Time Line of Events Covered in Summary

  • Last updated on November 10, 2022

A time line of important events from the nineteenth century.

The time line below includes the events and developments covered in the essays in this publication (appearing in small capital letters), which are covered in depth in this chronologically arranged publication under the dates shown. More than 750 other important events and developments, are also included here. Each event is tagged by a general region or regions; by this means, the time line can be used to consider general trends in the same region over time. However, because many events, although occurring in one or two regions nevertheless had a global or cross-regional impact, they have been left in chronological order to facilitate a better understanding of simultaneous events and their occasional interaction. The abbreviation “c.” is used below to stand for “circa.”

Date Region Event Oct. 25, 1760-Jan. 29, 1820 Europe Reign of King George III of Great Britain Feb. 9, 1796-Sept. 2, 1820 East Asia Reign of the Jiaqing Emperor of China 1799-1804 South America Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland Explore South America, Mexico, and Cuba 1800 Europe Madame de Staël Publishes De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales (A Treatise on Ancient and Modern Literature, 1803; also known as The Influence of Literature upon Society, 1813) 1800-1864 North America Inuit Settlers Emigrate from Canada to Northern Greenland Mar. 14, 1800-Aug. 20, 1823 Europe Pontificate of Pius VII 19th cent. Europe Development of Working-Class Libraries 19th cent. Europe Spread of the Waltz 19th cent. Middle East Arabic Literary Renaissance 1801 Europe Emergence of the Primitives 1801 Europe Franz K. Achard Builds the First Sugar-Beet Factory c. 1801-1810 Europe Davy Develops the Arc Lamp c. 1801-1850 North America Professional Theaters Spread Throughout America Jan. 1, 1801 Europe First Asteroid Is Discovered Jan. 20, 1801 North America John Marshall Is Appointed Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Feb. 17, 1801 North America House of Representatives Elects Jefferson President Mar. 3, 1801 North America U.S. President John Adams Leaves Office Mar. 4, 1801-Mar. 3, 1809 North America U.S. Presidency of Thomas Jefferson Mar. 21, 1801 Africa Britain Defeats France at the Second Battle of Aboukir (Wars of Napoleon) Mar. 23, 1801-Dec. 1, 1825 Europe Reign of Czar Alexander I of Russia June 19, 1801-July, 1803 Australia Thomas-Nicholas Baudin Explores the East, South, and West Coasts of Australia Summer, 1801-Summer, 1805 Africa Tripolitan War June 27, 1801 Africa Cairo Falls to British Troops (Wars of Napoleon) July 18, 1801 Europe Napoleon Signs a Concordat with the Pope Nov. 16, 1801 North America First Edition of the New York Evening Post Dec. 6, 1801-Aug., 1803 Australia Flinders Explores Australia 1802 Europe Britain Adopts Gas Lighting 1802 Europe William Paley Publishes Natural Theology: Or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Jan., 1802 Europe Cobbett Founds the Political Register Mar. 16, 1802 North America U.S. Military Academy Is Established Mar. 24, 1802 Europe Trevithick Patents the High-Pressure Steam Engine Mar. 27, 1802 Europe Treaty of Amiens Between Britain and France Apr. 10, 1802 South Asia Lambton Begins Trigonometrical Survey of India May 19, 1802 Europe French Legion of Honor Is Established June, 1802-1820 Southeast Asia Emperor Gia Long Unites Vietnam 1803-1805 South Asia Britain Defeats Maratha Confederacy in Second Maratha War 1803-1808 Europe Dalton Formulates the Atomic Theory of Matter 1803-1812 Europe Elgin Ships Parthenon Marbles to England Feb. 24, 1803 North America Marbury v. Madison May 9, 1803 North America Louisiana Purchase Sept. 7, 1803 Australia Great Britain Begins Colonizing Tasmania Sept. 20, 1803 Europe Irish Rebel Robert Emmett Is Executed Sept. 23, 1803 South Asia Britain Defeats the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye (Second Maratha War) 1804 Europe British and Foreign Bible Society Is Founded 1804 Europe George Cayley Builds and Flies the First Fixed-Wing Glider 1804 Europe Saussure Publishes His Research on Plant Metabolism 1804 Africa Onset of the Fulani Jihad in Northern Nigeria 1804 East Asia Russian Envoy Unsuccessfully Attempts to Negotiate a Commercial Treaty with Japan Jan., 1804 North America Ohio Enacts the First Black Codes Feb. 14, 1804-1816 Europe Serbian Uprisings Against the Ottoman Empire Mar. 21, 1804 Europe The Napoleonic Code Becomes the Civil Law of France May 14, 1804-Sept. 23, 1806 North America Lewis and Clark Expedition May 18-July 9, 1804 North America Alexander von Humboldt visits the United States and President Thomas Jefferson July 11, 1804 North America Aaron Burr Kills Alexander Hamilton in a Duel Aug. 11, 1804-Mar. 2, 1835 Europe Reign of Emperor Francis I of Austria Sept. 25, 1804 North America Twelfth Amendment Is Ratified Dec. 2, 1804 Europe Bonaparte Is Crowned Napoleon I 1805 Europe Rockets Are First Used by the British Army 1805-1806 Africa Mungo Park Explores the Niger River 1805-1848 Africa/Middle East Muḥammad ՙAlī Pasha Establishes Egypt’s Independence from the Ottoman Empire Mar., 1805-Sept. 1, 1807 North America Burr’s Conspiracy Mar. 1, 1805 North America Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase Is Acquitted of Impeachment Charges Apr. 7, 1805 Europe Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony Introduces the Romantic Age May 4, 1805-1830 Africa Exploration of West Africa Oct. 21, 1805 Europe Battle of Trafalgar Dec. 2, 1805 Europe Battle of Austerlitz Dec. 26, 1805 Europe A Truce Between Austria and France Will Lead to the Treaty of Pressburg 1806 Europe Napoleon I Dissolves the Holy Roman Empire and Forms the Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1820 Caribbean/West Indies Civil War in Haiti Mar. 29, 1806 North America Authorization of the Cumberland Road, the First U.S. Federal Highway June 5, 1806 Europe Napoleon Appoints Louis Bonaparte King of Holland July 15, 1806-July 1, 1807 North America Pike Explores the American Southwest Oct. 12-14, 1806 Europe French Victories in the Simultaneous Battles of Jena and Auerstadt (Napoleonic Wars) Nov. 21, 1806 Europe Napoleon Proclaims the Berlin Decrees, Banning Trade with Britain 1807 Africa Ashanti Empire Invades Fante Territory in the Gold Coast 1807 Europe Bowdler Publishes The Family Shakespeare 1807 Europe Jacques-Louis David completes The Coronation of Napoleon 1807 Europe First Ascot Gold Cup in Horse Racing 1807 Europe Ottoman Sultan Selim III Is Deposed 1807 Europe William Wordsworth Publishes “Ode: Intimations of Immortality” 1807-1834 Europe Publication of the Multivolume Voyage aux régions équixoxiales du Nouveau Continent, Describing the Explorations of Humboldt and Bonpland 1807-1834 Europe Moore Publishes Irish Melodies 1807-1850 North America Rise of the Knickerbocker School Mar. 2, 1807 North America Congress Bans Importation of African Slaves Mar. 25, 1807 Europe British Slave Trade Is Ended by Parliament Mar. 25, 1807 Europe England’s Oystermouth Railway Becomes the World’s First Railway to Carry Passengers Apr., 1807 Europe Hegel Publishes The Phenomenology of Spirit June 13-14, 1807 Europe France Triumphs over Russia in the Battle of Friedland (Wars of Napoleon) June 22, 1807 North America Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Leads to Public Outrage in the United States July 7-9, 1807 Europe France, Prussia, and Russia Conclude the Peace of Tilsit, Creating the Grand Duchy of Warsaw Aug. 17, 1807 North America Maiden Voyage of the Clermont Oct. 9, 1807 Europe Serfdom Is Abolished in Prussia Dec. 27, 1807-Mar. 1, 1809 North America Jefferson’s Embargo Act Cripples American Trade 1808 Europe The Academy of Fine Arts Founded in Munich 1808 Africa The Fulani Invade Bornu 1808 Europe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Publishes Faust, Part 1 1808-Dec. 3, 1810 South Asia The British Siege of Mauritius Leads to Its Occupation 1808-1821 South America/Europe Rio de Janeiro Serves as Capital of the Portuguese Empire 1808-1826 Middle East Ottomans Suppress the Janissary Revolt 1808-1826 South America South American Wars of Independence Jan. 26, 1808 Australia Rum Rebellion in New South Wales Feb. 2, 1808 Europe French Troops Occupy the Papal States Feb. 21, 1808-Sept., 1809 Europe Russo-Finnish War Mar. 26, 1808 Europe Charles IV of Spain Abdicates in Favor of Ferdinand VII Apr., 1808 North America Tenskwatawa Founds Prophetstown Apr. 6, 1808 North America American Fur Company Is Chartered May 2, 1808 Europe Dos de Mayo Insurrection in Spain May 2, 1808-Nov., 1813 Europe Peninsular War in Spain June 15, 1808-Aug. 17, 1808, Dec. 20, 1808-Feb. 20, 1809 Europe France Seizes Spanish Fortress in the Siege of Saragossa (Wars of Napoleon) July 5, 1808 South America Spain Forces Britain to Evacuate the Rio de la Plata Region in the Battle of Buenos Aries (Wars of Napoleon) Oct. 2, 1808 Europe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Napoleon Bonaparte Meet at the Congress of Erfurt Nov. 15, 1808-July 1, 1839 Europe Reign of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire Dec. 22, 1808 Europe Ludwig van Beethoven Conducts His Fifth and Sixth Symphonies and Piano Concerto No. 5 in Vienna 1809 Europe Lamarck Publishes Zoological Philosophy 1809 Europe Marie Madeline Sophie Blanchard Becomes the First Woman to Die in Flight 1809-1811 Arctic Matvey Gedenshrom and P. Pshenitsin Map the New Siberian Islands Jan. 16, 1809 Europe British Gain Foothold in Spain at the Battle of Corunna (Wars of Napoleon) Feb. 3, 1809 North America Illinois Territory Is Created Mar. 4, 1809-Mar. 3, 1817 North America U.S. Presidency of James Madison May 12, 1809 Europe British Troops Drive the French from