’s publications, including the Encyclopedia of American History and the Landmark Documents in American History database. Contains information about historical events and topics, biographies of significant people, more than seventeen hundred primary source documents, time lines, essays providing overviews of significant time periods, maps, charts, and more than twenty-five hundred images.

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    American Women’s History Online .

    This Facts On File database covers five hundred years of American women’s history. It contains biographies and information on court cases and legislation, relevant events, and social issues. It also features primary source documents, time lines containing hyperlinked entries, images, maps, and charts.

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    History Center: World .

    An electronic collection compiled by Thomson Gale that features information from the company’s reference works, as well as primary source documents and full-text articles from academic journals and periodicals.

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    History Reference Center .

    A product of EBSCO Information Services, the History Reference Center contains the contents of more than two thousand reference works, encyclopedias, and nonfiction books, as well as the full texts of articles published in more than 120 history periodicals. It also features almost sixty thousand historical documents, almost fifty thousand biographies, photographs, maps, and historical film and video.

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    History Resource Center: U.S. .

    This database, produced by Thomson Gale, contains primary source documents from digital archives, full-text articles from history journals and periodicals, and a historical bibliography. Users also can access audio and video clips of historic speeches and events and links to digitized special collections.

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    MagillOnHistory .

    Produced by Salem Press and available on the EBSCO Host platform, the MagillOnHistory database covers historical events from ancient times to the twenty-first century. It offers the full contents of Salem’s Great Lives from History and Great Events from History sets, as well as entries from Salem’s many history and social science encyclopedias. The database contains about ten thousand records, eighteen hundred images, an index of thirteen thousand names, and four thousand full-length biographical essays examining the lives of more than thirty-eight hundred historical figures.

Literature
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    Bloom’s Literary Reference Online .

    Facts On File has expanded this database to include essays by literary critic Harold Bloom examining the lives and works of great writers worldwide. Other features include an archive of more than thirty-eight thousand literary characters and entries on literary topics, themes, movements, and genres.

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    Literary Reference Center .

    EBSCO’s comprehensive full-text database contains more than twenty-six thousand plot summaries, synopses, and overviews of authors’ works; 140,000 author biographies; about 100,00 literary articles and essays; the content of literary journals; book reviews; thirty-two thousand classic and contemporary poems; 13,500 classic and contemporary short stories; and four thousand author interviews. It also contains the entire contents of Salem Press’s MagillOnLiteraturePlus (see below).

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    Literature Resource Center .

    This database produced by Thomson Gale includes biographies, bibliographies, and critical information on the works of authors from a wide range of literary disciplines, countries, and eras. In addition to traditional literary reference works, it contains articles from journals.

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    MagillOnLiteraturePlus .

    MagillOnLiteraturePlus is a comprehensive, integrated literature database produced by Salem Press and available on the EBSCO Host platform. The database incorporates the full contents of Salem’s many literature-related reference works, including information from Masterplots (series I and II), Cyclopedia of World Authors, Cyclopedia of Literary Characters, Cyclopedia of Literary Places, Critical Surveys of Literature, Magill’s Literary Annual, World Philosophers and Their Works, and Magill Book Reviews. Content includes articles on more than thirty-five thousand works and more than eighty-five hundred writers, poets, dramatists, essayists, and philosophers. Essays feature critical analysis as well as plot summaries, biographical information, character profiles, and authoritative listings of authors’ works with the dates of publication. The majority of the essays also include annotated bibliographies to help users conduct additional research.

Categories: History Content