The term “nonaligned states” refers to those nations that attempted to stake out independent positions between the American- and Soviet-led power blocs in the international politics of the Cold War.
The term “nonaligned states” refers to those nations that attempted to stake out independent positions between the American- and Soviet-led power blocs in the international politics of the Cold War. A seminal event in the collective history of these states was the
The ideals of peace, cooperation, and independence in international affairs became the founding principles of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), which was established in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1961. This organization was largely the brainchild of
Despite the stated aims of noninvolvement in the geopolitics of the Cold War, regional or global tensions, such as conflicts with neighboring states, have ultimately compelled many member states to demonstrate close ties to one or the other of the two superpowers throughout this period. Since the end of the Cold War in 1991, NAM has struggled to find international relevance. While Egypt and India remain member states, the states of the former Yugoslavia have expressed little interest in membership, electing instead to hold observer status in the organization.
Throughout the period of the Cold War, the conflicts waged by the nonaligned states tended to evolve from border disputes or displays of nationalism. Because the states involved in these conflicts found they could gain military advantage over their regional opponents through closer relations with one or the other of the two superpowers, these localized wars often threatened to spiral out of control and lead to much wider and deadlier conflicts.
In 1956, Nasser oversaw Egypt’s nationalization of the
Pakistani protesters burn effigies and flags outside the Indian embassy in Islamabad in January, 1997. The two countries’ long-standing conflict was supported during the Cold War by the opposing superpowers.
Egypt, Yugoslavia, and India all came to rely heavily, although not exclusively, on the Soviet Union for their armaments during the Cold War. Much of the
Throughout the 1960’s the
The principal fighter jets of the
During the 1960’s, the bulk of
Prior to the dissolution of the nation of
Throughout its postindependence existence, the Indian army has had the primary responsibilities of defending India from external aggression, maintaining peace and security within India, and patrolling the nation’s borders. This translated into an aggressive forward policy adopted in 1959 regarding disputed border areas with
Two important contemporary works provide valuable information on the nonaligned states as a whole. The first is George McTurnan Kahin’s The Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955 (1956). This is a very accessible work that details the events that occurred during the 1955 Bandung Conference. The first half of the volume presents the author’s account of the conference based on his own experiences as an observer at the open sessions, and the second half provides transcripts of the speeches delivered by key attendees as well as the conference’s final communiqué. The second collection, The Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-aligned Countries (1961), edited by Slobodan Vujović, contains speeches from the 1961 summit of nonaligned nations held in Belgrade, where NAM was established.
English versions of contemporary sources of the military affairs of the nonaligned states during the Cold War do not appear to be extensive. The Indian Ministry of External Affairs and the United Nations published a four-volume collection of some of the U.N. Security Council proceedings on the 1965 India-Pakistan conflict: India-Pakistan Security Council Documents, September-December, 1965. On the 1971 India-Pakistan conflict, a document collection titled The Fourteen Day War was published in 1972. Additionally, the heads of state of Yugoslavia, Egypt, and India left partial records of their respective nations’ foreign policies during the Cold War. Regarding Yugoslavia, two works have been published that deal specifically with nonalignment: Tito o nesvrstanosti (1976; Tito on Non-Alignment, 1976) and Govori Predsednika SFRJ Josipa Broza Tita na konferencijama nesvrstanih zemalja (1979; Tito and Non-Alignment: President Tito’s Addresses at Conferences of Non-aligned Countries, 1979). Nasser similarly documented his position in President Gamal Abdel Nasser on Non-Alignment (1964).
Nehru left several collections that outline India’s diplomacy during the period of his leadership. These include a volume of speeches titled India’s Foreign Policy: Selected Speeches, September 1946-April 1961 (1961) along with two volumes that deal with his thoughts on India’s relations with China in the lead up to and during the 1962 border war: The Prime Minister on Sino-Indian Relations (1961) and Chinese Aggression in War and Peace: Letters of the Prime Minister of India (1962). Finally, Nehru’s daughter, Indira Gandhi, who was prime minister of India during the 1971 India-Pakistan conflict, published Selected Speeches and Writings of Indira Gandhi: The Years of Endeavour, August 1969-August 1972 (1975).
Aloni, Shlomo. Arab-Israeli Air Wars, 1947-82. New York: Osprey, 2002. Laffin, John. Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars, 1948-73. New York: Osprey, 1982. Marston, Daniel P., and Chandar S. Sundaram, eds. A Military History of India and South Asia: From the East India Company to the Nuclear Era. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2007. Meital, Yoram. Egypt’s Struggle for Peace: Continuity and Change, 1967-1977. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Milivojević, Marko, John B. Allcock, and Pierre Maurer, eds. Yugoslavia’s Security Dilemmas: Armed Forces, National Defence, and Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988. Pollack, Kenneth M. Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002. Rajan, M. S. Nonalignment and Nonaligned Movement: Retrospect and Prospect. New Delhi: Vikas, 1990. Roberts, Adam. Nations in Arms: The Theory and Practice of Territorial Defence. 2d rev. ed. London: Macmillan, 1986. Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Wirsing, Robert G. India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute: On Regional Conflict and Its Resolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. Border. Feature film. J. P. Dutta, 1997. India and Pakistan at Sixty. Documentary. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2007. The Six-Day War: Then and Now. Documentary. Cable News Network, 2007. The Suez Crisis. Documentary. 3BM Television, 1997. Tito. Documentary. Bindweed Soundvision, 2001. Turning Points in History: Showdown at Suez. Documentary. Foxtel, 2007.
The Cold War: The United States, NATO, and the Right
The Cold War: The Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact, and the Left
Rockets, Missiles, and Nuclear Weapons
China: Modern Warfare
Colonial Wars of Independence
Warfare in Vietnam
Warfare in Afghanistan: The Soviet-Afghan Conflict