Oporto (Wars of Napoleon) May 21, 1809 Europe Dartmoor Prison Opens in England July 5-6, 1809 Europe French Victory in the Battle of Wagram Effectively Ends the Fifth Coalition July 6, 1809 Europe French Troops Arrest Pope Pius VII July 16, 1809 South America Pedro Domingo Murillo Leads the Revolt of Upper Peru July 28, 1809 Europe Tactical but Indecisive Victory for the British at the Battle of Talavera (Wars of Napoleon) Aug. 10, 1809 South America Ecuador Declares Independence from Spain Aug. 11, 1809 Europe Earthquake Sinks the Azores Village of S{atilde}o Miguel Sept. 18, 1809 Europe Royal Opera House Opens in London 1810 Pacific Islands Kamehameha I Unifies the Hawaiian Islands, Becoming Hawaii’s First King Jan. 10, 1810 Europe Napoleon Marries Marie-Louise of Austria Mar. 16, 1810 North America Fletcher v. Peck Apr. 19, 1810 South America Spanish Governor Is Expelled from Venezuela Apr. 27, 1810 Europe Beethoven Composes Für Elise May 25, 1810 South America Spanish Viceroy Is Expelled from Buenos Aries July 20, 1810 South America First Representative Council in Colombia Resists Spanish Authority Sept. 8, 1810-May, 1812 North America Astorian Expeditions Explore the Pacific Northwest Coast Sept. 16, 1810 North America Hidalgo Issues El Grito de Dolores Sept. 16, 1810-Sept. 28, 1821 North America Mexican War of Independence Sept. 18, 1810 South America Chilean National Junta Forms Oct. 27, 1810 North America United States Annexes West Florida from Spain 1811 South America José Gervasio Artigas Launches Uruguayan Revolt Against Spain 1811-1818 Middle East Egypt Fights the Wahh{amacr}bīs 1811-1840 North America Construction of the National Road Jan. 8, 1811 North America Charles Deslandes (or Deslonde) Leads an Unsuccessful Slave Revolt in Louisiana Mar. 1, 1811 Africa Muḥammad ՙAlī Has the Maml{umacr}ks Massacred Mar. 11, 1811-1816 Europe Luddites Destroy Industrial Machines Mar. 25, 1811 Europe First Sighting of the Great Comet of 1811 May 14, 1811 South America Paraguay Overthrows Local Spanish Leaders and Declares Independence Sept., 1811 Europe First Rosh Hoshanna Kibbutz to the Grave of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov Sept. 20, 1811 Europe Krupp Works Open at Essen Nov. 7, 1811 North America Battle of Tippecanoe Nov. 16, 1811 North America New Madrid Earthquake Reverses the Course of the Mississippi River 1812 North America A Disguised Lucy Brewer Enlists as a Marine 1812-1815 Europe Brothers Grimm Publish Fairy Tales Feb. 2, 1812 North America Russia Establishes a Fur Trading Post at Fort Ross, California Mar. 22, 1812 Africa Burckhardt Discovers Egypt’s Abu Simbel Mar. 26, 1812 South America Earthquake Destroys Caracas, Venezuela May 28, 1812 Europe Treaty of Bucharest Grants Bessarabia to Russia June 18, 1812-Dec. 24, 1814 North America War of 1812 June 23-Dec. 14, 1812 Europe Napoleon Invades Russia July 12, 1812 North America U.S. Invasion of Canada July 22, 1812 Europe Battle of Salamanca Aug. 19, 1812 North America USS Constitution Defeats British Frigate Guerriere off Nova Scotia Sept. 7, 1812 Europe Battle of Borodino Sept. 14, 1812 Europe Russians Burn Moscow as Napoleon Approaches the City Oct. 19, 1812 Europe Napoleon Begins His Retreat from Moscow 1813 North America Founding of McGill University 1813 Europe Founding of the London Philharmonic Society 1813 Europe Founder of Toxicology Mathieu Orfila Publishes A General System of Toxicology: Or, A Treatise on Poisons Mar., 1813-Dec. 9, 1824 South America Bolívar’s Military Campaigns May, 1813 Australia Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson, and William Wentworth Cross the Blue Mountains of Australia May 2, 1813 Europe Napoleon Forces Allies to Withdraw at the Battle of Lutzen (Wars of Napoleon) June 21, 1813 Europe The French Are Routed and Driven Back Across the Pyrenees at the Battle of Vitoria (Wars of Napoleon) July 12, 1813 Europe Sectarian Riots in Belfast July 27, 1813-Aug. 9, 1814 North America Creek War Aug. 26-27, 1813 Europe A Brilliant Tactical Victory for Napoleon at the Battle of Dresden (Wars of Napoleon) Sept. 10, 1813 North America American Fleet Destroys an English Flotilla at the Battle of Lake Erie (War of 1812) Oct. 5, 1813 North America Battle of the Thames Oct. 16-19, 1813 Europe Battle of Leipzig Nov. 5, 1813 Middle East Treaty of Gulestan Ends a Russo-Persian War and Consolidates Russia’s Position in the Caucasus 1814 South America Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo Are Transferred from Holland to Britain, Becoming British Guiana 1814 Europe Fraunhofer Invents the Spectroscope 1814 Europe Scott Publishes Waverley 1814-Sept. 20, 1840 South America Personal Rule of José Gaspar Rodríguez Francia in Paraguay 1814-1879 Middle East Exploration of Arabia Jan. 14, 1814 Europe Denmark Cedes Norway to Sweden in Return for Pomerania Feb. 21, 1814 Europe The Great Stock Exchange Hoax Mar., 1814 Europe Goya Paints Third of May 1808: Execution of the Citizens of Madrid Spring, 1814-1830 North America Communitarian Experiments at New Harmony Mar. 27, 1814 North America Andrew Jackson Defeats Creek and Cherokee Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (War of 1812) Apr. 11, 1814-July 29, 1830 Europe France’s Bourbon Dynasty Is Restored May 2, 1814-Sept. 16, 1824 Europe Reign of King Louis XVIII of France Aug. 13, 1814 Africa Britain Acquires the Cape Colony Sept. 6-11, 1814 North America Americans Force British to Withdraw in the Battle of Lake Champlain, or Plattsburgh (War of 1812) Sept. 14, 1814 North America Francis Scott Key Writes “The Star-Spangled Banner” Sept. 15, 1814-June 11, 1815 Europe Congress of Vienna Dec. 15, 1814-Jan. 5, 1815 North America Hartford Convention 1815 Southeast Asia Britain Restores Java to the Netherlands 1815 Europe The Netherlands Is Granted Sovereignty over Belgium and Luxembourg 1815 South Asia Second Kandyan War Ends Sri Lankan Independence c. 1815-1830 North America Westward American Migration Begins c. 1815-1848 Europe Biedermeier Furniture Style Becomes Popular c. 1815-1930 North America Almost 5 Million European Immigrants Arrive in Canada c. 1815-1930 South America More than 6 Million European Immigrants Arrive in Argentina c. 1815-1930 North America More than 32 Million European Immigrants Arrive in the United States Jan. 8, 1815 North America Battle of New Orleans Feb. 17, 1815 North America Treaty of Ghent Takes Effect Feb. 17, 1815-May 6, 1816 South America Spanish Reconquest of New Granada Mar. 20, 1815 Europe Napoleon Reenters Paris After His Escape from Elba Apr. 5, 1815 Southeast Asia Tambora Volcano Begins Violent Eruption June 1, 1815-Aug., 1817 North America Red River Raids June 8-9, 1815 Europe Organization of the German Confederation June 18, 1815 Europe Battle of Waterloo Sept. 26, 1815 Europe Russia, Austria, and Prussia Conclude the Holy Alliance as a Defense Against European Revolution Oct. 15, 1815 Europe Napoleon Begins Exile on St. Helena Nov. 20, 1815 Europe Second Peace of Paris Dec. 16, 1815 South America/Europe Brazil Is Integrated into the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve 1816 Europe Blackwood’s Magazine Is Founded 1816 Africa Britain Establishes Banjul as an Anti-Slaving Port in The Gambia 1816 Europe Laënnec Invents the Stethoscope 1816-1825 Europe Reign of Ferdinand I as King of the Two Sicilies 1816-1837 East Asia Reign of Tsultrim Gyatso as Tenth Dalai Lama in Tibet Feb. 20, 1816 Europe Rossini’s The Barber of Seville Debuts Apr., 1816 North America Second Bank of the United States Is Chartered Apr. 9, 1816 North America African Methodist Episcopal Church Is Founded May 8, 1816 North America American Bible Society Is Founded June 19, 1816 North America Metis Uprising Against the North West Company Leaves Twenty-One Dead at Seven Oaks (Manitoba, Canada) July 9, 1816 South America Argentina Gains Independence from Spain Dec., 1816 Europe Rise of the Cockney School 1817 Europe Ricardo Identifies Seven Key Economic Principles 1817 North America Rush-Bagot Agreement Limits the Number of Battleships on the Great Lakes c. 1817-1828 Africa Zulu Expansion 1817-1861 Africa Missionary Robert Moffat Explores Southern Africa as Far North as Zimbabwe Jan. 18, 1817-July 28, 1821 South America San Martín’s Military Campaigns Feb. 12, 1817 South America Chilean Victory over Spanish Royalists at the Battle of Chacabuco (Latin American Wars of Independence) Mar. 4, 1817-Mar. 3, 1825 North America U.S. Presidency of James Monroe Nov. 5, 1817-June 3, 1818 South Asia Third Maratha War Nov. 21, 1817-Mar. 27, 1858 North America Seminole Wars 1818 Europe/North America The Black Ball Line of Sailing Packets Begins Regular Liverpool-New York Service 1818 Europe The Prado Museum Is Founded in Madrid 1818 Africa Seku Amadu Launches Jihad Against the Bambara Empire 1818-1829 Australia Allan Cunningham Explores East Central Australia 1818-1854 Arctic Search for the Northwest Passage Feb. 12, 1818 South America Chile Proclaims Its Independence of Spain Mar. 11, 1818 Europe Mary Shelley Publishes Frankenstein: Or, The Modern Prometheus Apr. 5, 1818 South America Battle of Maipo Secures Chilean Independence Oct. 20, 1818 North America U.S.-British Convention Establishes U.S. Boundary with Canada Dec. 24, 1818 Europe Franz Gruber and Joseph Mohn Compose “Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,” Which Becomes the Christmas Carol “Silent Night” 1819 Europe John Kidd Extracts Naphthalene from Coal Tar 1819 Europe Schopenhauer Publishes The World as Will and Idea 1819-1820 North America Irving’s Sketch Book Transforms American Literature 1819-1820 North America Washington Irving’s “Rip Van Winkle” Is Published 1819-1833 Europe Babbage Designs a Mechanical Calculator Jan. 29-Feb. 7, 1819 Europe Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Lays the Foundation for a British Colony at Singapore Feb. 22, 1819 North America Adams-Onís Treaty Gives the United States Florida Mar. 6, 1819 North America McCulloch v. Maryland May, 1819 North America Unitarian Church Is Founded May 22-June 20, 1819 North America/Europe Savannah Is the First Steamship to Cross the Atlantic Aug. 7, 1819 South America Simón Bolívar Leads Colombian Patriots to Victory in the Battle of Boyacá (Latin American Wars of Independence) Aug. 16, 1819 Europe Peterloo Massacre in England Dec. 11-30, 1819 Europe British Parliament Passes the Six Acts Dec. 17, 1819 South America Congress of Angostura Establishes Independence of Gran Colombia from Spain 1820’s East Asia China’s Stele School of Calligraphy Emerges 1820’s-1830’s North America Free Public School Movement 1820’s-1850’s North America Social Reform Movement 1820 South America Argentina Establishes a Penal Colony on the Falkland Islands 1820 Pacific Islands Development of Whaling Industry in the North Pacific 1820 Europe Jesuits Are Expelled from Russia, Naples, and Spain 1820 Middle East Peace Treaty Ends Piracy in the Persian Gulf 1820 Europe Karl Ritter Assumes the first Europe University Professorship in Geography in Berlin and Begins to Establish the Connection Between Geography and Human History 1820-1841 Southeast Asia Reign of Emperor Minh Mang in Vietnam 1820-early 1840’s AntarcticaEuropeans Explore the Antarctic c. 1820-1860 South America Costumbrismo Movement 1820-1864 Africa The Fulani Expand the Islamic Empire Jan., 1820 Antarctica Fabian Bellingshausen Sights the Landmass of Antarctica Jan., 1820-Aug. 31, 1823 Europe Spanish Civil War Jan. 29, 1820-June 26, 1830 Europe Reign of King George IV of Great Britain Feb. 6, 1820 North America/Africa African American Settlers Sail from New York to Freetown, Sierra Leone Feb. 23, 1820 Europe London’s Cato Street Conspirators Plot Assassinations Mar. 3, 1820 North America Missouri Compromise Apr., 1820 Europe Hans Christian {Oslash}rsted Discovers the Relationship Between Magnetism and Electricity Apr., 1820 Europe Scottish Insurrection Apr. 24, 1820 North America Congress Passes Land Act of 1820 July 2, 1820-Mar., 1821 Europe Neapolitan Revolution Aug. 24-Sept. 15, 1820 Europe Constitutionalist Revolts in Portugal Oct. 3, 1820-Feb. 25, 1850 East Asia Reign of the Daoguang Emperor of China Oct. 20-Nov. 19, 1820 Europe At the Congress of Troppau, Russia, Prussia, and Austria Agree on Armed Intervention Against Republican Movements Nov. 6, 1820 Europe Ampère Reveals Magnetism’s Relationship to Electricity 1821 Europe Manchester Guardian Is Founded in England 1821-1824 North America Lachine Canal Is Built in Canada Mar. 7, 1821-Sept. 29, 1829 Europe Greeks Fight for Independence from the Ottoman Empire June 24, 1821 South America Battle of Carabobo Establishes the Independence of Colombia July 28, 1821 South America Peru Declares Independence from Spain Sept., 1821 North America Santa Fe Trail Opens 1822 Central America El Salvador Petitions the United States for Statehood 1822 Africa Liberia Is Founded as a Home for Freed Slaves 1822 Europe Britain’s Royal Academy of Music Is Founded 1822-1824 Europe Jean-François Champollion Translates the First Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Rosetta Stone 1822-1827 Africa Hugh Clapperton Explores the Sahara, Reaching Sokoto 1822-1831 North America Jedediah Smith Explores the Far West 1822-1874 Africa Exploration of North Africa Feb. 9, 1822 Caribbean/West Indies Haiti Invades Santo Domingo May 24, 1822 South America Victory by Revolutionaries in the Battle of Pichincha Establishes Ecuadoran Independence (Latin American Wars of Independence) May 30, 1822 North America Denmark’s Vesey Slave Uprising Is Thwarted July 27, 1822 South America Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín Meet in Guayaquil Sept. 7, 1822 South America Brazil Becomes Independent Oct. 20-30, 1822 Europe Great Britain Withdraws from the Concert of Europe Oct. 22, 1822-Apr. 7, 1831 South America Reign of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil 1823-1826 Australia John Oxley Surveys Much of What Becomes New South Wales 1823-1831 East Asia Hokusai Produces Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji May, 1823 North America Hartford Female Seminary Is Founded July, 1823-1840 Central America United Provinces of Central America Experiment with Republican Democracy July 24, 1823 South America Patriot Forces Establish Venezuelan Independence at the Battle of Lake Maracaibo (Latin American Wars of Independence) Oct. 5, 1823 Europe Wakley Introduces The Lancet Dec. 2, 1823 North America President Monroe Articulates the Monroe Doctrine 1824 Europe British Parliament Repeals the Combination Acts 1824 East Asia Ferdinand von Wrangel Maps the Northeastern Coast of Siberia 1824 Europe Lord Byron Is Killed During the Greek War for Independence from Turkey 1824 Europe Paris Salon of 1824 1824 Europe Ranke Develops Systematic History 1824-1826 Southeast Asia First Anglo-Burmese War 1824-1829 North America First Welland Canal Built in Canada Feb. 20, 1824 Europe Buckland Presents the First Public Dinosaur Description Mar. 2, 1824 North America Gibbons v. Ogden Mar. 11, 1824 North America U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs Is Created as Part of the War Department Mar. 17, 1824 Europe Anglo-Dutch Treaty Resolves Lingering Colonial Differences May 7, 1824 Europe First Performance of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony Sept. 16, 1824-Aug. 2, 1830 Europe Reign of King Charles X of France Oct. 21, 1824 Europe Joseph Aspdin Patents Portland Cement Nov. 5, 1824 North America Rensselaer School Becomes the First Technological University in the English-Speaking World Dec. 1, 1824-Feb. 9, 1825 North America U.S. Election of 1824 Dec. 9, 1824 South America Patriot Victory at the Battle of Ayachuco Assures Peruvian Independence (Latin American Wars of Independence) 1825 North America Commonwealth v. Blanding 1825 Africa Egypt Founds Khartoum at the Confluence of the Blue and White Nile Rivers 1825 Europe Great Britain Repeals Laws Prohibiting Emigration, Leading to a Major Movement of Immigrants from England and Ireland 1825-1830 Southeast Asia Great Java War Mar. 4, 1825-Mar. 3, 1829 North America U.S. Presidency of John Quincy Adams Aug. 25, 1825-Aug. 27, 1828 South America Uruguay Gains Independence from Brazil Sept. 27, 1825 Europe Stockton and Darlington Railway Opens Oct. 26, 1825 North America Erie Canal Opens Dec. 1, 1825-Mar. 2, 1855 Europe Reign of Czar Nicholas I of Russia Dec. 26, 1825 Europe Decembrist Revolt 1826 Europe Construction of the Menai Strait Bridge off the Northwest Coast of Wales c. 1826-1827 Europe First Meetings of the Plymouth Brethren 1826-1840 Central America Civil Wars of the Central American Federation 1826-1842 Europe Young Germany Movement Feb. 11, 1826 Europe The University of London Is Founded Feb. 13, 1826 North America The American Temperance Society Is Established Apr. 1, 1826 Europe Samuel Morey Patents One of the First Internal Combustion Engines July 16, 1826-Feb. 2, 1828 Middle East Russo-Persian War Extends Russian Influence in the Caucusus Aug. 18, 1826 Africa Alexander Gordon Laing Is the First European to Reach Timbuktu 1827 North America First African American Newspaper, Freedom’s Journal, Is Published in New York Mar. 7, 1827 Europe Edward Gibbon Wakefield Abducts Wealth Heiress Ellen Turner 1828 Africa Basel Mission to the Gold Coast 1828 South Asia Ram Mohan Roy founds Brahmo Samaj, the Western-Influence Society of God 1828-1834 Europe Portugal’s Miguelite Wars 1828-1842 Europe Arnold Reforms Rugby School Jan. 22, 1828 Europe Duke of Wellington Becomes Britain’s Prime Minister Feb. 21, 1828 North America Cherokee Phoenix Begins Publication Feb. 21, 1828 Middle East Turkmanchai Treaty with Persia Grants Russian Control Over Armenia and Azerbaijan Apr. 26, 1828-Aug. 28, 1829 Europe Second Russo-Turkish War May 9, 1828-Apr. 13, 1829 Europe Roman Catholic Emancipation May 26, 1828 Europe Discover of the Feral Child, Kaspar Hausser, in Nuremberg, Germany Sept. 22, 1828 Africa Shaka Zulu Is Assassinated Sept. 29, 1828 Europe Russia Captures the Ottoman City of Varna Nov., 1828 North America Webster Publishes the First American Dictionary of English Dec. 3, 1828 North America U.S. Election of 1828 1829 Europe George Stephenson Builds the Steam Locomotive Rocket 1829 Europe Louis Braille Invents Printing for the Blind 1829 North America Mexico Abolishes Slavery 1829 Europe First Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race 1829 Europe Sir Charles Wheatstone Patents the Concertina 1829-1836 Europe/North America Irish Immigration to Canada 1829-1848 Europe Honoré de Balzac Publishes La Comédie humanine (The Human Comedy) 1829-1852 South America Leadership of Juan Manuel de Rosas in Argentina Mar. 4, 1829-Mar. 3, 1837 North America U.S. Presidency of Andrew Jackson June 5, 1829 Caribbean/West Indies HMS Pickle Captures the Slaver Voladora off the Coast of Cuba July 23, 1829 North America William Burt Obtains a Patent for the Typographer, an Early Typewriter Sept. 24, 1829 Europe Treaty of Adrianople Oct. 1, 1829 Africa University of Cape Town Is Founded Dec. 4, 1829 South Asia British Abolish Suttee in India c. 1830’s-1860’s North America American Renaissance in Literature 1830’s-1840’s Pacific Islands Scientists Study Remains of Giant Moas 1830 Australia Charles Sturt Explores the Murray River System 1830 Europe Gibraltar Becomes a Colony of Britain 1830 Europe Joseph Whitworth Develops the Standard Screw Gauge 1830-1831 Europe/North America Joseph Henry and Michael Faraday Independently Discover Electromagnetic Induction 1830-1842 North America Trail of Tears c. 1830-1865 North America Southerners Advance Proslavery Arguments c. 1830-1870 Europe Barbizon School of Landscape Painting Flourishes Jan. 7, 1830 North America Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Opens Jan. 19-27, 1830 North America Webster and Hayne Debate Slavery and Westward Expansion Mar. 3, 1830 Europe Hugo’s Hernani Incites Rioting Apr. 6, 1830 North America Smith Founds the Mormon Church May 13, 1830 South America Ecuador Separates from Gran Colombia May 28, 1830 North America Congress Passes Indian Removal Act June 14-July 5, 1830 Africa France Conquers Algeria June 26, 1830-June 20, 1837 Europe Reign of King William IV of Great Britain July, 1830 Europe Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Is Appointed French Ambassador to England July, 1830 Europe Lyell Publishes Principles of Geology July 17, 1830 Europe In France, Barthélemy Thimonnier Is Granted a Patent for His Sewing Machine July 29, 1830 Europe July Revolution Deposes Charles X Aug. 9, 1830-Feb. 24, 1848 Europe Reign of Louis-Phillipe, the Citizen King of France Aug. 25, 1830-May 21, 1833 Europe Belgian Revolution Sept. 15, 1830 Europe Liverpool and Manchester Railway Opens Oct.-Dec., 1830 Europe Delacroix Paints Liberty Leading the People Nov., 1830-Oct., 1865 Europe Prominence of Lord Palmerston as British Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister Nov. 8, 1830-May 22, 1859 Europe Ferdinand II Reigns over the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Nov. 29, 1830-Aug. 15, 1831 Europe First Polish Rebellion Dec. 5, 1830 Europe Hector Berlioz Premiers Symphonie phantastique in Paris Dec. 20, 1830 Europe Recognition of Belgian Independence by the European Powers 1831 North America Female Literary Association Formed in Philadelphia 1831 Europe Mazzini Founds Young Italy 1831 Middle East Muḥammad ՙAlī Pasha Conquers Syria 1831 Africa Brothers Richard and John Lander Explore the Course of the Lower Niger River 1831-1834 East Asia Hiroshige Completes The Tokaido Fifty-Three Stations 1831-1846 Australia Thomas Mitchell’s Explorations Lead to the Rapid Expansion of Pastoralism in the Australian Interior Jan. 1, 1831 North America Garrison Begins Publishing The Liberator Feb.-Mar., 1831 Europe Liberal Revolts Against Austria Throughout Central and Northern Italy Feb. 2, 1831-June 1, 1846 Europe Pontificate of Pope Gregory XVI Feb. 14, 1831 Africa Ethiopian Crown Beats Back a Rebellion in the Battle of Debre Abbay (Ethiopian Civil War) Mar. 10, 1831 Europe Founding of the French Foreign Legion Mar. 18, 1831, and Mar. 3, 1832 North America Cherokee Cases Apr. 7, 1831-Dec. 5, 1891 South America Reign of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil Apr. 11, 1831 South America Mass Killing of Charrua Indians at Salsipuedes May, 1831-Feb., 1832 North America Tocqueville Visits America Summer, 1831 North America McCormick Invents the Reaper Aug. 21, 1831 North America Turner Launches Slave Insurrection Oct., 1831 Europe Faraday Converts Magnetic Force into Electricity Dec. 27, 1831-Oct. 2, 1836 South America Charles Darwin Voyages Around the World on HMS Beagle 1832 Central America Anastasio Aquino Leads an Indigenous Revolt Against Creoles and Mestizos in El Salvador 1832-1841 Middle East Turko-Egyptian Wars 1832-1847 Africa Abdelkader Leads Algeria Against France Feb. 12, 1832 Europe Cholera Epidemic Claims Three Thousand Lives in London Feb. 12, 1832 South America Ecuador Annexes the Galápagos Islands Mar. 12, 1832 Europe La Sylphide Inaugurates Romantic Ballet’s Golden Age May 7, 1832 Europe The Prince of Bavaria Is Chosen as King of the Newly Established Kingdom of Greece June 4, 1832 Europe British Parliament Passes the Reform Act of 1832 June 15, 1832 Middle East Egyptian Forces Seize Damascus July 10, 1832 North America Jackson Vetoes Rechartering of the Bank of the United States Nov. 24, 1832-Jan. 21, 1833 North America Nullification Controversy Dec. 4-23, 1832 Europe The Netherlands Loses Antwerp to French Attack (War of Belgian Independence) 1833 Europe British Parliament Passes the Factory Act 1833 North America Lucretia Mott Founds the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society Jan., 1833 South America Great Britain Occupies the Falkland Islands May 16, 1833-Aug. 9, 1855 North America Political Influence of Antonio López de Santa Anna in Mexico July 14, 1833 Europe Oxford Movement Begins Aug. 28, 1833 World Slavery Is Abolished Throughout the British Empire Aug. 29, 1833 Europe British Parliament Passes the Factory Act, Limiting Child Labor Sept. 3, 1833 North America Birth of the Penny Press Sept. 29, 1833-1849 Europe Carlist Wars Unsettle Spain Dec., 1833 North America American Anti-Slavery Society Is Founded Dec. 3, 1833 North America Oberlin College Opens 1834 Europe Composer Hector Berlioz Completes His Symphony Harold en Italie (Harold in Italy) Jan. 1, 1834 Europe German States Join to Form Customs Union Apr. 14, 1834 North America Clay Begins American Whig Party Aug. 14, 1834 Europe British Parliament Passes New Poor Law Oct. 14, 1834 North America Blair Patents His First Seed Planter 1835 North America Finney Lectures on “Revivals of Religion” 1835 Europe Gaetano Donizetti’s Opera Lucia di Lammermoor Premiers in Naples 1835 Africa South Africa’s Great Trek Begins 1835-1836 Europe Strauss Publishes The Life of Jesus Critically Examined 1835-1845 South America Brazilian Antiregency Uprisings 1835-1848 North America Newspaper Owner Joseph Howe Advocates Responsible Government for Canada 1835-1863 South Asia Reign of Dost Mohammed as Emir in Afghanistan Jan., 1835-July, 1836 North America Construction of Canada’s First Railway Jan. 30, 1835 North America Unsuccessful Assassination Attempt Against U.S. President Andrew Jackson Mar. 2, 1835 Europe Reign of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria May 5, 1835 Europe First Railway in Continental Europe Opens in Belgium May 8, 1835 Europe Andersen Publishes His First Fairy Tales Aug. 16, 1835 Australia Melbourne, Australia, Is Founded Sept. 7, 1835 South America Charles Darwin Arrives in the Galápagos Islands Aboard HMS Beagle Sept. 9, 1835 Europe British Parliament Passes Municipal Corporations Act Oct. 2, 1835-Apr. 21, 1836 North America Texas Revolution Dec. 7, 1835 Europe First German Railway Opens 1836 North America Angelina Grimké’s Appeal to the Christian Women of the South Urges Women to Protest Slavery 1836 Europe Architect Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin Publishes Contrasts: Or, A Parallel Between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries and Similar Buildings of the Present 1836 North America First Chartered Women’s College, Wesleyan College, Opens in Macon, Georgia 1836 North America Transcendental Movement Arises in New England Feb. 23-Mar. 6, 1836 North America Texans Slow Mexican Troops but Are Defeated at the Siege of the Alamo (Texas War of Independence) Feb. 25, 1836 North America Colt Patents the Revolver Mar. 2, 1836 North America Texas Declares Its Independence of Mexico Apr. 21, 1836 North America Texans Rout Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto (Texas War of Independence) July 21, 1836 North America Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad Opens Oct. 28, 1836-Feb. 20, 1839 South America Peru-Bolivian Confederation Dec. 28, 1836 Australia Colony of South Australia Is Proclaimed 1837 North America John Deere Develops a Steel Plow 1837-1853 East Asia Shogunate of Tokugawa Ieyoshi in Japan Jan. 4, 1837 Europe Charles Darwin Presents Bird and Mammal Specimens from the Beagle Voyage to the Zoological Society in London Jan. 12, 1837 Europe Mazzini Begins London Exile Mar. 4, 1837-Mar. 3, 1841 North America U.S. Presidency of Martin Van Buren Mar. 17, 1837 North America Panic of 1837 Begins June 11, 1837 North America Broad Street Riot in Boston June 20, 1837-Jan. 22, 1901 Europe Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain Oct. 23-Dec. 16, 1837 North America Rebellions Rock British Canada Nov. 8, 1837 North America Mt. Holyoke Seminary Opens Nov. 25, 1837 North American Patriote Louis-Joseph Papineau Flees to the United States to Avoid Arrest 1838 North America France Blockades Mexico During the Pastry War 1838 Africa James Wellsted Charts the Omani Coast 1838 East Asia Nakayama Miki Founds the Tenri Sect in Japan 1838 Europe The National Gallery Opens in London 1838-1839 North America Aroostook War 1838-1839 Europe Schwann and Virchow Develop Cell Theory Apr. 4-23, 1838 Europe The Sirius and the Great Western Make the First All-Steam Transatlantic Voyages May 8, 1838-Apr. 10, 1848 Europe Chartist Movement June 28, 1838 Europe Queen Victoria’s Coronation Sept. 28, 1838-1858 South Asia Reign of Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II of India Nov. 3, 1838 South Asia The Bombay Times and the Journal of Commerce Are Founded Dec. 16, 1838 Africa Trekking Boers Beat Back the Zulu at the Battle of Blood River (South African Frontier Wars) 1839 Europe Blanc Publishes The Organization of Labour 1839 Europe Daguerre and Niépce Invent Daguerreotype Photography 1839 North America Lord Durham Recommends the Assimilation of French-Speaking Canadians 1839 North America Mississippi Passes First Married Women’s Property Act 1839-1842 South Asia First Afghan War 1839-1847 Middle East Layard Explores and Excavates Assyrian Ruins Jan. 19, 1839 Middle East Britain Annexes Aden Jan. 20, 1839 South America Chilean Army Defeats Peruvian-Bolivian Coalition in the Battle of Yungay (Chilean Recovery Expedition) Mar. 26, 1839 Europe First Staging of the Henley Royal Regatta Apr. 9, 1839 Europe First Commercial Electric Telegraph Line Opens in England Apr. 19, 1839 Europe Treaty of London Establishes the Independence of Belgium June 22, 1839 Europe Louis Daguerre Receives Patent for His Camera July 1, 1839-June 25, 1861 Europe Reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid of the Ottoman Empire, Who Begins the Tanzimat Program of Modernization July 2, 1839 North America Amistad Slave Revolt Sept., 1839-Aug. 29, 1842 East Asia First Opium War Oct. 3, 1839 Europe First Railway Opens on the Italian Peninsula Nov., 1839 Central America Stephens Begins Uncovering Mayan Antiquities Nov. 25, 1839 South Asia Giant Cyclone Kills 300,000 in India 1840’s-1850’s North America American Era of “Old” Immigration 1840’s-1880’s Europe Russian Realist Movement 1840 North America Catherine Brewer Becomes the First Woman to Graduate from College in the United States 1840 Europe The Cunard Line Is Founded, Becoming One of the Largest Carriers of Transatlantic Immigrants 1840 North America The First Issue of the Lowell Offering Is Published 1840 Europe The First Photograph of the Moon Is Taken 1840 Antarctica French Expedition Nears the South Magnetic Pole 1840 Europe Liebig Advocates Artificial Fertilizers 1840 Europe Max Schneckenburger writes Die Wacht am Rhine (The Watch on the Rhine) 1840 Middle East/Africa Omani Ruler Imam Sayyid Said Transfers Capital to Zanzibar 1840-Sept. 10, 1862 South America Political Influence of Carlos Antonio López in Paraguay Jan. 10, 1840 Europe Great Britain Establishes Penny Postage Jan. 19, 1840 Antarctica American Captain Charles Wilkes Claims Wilkes Land for the United States Jan. 22, 1840 Pacific Islands British Colonists Reach New Zealand, Establishing Wellington Feb. 6, 1840 Pacific Islands Treaty of Waitaingi Grants British Sovereignty in New Zealand Apr. 27, 1840-Feb., 1852 Europe British Houses of Parliament Are Rebuilt May 7, 1840 North America Great Natchez Tornado Kills 317 in Mississippi Sept. 10, 1840 Middle East Anglo-Ottoman Force Bombards Egyptians in Beirut Dec. 2, 1840 North America U.S. Election of 1840 1841 Australia Edward John Eyre Completes the First Transcontinental Journey Across Australia Jan., 1841 Antarctica James Ross Forces a Passage Through Antarctic Pack Ice Jan. 26, 1841 East Asia British Troops Occupy Hong Kong (First Opium War) Feb. 10, 1841 North America Upper and Lower Canada Unite Mar. 4, 1841-Apr. 4, 1841 North America U.S. Presidnecy of William Henry Harrison Apr. 4, 1841-Mar. 3, 1845 North America U.S. Presidency of John Tyler Sept. 4, 1841 North America Congress Passes Preemption Act of 1841 Sept. 24, 1841 Southeast Asia Britain Annexes Sarawak 1842 Europe Charles James Apperley (Nimrod) Publishes The Life of a Sportsman 1842 Europe Giuseppe Verdi’s Nationalistic Opera Nabucco Debuts 1842 Europe Tennyson Publishes “Morte d’Arthur” 1842 East Asia Treaty of Nanking Opens British Trade to Chinese Ports Mar., 1842 North America Commonwealth v. Hunt Mar. 5, 1842 North America Mexican Troops Briefly Invade the Republic of Texas May, 1842-1854 North America Frémont Explores the American West May 14, 1842 Europe First Edition of the Illustrated London News May 18, 1842 North America Rhode Island’s Dorr Rebellion Aug. 9, 1842 North America Webster-Ashburton Treaty Settles Maine’s Canadian Border 1843 Central Asia Alexander von Humboldt Publishes Central Asia 1843 Africa Britain Occupies Natal in Southern Africa 1843 Europe Carlyle Publishes Past and Present Jan. 2, 1843 Europe Wagner’s Flying Dutchman Debuts Feb. 6, 1843 North America First Minstrel Shows Feb. 17, 1843 South Asia British Victory at the Battle of Miani Leads to Annexation of the Sind Sept. 2, 1843 Europe Wilson Launches The Economist Oct. 13, 1843 North America B’nai Brith Founded in New York City Dec. 17, 1843 Europe Charles Dickens Publishes “A Christmas Carol" 1844 Southeast Asia Thailand Establishes a Protectorate in Cambodia Jan. 15, 1844 North America University of Notre Dame Chartered Feb. 27, 1844 Caribbean/West Indies Dominican Republic Gains Independence from Haiti May 6-July 5, 1844 North America Anti-Irish Riots Erupt in Philadelphia May 23, 1844 Middle East Babism Established in Persia May 24, 1844 North America Morse Sends First Telegraph Message June 15, 1844 North America Goodyear Patents Vulcanized Rubber July 3, 1844 Europe Extinction of the Great Auk Aug., 1844-Jan., 1846 Australia The Ill-Fated Expedition of Charles Sturt Dispels Notions of an Inland Sea Oct. 22, 1844 North America Millerites Expect the Return of Jesus Dec. 4, 1844-Apr. 14, 1865 Central America Political Influence of Jose Rafael Carrera in Guatemala 1845 Europe Alexander von Humboldt Publishes the First Volume of Kosmos c. 1845 North America Clipper Ship Era Begins 1845 Australia Edward John Eyre Publishes Discoveries in Central Australia 1845 Europe First Photograph Taken of the Sun c. 1845 North America Modern Baseball Begins 1845 North America White v. Nicholls 1845-1847 Artctic Franklin Expedition Perishes Seeking the Northwest Passage 1845-1849 South Asia Sikh Wars 1845-1854 Europe Great Irish Famine 1845-1860 World More than 1.7 Million Irish Immigrate to the United States Jan. 29, 1845 North America Edgar Allan Poe Publishes “The Raven" Mar. 4, 1845-Mar. 3, 1849 North America U.S. Presidency of James K. Polk Mar. 11, 1845 Pacific Islands Maoris Burn Kororarake (Flagstaff War) July 4, 1845-Sept. 6, 1847 North America Henry David Thoreau Lives at Walden Pond Oct. 9, 1845 Europe Newman Becomes a Roman Catholic Dec. 21-22, 1845 South Asia British Force Sikhs to Withdraw Beyond the Sutlej River in the Battle of Ferozeshah (First Sikh War) Dec. 29, 1845 North America Republic of Texas Is Admitted as the Twenty-Eighth State of the United States 1846 Europe The Paris Opera House Installs Electric-Arc Lighting Jan. 28, 1846 South Asia British Destroy Ranjur Singh’s Army at the Battle of Aliwal (First Sikh War) Feb. 4, 1846 North America Mormons Begin Migration to Utah May 8, 1846 North America Battle of Palo Alto May 13, 1846-Feb. 2, 1848 North America Mexican War May 17, 1846 Europe Adolphe Sax Patents the Saxophone June 14-July 7, 1846 North America Bear Flag Republic Revolts Against Mexico (Mexican War) June 15, 1846 Europe British Parliament Repeals the Corn Laws June 15, 1846 North America United States Acquires Oregon Territory June 16, 1846-Feb. 7, 1878 Europe Pontificate of Pope Pius IX June 30, 1846-Jan. 13, 1847 North America United States Occupies California and the Southwest Aug. 1, 1846 North America Establishment of Independent U.S. Treasury Aug. 10, 1846 North America Smithsonian Institution Is Founded Sept. 10, 1846 North America Howe Patents His Sewing Machine Sept. 21-24, 1846 North America U.S. Forces Continue Southern Advance with Victory at the Battle of Monterrey (Mexican War) Sept. 23, 1846 Europe Discovery of Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich Louis d’Arrest Oct. 16, 1846 North America Safe Surgical Anesthesia Is Demonstrated Dec. 2, 1846 Central America Bidlack-Mallarino Treaty Grants U.S. Transit Rights Across the Isthmus of Panama 1847 Europe Boole Publishes The Mathematical Analysis of Logic 1847 Europe Hamburg-Amerika Shipping Line Begins Jan. 19-Feb. 3, 1847 North America Taos Rebellion Feb. 22-23, 1847 North America American Victory at Battle of Buena Vista Ends the Northern Campaign (Mexican War) Apr. 17-18, 1847 North America American Victory at the Battle of Cerro Gordo Enables Continued March on Mexico City (Mexican War) May, 1847 Europe Semmelweis Develops Antiseptic Procedures June 1, 1847 Europe First Communist Congress Meets in London July 26, 1847 Africa Liberia Proclaims Its Independence Sept. 12-13, 1847 North America Battle of Chapultepec Oct. 28, 1847-Feb. 19, 1848 North America Donner Party Settlers Traveling from Illinois to California Are Trapped by Heavy Snows Dec. 3, 1847 North America Douglas Launches The North Star 1848 North America Shaker Joseph Brackett Writes the Song “Simple Gifts" 1848-1852 South America Alfred Russel Wallace Undertakes Botanical Study of the Amazon River Basin 1848-1889 Africa Exploration of East Africa Jan. 12, 1848 Europe Liberal Rising in Palermo Against Bourbon Rule Jan. 12, 1848-Aug. 28, 1849 Europe Italian Revolution of 1848 Jan. 24, 1848 North America California Gold Rush Begins Jan. 26, 1848 North America Henry David Thoreau Presents His Ideas on Civil Disobedience to the Concord Lyceum Feb., 1848 Europe Marx and Engels Publish The Communist Manifesto Feb. 2, 1848 North America Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ends Mexican War Feb. 22-June, 1848 Europe Paris Revolution of 1848 Mar. 3-Nov. 3, 1848 Europe Prussian Revolution of 1848 Mar. 7, 1848 Pacific Islands Great Mahele Land Division Permits Foreign Ownership of Land in Hawaii Mar. 13, 1848-Mar. 4, 1849 Europe Austrian Revolutions of 1848 Apr., 1848-Mar., 1849 South Asia Second Anglo-Sikh War Apr. 10, 1848 Europe Monster Chartist Rally in London Apr. 27, 1848 World France Abolishes Slavery May 11, 1848 Africa Johann Rebmann Sights Snow-Covered Mount Kilimanjaro July 4, 1848 North America Ground Is Broken for the Washington Monument July 19-20, 1848 North America Seneca Falls Convention July 26, 1848 South Asia Matale Rebellion Against British Rule in Ceylon July 29, 1848 Europe Tipperary Revolt in Ireland Put Down by British Police Aug. 28, 1848 Caribbean/West Indies Mathieu Luis Represents Guadaloupe in the French Parliament, Becoming France’s First Black Representative Sept. 12, 1848 Europe Swiss Confederation Is Formed Sept. 17, 1848-May 1, 1896 Middle East Reign of Shah N{amacr}sir al-Din of Persia Fall, 1848 Europe Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Begins Dec. 2, 1848-Nov. 21, 1916 Europe Reign of Emperor Francis (Franz) Joseph I Dec. 10, 1848 Europe Prince Louis Napoleon Elected First President of the Second French Republic 1849 North America/East Asia Chinese Begin Immigrating to California Jan. 13, 1849 South Asia Sher Singh Fights the British to a Draw in the Battle of Chilianwala (Second Sikh War) Jan. 23, 1849 North America Elizabeth Blackwell Becomes the First Woman in the United States to Be Awarded a Medical Degree Feb. 21, 1849 South Asia Decisive Defeat of the Sikhs in the Battle of Gujarat, Leading to British Annexation of the Punjab (Second Sikh War) Mar. 4, 1849-July 9, 1850 North America U.S. Presidency of Zachary Taylor Apr. 25, 1849 North America First Test of Canada’s Responsible Government May 17, 1849 North America Great St. Louis Fire July, 1849 North America Harriet Tubman Escapes from Slavery Dec., 1849 Europe Dostoevski Is Exiled to Siberia 1850’s-1880’s North America Rise of Burlesque and Vaudeville 1850 Australia Britain Grants Responsible Government to the Australian Colonies 1850 Europe First Photograph of a Star Is Taken 1850 North America First U.S. Petroleum Refinery Is Built 1850-1851 Europe Joseph Paxton Designs and Builds the Crystal Palace in London 1850-1852 Africa Arab Merchants Traverse Africa from Dar es Salaam to Benguela 1850-1855 Africa Heinrich Barth Explores North and Central Africa c. 1850-1860 North America Underground Railroad Flourishes 1850-1865 Europe Clausius Formulates the Second Law of Thermodynamics Jan. 29-Sept. 20, 1850 North America Compromise of 1850 Mar. 9, 1850-Aug. 22, 1861 East Asia Reign of the Xianfeng Emperor of China Apr. 4, 1850 North America Los Angeles, California, Is Incorporated May, 1850-Jan. 27, 1855 Central America Completion of the Panama Railway May 6, 1850 North America California’s Bloody Island Massacre July 9, 1850-Mar. 3, 1853 North America U.S. Presidency of Millard Fillmore Aug. 28, 1850 Europe Richard Wagner’s Opera Lohengrin Premiers Sept. 9, 1850 North America California Is Admitted as the Thirty-First U.S. State Sept. 18, 1850 North America Second Fugitive Slave Law Nov. 5, 1850 Europe Tennyson Becomes England’s Poet Laureate Dec. 16, 1850 Pacific Islands Canterbury Pilgrims Arrive in Lyttleton, New Zealand 1851 Middle East Dar ol-Foonon Is Established as First Modern University in Persia 1851 Australia Gold Is Discovered in New South Wales 1851 North America Melville Publishes Moby Dick 1851-1854 Europe Comte Advances His Theory of Positivism 1851-1868 Southeast Asia Reign of King Rama IV in Thailand 1851-1900 Europe/North America More than 4.4 Million Germans Immigrate to the United States Jan. 11, 1851-late summer, 1864 East Asia China’s Taiping Rebellion Mar. 30, 1851 Europe First Census Is Taken in the United Kingdom May 1-Oct. 15, 1851 Europe London Hosts the First World’s Fair May 28-29, 1851 North America Akron Woman’s Rights Convention July, 1851 Europe Adolf Anderssen Wins “The Immortal Game” of Chess over Lionel Kieseritzky Aug. 22, 1851 North America America Wins the First America’s Cup Race Sept. 18, 1851 North America Modern New York Times Is Founded Nov. 13, 1851 Europe First Permanent Underwater Telegraph Cable Links France and England 1852 Africa Al-Hajj Umar Proclaims Jihad in West Africa 1852 Southeast Asia Second Anglo-Burmese War Leads to British Annexation of Southern Burma 1852 North America Stowe Publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 North America Université Laval North America’s First French-Language University, Is Founded 1852 Europe William Henry Fox Talbot Patents Photoengraving 1852-1878 Europe Montenegrin Wars of Independence Jan. 17, 1852 Africa Britain Recognizes Independence of the Transvaal Mar., 1852-Sept., 1853 Europe Dickens Publishes Bleak House Sept. 24, 1852 Europe Henri Giffard Creates the First Steam-Powered Airship Nov. 10, 1852 North America Canada’s Grand Trunk Railway Is Incorporated Dec. 2, 1852 Europe Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Becomes Emperor of France 1853 South America The Argentine Constitution Encourages European Immigration 1853 Europe Georges Eugène Haussmann Modernizes Paris with Improved Public Works, Boulevards, and Parks 1853 Europe Robert Smith Surtees Publishes Mr. Sponge’s Sporting Tour 1853 North America Stephen Foster Writes “My Old Kentucky Home" 1853 North America Yellow Fever Epidemic Kills Almost Eight Thousand in New Orleans 1853-1868 East Asia Qing Dynasty Confronts the Nian Rebellion 1853-1878 Southeast Asia Reign of King Mindon Min in Burma Jan. 19, 1853 Europe Giuseppe Verdi’s Opera Il Trovatore Premiers in Rome Mar. 2, 1853-1857 North America Pacific Railroad Surveys Mar. 4, 1853-Mar. 3, 1857 North America U.S. Presidency of Franklin Pierce July 6, 1853 North America National Council of Colored People Is Founded July 8, 1853 East Asia U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry Arrives in Edo (Tokyo) Bay Aug. 12, 1853 Pacific Islands Britain Grants Responsible Government to New Zealand Sept. 12, 1853 Middle East Burton Enters Mecca in Disguise Oct. 4, 1853-Mar. 30, 1856 Europe Crimean War Nov. 17, 1853 Africa Livingstone Sees the Victoria Falls Nov. 30, 1853 Europe Russia Destroys the Turkish Fleet at the Battle of Sinope (Crimean War) Dec. 31, 1853 North America Gadsden Purchase Completes the U.S.-Mexican Border 1854-1862 Southeast Asia Wallace’s Expeditions Give Rise to Biogeography 1854-1868 Europe Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc Publishes Dictionnaire raisonné de l’architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle (dictionary of French architecture from the eleventh to the sixteenth century) 1854-1885 Central Asia Russia Occupies Central Asia Jan. 1, 1854 North America Lincoln University (originally the Ashmun Institute) Is Chartered as the First Black College in the United States Jan. 13, 1854 North America Anthony Faas Receives a U.S. Patent for a Modern Accordian Feb. 17, 1854 Africa Britain Recognizes the Independence of the Orange Free State in Southern Africa Mar. 31, 1854 East Asia Perry Opens Japan to Western Trade May 30, 1854 North America Congress Passes the Kansas-Nebraska Act June 6, 1854 North America U.S.-Canadian Reciprocity Treaty Reduces Customs Duties July 6, 1854 North America Birth of the Republican Party Sept. 20, 1854 Europe Anglo-French-Turkish Armies Advance with a Victory over Russia at the Battle of Alma (Crimean War) Oct. 17, 1854-Sept. 11, 1855 Europe Siege of Sevastopol Oct. 25, 1854 Europe Battle of Balaklava Nov. 4, 1854 Europe Nightingale Takes Charge of Nursing in the Crimea Nov. 5, 1854 Europe Russian Troops Fail to Lift the Siege of Sevastopol in the Battle of Inkerman (Crimean War) Dec. 8, 1854 Europe Pius IX Decrees the Immaculate Conception Dogma 1855 Europe Bessemer Patents Improved Steel-Processing Method 1855 Europe Courbet Establishes Realist Art Movement 1855 Central America First Highway for Wheeled Traffic Begins in El Salvador 1855-1868 Africa Reign of Emperor Teodoros in Ethiopia Jan. 23, 1855 North America First Bridge over the Mississippi River Opens Mar. 2, 1855-Mar. 13, 1881 Europe Reign of Czar Alexander II June 16, 1855-May 1, 1857 Central America Walker Invades Nicaragua June 29, 1855 Europe Daily Telegraph Begins Publication in Britain Winter, 1855-Jan. 2, 1878 East Asia Muslim Rebellions in China Mar. 5, 1856 Europe Fire Destroys Covent Garden Theatre in London Mar. 30, 1856 Europe Treaty of Paris Ends the Crimean War Apr. 15, 1856 Central America "Watermelon War” Race Riot in Panama City Apr. 16, 1856 South Asia Declaration of Paris Makes Her{amacr}t Part of Afghanistan May, 1856-Aug., 1858 North America Bleeding Kansas May 22, 1856 North America Congressman Preston Brooks Assaults Senator Charles Sumner in the Hall of the U.S. Senate Following Sumner’s Verbal Attack on Brooks’s Uncle, Senator Andrew Pickens Butler Aug., 1856 Europe Neanderthal Skull Is Found in Germany Oct., 1856 North America Toronto-Montreal Line of the Grand Trunk Railway Opens Oct. 1-Dec. 15, 1856 Europe Flaubert Publishes Madame Bovary Oct. 23, 1856-Nov. 6, 1860 East Asia Second Opium War 1857 Europe Gustave Flaubert Publishes Madame Bovary 1857 Europe Pasteur Begins Developing Germ Theory and Microbiology Jan. 1, 1857 North America First African American University Opens Feb. 16, 1857 North America Gallaudet, the First University for the Deaf, Is Founded Mar. 4, 1857-Mar. 3, 1861 North America U.S. Presidency of James Buchanan Mar. 6, 1857 North America Dred Scott v. Sandford Mar. 21, 1857 East Asia Earthquake Near Tokyo Kills 100,000 Mar. 23, 1857 North America Otis Installs the First Passenger Elevator May 10, 1857-July 8, 1858 South Asia Sepoy Mutiny Against British Rule May 11, 1857 South Asia Indian Troops Take Delhi from the British (Sepoy Mutiny) May 12, 1857 North America New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children Opens June, 1857-Feb. 13, 1858 Africa Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke Explore the Region Between Mombasa and Lake Tanganyika June 4-Dec. 6, 1857 South Asia Battle, Siege, and Massacre at Cawnpore (Sepoy Mutiny) Aug.-Dec., 1857 North America Texas’s Cart War Aug. 28, 1857 Europe British Parliament Passes the Matrimonial Causes Act Dec., 1857-Jan., 1861 North America War of Reform in Mexico Dec. 16, 1857 Europe Earthquake Kills Eleven Thousand in Naples, Italy 1858 North America Fenian Brotherhood Is Founded 1858 Europe Rebuilding of Ringstrasse in Vienna Jan. 14, 1858 Europe Orsini Plot to Assassinate French President Napoleon III Fails Jan. 31, 1858 Europe Brunel Launches the SS Great Eastern Feb. 11-July 16, 1858 Europe Virgin Mary Appears to Bernadette Soubirous Mar. 23, 1858 North America Fraser River Gold Rush Begins June 16-Oct. 15, 1858 North America Lincoln-Douglas Debates June 23, 1858 Europe Edgar Mortara Is Kidnapped from His Jewish Family by Papal Guards July 26, 1858 Europe Rothschild Is First Jewish Member of British Parliament Aug., 1858 Southeast Asia France and Spain Invade Vietnam Aug. 2, 1858 Africa John Hanning Speke Reaches and Names Lake Victoria Aug. 7, 1858 Australia First Australian-Rules Football Match Is Played in Melbourne 1859 Middle East The Codex Sinaiticus Is Discovered by Constantine von Tischendorf 1859 Europe Mill Publishes On Liberty 1859 Europe Smiles Publishes Self-Help 1859 Southeast Asia Treaty of Lisbon Divides the Island of Timor Between Portugal and the Netherlands 1859-1861 Africa Henri Duveyrier Studies the Taureg Tribes of Northern Africa 1859-1875 South America Political Influence of Gabriel García Moreno in Ecuador 1859-1878 Europe Russia Gains Control of the Caucasus Region Jan. 24, 1859 Europe Moldavia and Walachia Unite Under the Name Romania Apr. 29-Nov., 1859 Europe Austro-Sardinian War June 4, 1859 Europe Franco-Sardinian Forces Defeat Austria at the Battle of Magenta (Austro-Sardinian War) June 24, 1859 Europe Battle of Solferino July, 1859 North America Last Slave Ship Docks at Mobile July 6, 1859 Australia Colony of Queensland Separates from New South Wales July 11, 1859 Europe Napoleon III and Francis Joseph I Meet at Villafranca Aug. 27, 1859 North America Commercial Oil Drilling Begins Sept. 7, 1859 Europe London’s Big Ben Clock and Thirteen-Ton Bell Become Fully Functional Sept. 16, 1859 Africa David Livingstone Reaches Lake Nyasa Oct. 16-18, 1859 North America Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry Nov. 24, 1859 Europe Darwin Publishes On the Origin of Species Dec. 2, 1859 North America John Brown Is Hanged for His Raid on Harpers Ferry 1860’s East Asia China’s Self-Strengthening Movement Arises 1860 North America Gail Borden Opens a Factory to Produce Evaporated Milk 1860 Europe Lenoir Patents the Internal Combustion Engine 1860-1900 North America The Foreign-Born Population of the United States Averages Almost 14 Percent of the Total Population Mar., 1860-Feb., 1861 Southeast Asia Vietnamese Lay Siege to French-Held Saigon Mar. 5, 1860-May 15, 1872 Pacific Islands Second Maori War Leads to the Disruption of Maori Society Spring, 1860 Middle East Ottoman Massacre of Christians in Damascus, Syria Mar. 24, 1860 Europe France Annexes Savoy and Nice Apr. 3, 1860-Oct. 26, 1861 North America Pony Express Expedites Transcontinental Mail Apr. 30, 1860-1865 North America Apache and Navajo War May-July, 1860 Europe Garibaldi’s Redshirts Land in Sicily Aug. 22, 1860 Europe Giuseppe Garibaldi’s Red Shirts Cross from Sicily to the Italian Mainland (Wars of Italian Independence) Oct. 16, 1860 East Asia British and French Troops Burn the Imperial Summer Palace in China Nov. 6, 1860 North America Lincoln Is Elected U.S. President 1861 Europe Archaeopteryx Lithographica Is Discovered 1861 Europe Morris Founds Design Firm 1861 Europe Pasteurization of Beer, Wine, and Milk Is Introduced 1861-1863, 1867-1872 North America Benito Juárez Serves as President of Mexico 1861-1864 North America Balloons Are Used for Reconnaissance During the American Civil War Jan. 2, 1861-Mar. 9, 1888 Europe Reign of Kaiser William (Wilhelm) I of Germany Feb. 6, 1861-Sept. 4, 1886 North America Apache Wars Feb. 8, 1861 North America Establishment of the Confederate States of America Mar. 3, 1861 Europe Emancipation of Russian Serfs Mar. 4, 1861 North America Lincoln Is Inaugurated President Mar. 17, 1861 Europe Italy Is Proclaimed a Kingdom Apr. 12, 1861-Apr. 9, 1865 North America U.S. Civil War June 25, 1861-May 30, 1876 Europe Reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire July 21, 1861 North America First Battle of Bull Run Oct. 24, 1861 North America Transcontinental Telegraph Is Completed Oct. 31, 1861-June 19, 1867 North America France Occupies Mexico Nov. 1-2, 1861 East Asia Cixi’s Coup Preserves Qing Dynasty Power 1862 Europe Spencer Introduces Principles of Social Darwinism 1862-1863 Middle East William Palgrave Becomes the First European to Cross the Arabian Desert from West to East Jan., 1862 North America Spanish, French, and British Troops Land in Mexico Jan. 1, 1862 Africa Britain Annexes Lagos Island, Nigeria Mar. 9, 1862 North America Battle of the Monitor and the Virginia May 5, 1862 North America Mexico Wins a Moral Victory over France at the Battle of Puebla (Cinco de Mayo) May 20, 1862 North America Lincoln Signs the Homestead Act July 1, 1862 Europe The Russian State Library Founded July 2, 1862 North America Lincoln Signs the Morrill Land Grant Act July 17, 1862 North America U.S. Congress Enables African Americans to Serve Legally in the Union Army Aug. 17, 1862-Dec. 28, 1863 North America Great Sioux War Aug. 17, 1862-Dec. 28, 1863 Africa John Hanning Speke Reaches and Names Ripon Falls, the Source of the Nile River Sept. 24, 1862 Europe Bismarck Becomes Prussia’s Minister-President Nov., 1862 Pacific Islands Slave Traders Begin Ravaging Easter Island 1863 Middle East Baha’ism Takes Form 1863 Southeast Asia Cambodia Becomes an Autonomous French Protectorate 1863 Europe Henry Clifton Sorby Discovers the Microstructure of Steel 1863 World The Netherlands Becomes the Last European Nation to Abolish Slavery 1863-1913 Europe Greece Unifies Under the Glücksburg Dynasty Jan. 1, 1863 North America Lincoln Issues the Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 10, 1863 Europe First Underground Railroad Opens in London Jan. 22-Sept., 1863 Europe Russia Crushes Polish Rebellion Feb. 25, 1863-June 3, 1864 North America Congress Passes the National Bank Acts Mar. 3, 1863 North America Union Enacts the First National Draft Law May 15, 1863 Europe Paris’s Salon des Refusés Opens May 23, 1863 Europe Ferdinand Lassalle Organizes Europe’s First Socialist Workers’ Party, the Social Democratic Labor Party, in Germany May 31, 1863 Europe First Running of the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe Horse Race July 1-Nov. 25, 1863 North America Battles of Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga Aug., 1863-Sept., 1866 North America Long Walk of the Navajos Dec. 8, 1863-Apr. 24, 1877 North America Reconstruction of the South 1864 North America Archduke Maximilian of France Becomes Emperor of Mexico 1864 Europe Hill Launches Housing Reform in London 1864 Europe James Clerk Maxwell Discovers Microwaves 1864 Europe John Wisden Publishes the First Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack 1864 Europe Russia Annexes Abkhazia and Circassia 1864 North America U.S. Congress Passes an Immigration Act Legalizing Contract Labor and Encouraging Immigration as a Means of Developing the Economy 1864-1876 Europe International Workingman’s Association Promotes Marxism Jan. 21-June 21, 1864 Pacific Islands British Troops Regain Control of Tauranga Harbor (Second Maori War) Feb. 1-Oct. 30, 1864 Europe Danish-Prussian War Mar. 14, 1864 Africa Samuel Baker Reaches and Names Lake Albert Apr., 1864-Feb., 1866 South America Chincha Islands War Apr. 22, 1864 North America "In God We Trust” Appears on U.S. Coins June 15, 1864 North America Arlington National Cemetery Is Established Aug. 22, 1864 Europe International Red Cross Is Launched Sept. 1-Oct. 27, 1864 North America Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences Lay a Foundation for Canadian Confederation Sept. 28, 1864 Europe First International Is Founded Oct. 12, 1864-Mar. 1, 1870 South America War of the Triple Alliance Nov. 15, 1864-Apr. 18, 1865 North America Sherman Marches Through Georgia and the Carolinas Nov. 29, 1864 North America Sand Creek Massacre Dec. 8, 1864 Europe Pius IX Issues the Syllabus of Errors 1865 Africa Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs Becomes First European to Cross Africa from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Guinea 1865 World International Telegraphic Union Is Founded to Supervise International Communications 1865 Europe Mendel Proposes Laws of Heredity c. 1865 Europe Naturalist Movement Begins 1865-1868 Africa Basuto War 1865-1869 Europe Leo Tolstoy Publishes War and Peace 1865-1870 East Asia Persecution of Christians in Korea Jan., 1865-Apr., 1866 Central Asia Nain Singh Travels Across Tibet and Surveys Monasteries Mar. 3, 1865 North America Congress Creates the Freedmen’s Bureau Apr. 9 and 14, 1865 North America Surrender at Appomattox and Assassination of Lincoln Apr. 15, 1865-Mar. 3, 1869 North America U.S. Presidency of Andrew Johnson Apr. 27, 1865 North America Explosion of the Steamboat Sultana Kills Seventeen Hundred May 1, 1865-June 20, 1870 South America Paraguayan War June 23, 1865 North America Watie Is Last Confederate General to Surrender July, 1865 Europe Booth Establishes the Salvation Army July 14, 1865 Europe Edward Whymper Becomes the First Climber to Scale the Matterhorn July 27, 1865 South America Welsh Settlers Arrive in the Chubut Valley, Argentina Sept. 26, 1865 North America Vassar College Opens Oct. 7-12, 1865 Caribbean/West Indies Morant Bay Rebellion Nov. 24, 1865 North America Mississippi Enacts First Post-Civil War Black Code Dec. 6, 1865 North America Thirteenth Amendment Is Ratified 1866 North America Birth of the Ku Klux Klan 1866 North America Young Women’s Christian Association Forms in Boston 1866-1867 Europe North German Confederation Is Formed Feb. 25, 1866-1901 North America Calaveras Skull Hoax Apr. 9, 1866 North America Civil Rights Act of 1866 Apr. 10, 1866 North America American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Is Founded May and July, 1866 North America Memphis and New Orleans Race Riots May 2, 1866 South America Peru Holds Off the Spanish Fleet at the Battle of Callao (Chincha Islands War) May 10, 1866 North America Suffragists Protest the Fourteenth Amendment June, 1866-1871 Europe Fenian Risings for Irish Independence June 1, 1866 North America American Fenians Capture Fort Erie June 13, 1866-Nov. 6, 1868 North America Red Cloud’s War June 15, 1866-June 29, 1868 Southeast Asia Mekong River Expedition June 15-Aug. 23, 1866 Europe Austria and Prussia’s Seven Weeks’ War July 3, 1866 Europe Battle of Könniggrätz July 27, 1866 North America First Transatlantic Cable Is Completed Dec. 21, 1866 North America Fetterman Massacre 1867 North America Chisholm Trail Opens 1867 Africa Diamonds Are Discovered at Kimberley 1867 North America Dorothea Dix Investigates Jails, Poorhouses, and Mental Hospitals 1867 Europe The Football Association Founded in England 1867 Europe Lister Publishes His Theory on Antiseptic Surgery 1867 Europe Marketing of Paperback Series Begins with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust 1867 Europe Marx Publishes Das Kapital 1867 Europe World’s Fair in Paris Introduces Japanese Art to the West Jan. 1, 1867 North America John Augustus Roebling Engineers the Longest Suspension Bridge in the World, Linking Covington, Kentucky, with Cincinnati, Ohio Jan. 30, 1867-July 30, 1912 East Asia Reign of Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) of Japan Mar. 2, 1867 North America U.S. Department of Education Is Created Mar. 30, 1867 North America Russia Sells Alaska to the United States Apr. 1, 1867 Southeast Asia Strait Settlement of Singapore Is Made a British Crown Colony May 29, 1867 Europe Austrian Ausgleich July 1, 1867 North America British North America Act Aug., 1867 Europe British Parliament Passes the Reform Act of 1867 Sept., 1867 Europe The Fenian Rising Is Thwarted by British Oct., 1867 Europe Nobel Patents Dynamite Oct. 21, 1867 North America Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty Dec. 4, 1867 North America National Grange Is Formed 1868 Europe Bakunin Founds the Social Democratic Alliance 1868 Australia Last Convicts Land in Western Australia 1868 North America The British Case of Regina v. Hicklin Establishes the “Hicklin Rule” for Identifying Obscenity 1868-1910 Southeast Asia Reign of King Rama V in Thailand Jan. 3, 1868 East Asia Japan’s Meiji Restoration Feb. 24-May 26, 1868 North America Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Feb. 27, 1868-Apr. 19, 1881 Europe Disraeli Leads the British Conservative Party Mar., 1868 Europe Lartet Discovers the First Cro-Magnon Remains Apr., 1868 Africa British Expedition to Ethiopia Apr. 6, 1868 East Asia Promulgation of Japan’s Charter Oath June 2, 1868 Europe Great Britain’s First Trades Union Congress Forms June 23, 1868 North America Sholes Patents a Practical Typewriter July 9, 1868 North America Fourteenth Amendment Is Ratified July 28, 1868 North America Burlingame Treaty Aug. 16, 1868 South America Tsunami in Chile Kills Seventy Thousand Sept. 23, 1868 Caribbean/West Indies Puerto Rican Rebels Declare Independence from Spain Sept. 30, 1868 Europe Spanish Revolution of 1868 Oct. 10, 1868-Feb. 10, 1878 Caribbean/West Indies Cuba’s Ten Years’ War Nov. 27, 1868 North America Washita River Massacre Dec. 3, 1868-Feb. 20, 1874 Europe Gladstone Becomes Prime Minister of Britain 1869 North America Baseball’s First Professional Club Forms 1869 Africa Basutoland Is Made a British Protectorate 1869 Europe First Modern Department Store Opens in Paris c. 1869 Europe Golden Age of Flamenco Begins 1869-1871 Europe Mendeleyev Develops the Periodic Table of Elements 1869-1874 Africa Gustav Nachtigal Explores the Central Saharan Region and Darfur Mar. 4, 1869-Mar. 3, 1877 North America U.S. Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant Apr., 1869 North America Westinghouse Patents His Air Brake Apr. 8, 1869 North America American Museum of Natural History Opens in New York City May, 1869 North America Woman Suffrage Associations Begin Forming May 10, 1869 North America First Transcontinental Railroad Is Completed May 29, 1869 Europe British Parliament Ends Public Hanging July 4, 1869 Europe University of Bucharest Founded in Romania Aug. 9, 1869 Europe Social Democratic Workers’ Party Is Founded in Germany Sept. 24, 1869-1877 North America Scandals Rock the Grant Administration Oct. 11, 1869-July 15, 1870 North America First Riel Rebellion Nov. 3, 1869-Feb. 13, 1861 Europe Combined Forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Piedmont Capture the Final Neapolitan Stronghold in the Siege of Gaeta Nov. 4, 1869 Europe The Scientific Journal Nature Begins Publication Nov. 17, 1869 Africa Suez Canal Opens Dec., 1869 North America Wyoming Gives Women the Vote Dec. 8, 1869-Oct. 20, 1870 Europe Vatican I Decrees Papal Infallibility Dogma 1870’s Europe Aesthetic Movement Arises 1870’s East Asia Japan Expands into Korea 1870-1871 Europe The French Use Observation Balloons During the Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 North America Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society Is Founded 1870-1888 South America Period of Influence of Antonio Guzmán Blanco in Venezuela Jan. 10, 1870 North America Standard Oil Company Is Incorporated Apr., 1870-1873 Europe Schliemann Excavates Ancient Troy May 12, 1870 North America Province of Manitoba Is Created July 19, 1870-Jan. 28, 1871 Europe Franco-Prussian War Sept. 1, 1870 Europe Battle of Sedan Sept. 20, 1870 Europe Italian Troops End the Temporal Power of the Pope Sept. 20, 1870-Jan. 28, 1871 Europe Prussian Army Besieges Paris Oct. 8, 1870 Europe French Minister Léon Gambetta Escapes Paris in a Balloon 1871 Europe Darwin Publishes The Descent of Man 1871 Europe Eugène Pottier Writes the Socialist Anthem “The International" 1871 Europe London Conference Redefines Russian Rights in the Black Sea 1871 Europe Rome Becomes the Capital of Italy 1871 Europe The Rugby Football Union Is Founded in England 1871-1876 North America Díaz Drives Mexico into Civil War 1871-1877 Europe Kulturkampf Against the Catholic Church in Germany c. 1871-1883 North America Great American Buffalo Slaughter 1871-1885 Central Asia Przhevalsky Explores Central Asia 1871-1890 Central America Henry Meiggs and Minor Keith Build a Railroad in Costa Rica Jan. 18, 1871 Europe German States Unite Within German Empire Feb. 13, 1871-1875 Europe Third French Republic Is Established Mar. 3, 1871 North America Grant Signs Indian Appropriation Act Mar. 18-May 28, 1871 Europe Paris Commune Mar. 29, 1871 Europe Royal Albert Hall Opens in London Apr. 10, 1871 North America Barnum Creates the First Modern American Circus May 8, 1871 North America Treaty of Washington Settles U.S. Claims vs. Britain July 20, 1871 North America British Columbia Joins the Canadian Confederation Oct., 1871 Africa Henry Morton Stanley Finds David Livingstone at Ujiji Oct. 8-10, 1871 North America Great Chicago Fire 1872 Africa Britain Grants Self-Government to Cape Colony 1872 North America Dominion Lands Act Fosters Canadian Settlement 1872 East Asia Opening of the First Japanese Railway 1872 North America Victoria Woodhull Runs for President of the United States on the Equal Rights Party Ticket 1872-Feb. 27, 1876 Europe Third Carlist War Jan. 9, 1872 South America Paraguay Grants Brazil Free Navigation of the Rio Paraguay Feb. 20, 1872 North America Metropolitan Museum of Art Opens Mar. 1, 1872 North America Yellowstone Becomes the First U.S. National Park Aug., 1872 North America Ward Launches a Mail-Order Business Sept. 1, 1872 North America Mayan Attack on Orange Walk, British Honduras Nov. 7-Dec. 4, 1872 Europe Mystery of the Abandoned Ship Mary Celeste 1873 North America Canada’s Conservative Government Is Rocked by the Pacific Scandal 1873 Australia Ernest Giles Traverses Australia’s Gibson Desert 1873 Europe Founding of the International Meteorological Organization 1873 Australia Peter Warburton Crosses the Great Sandy Desert of Australia 1873 North America Ukrainian Mennonites Begin Settling in Canada 1873-1875 Africa Verney Lovett Cameron Becomes the First European to Complete an East-West Crossing of Equatorial Africa 1873-1880 Africa Exploration of Africa’s Congo Basin 1873-1897 Africa Zanzibar Outlaws Slavery 1873-1916 South America The Dutch Begin to Import Hindu Laborers to Suriname from India Jan. 22, 1873-Feb. 13, 1874 Africa Second British-Ashanti War Feb. 12, 1873 North America "Crime of 1873” Mar. 3, 1873 North America Congress Passes the Comstock Antiobscenity Law May, 1873 Africa Death of David Livingstone at Lake Bangweulu May, 1873-Apr. 2, 1885 Central America Justo Rufino Barrios Attempts Liberal Reforms in Guatemala May 6-Oct. 22, 1873 Europe Three Emperors’ League Is Formed May 23, 1873 North America Canada Forms the North-West Mounted Police June 17-18, 1873 North America Anthony Is Tried for Voting Nov. 5, 1873-Oct. 9, 1878 North America Canada’s Mackenzie Era 1874 Europe Denmark Grants Home Rule to Iceland 1874 World Founding of the Universal Postal Union 1874 Europe Lawn Tennis Is Invented in England 1874 Africa The Mande State Is Established Under Samory Touré 1874-Aug., 1877 Africa Henry Morton Stanley Traverses Africa, Completing the First Descent of the Congo River 1874-1879 Europe Bed{rcaron}ich Smetana, Father of Czech National Music, Composes the Cycle of Symponic Poems Má vlast (My Fatherland) 1874-1897 Arctic Multinational Expeditions Explore Franz Josef Land Apr. 15, 1874 Europe First Impressionist Exhibition May 20, 1874 North America Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis Patent Blue Denim Pants with Copper Rivets June 27, 1874-June 2, 1875 North America Red River War Oct. 19, 1874 Europe University of Zagreb Is Founded Nov. 24, 1874 North America Glidden Patents Barbed Wire 1875 Africa Britain Acquires a Ruling Interest in the Suez Canal Late 1870’s Europe Post-Impressionist Movement Begins 1875 North America Supreme Court of Canada Is Established 1875-1877 Europe Leo Tolstoy Publishes Anna Karenina Mar. 1, 1875 North America U.S. Congress Enacts a Civil Rights Act Banning Discrimination in Public Facilities Mar. 3, 1875 Europe Bizet’s Carmen Premieres in Paris Mar. 3, 1875 North America Congress Enacts the Page Law Mar. 9, 1875 North America Minor v. Happersett May 17, 1875 North America Running of the First Kentucky Derby Sept., 1875 North America Theosophical Society Is Founded Oct. 30, 1875 North America Eddy Establishes the Christian Science Movement 1876 North America Canada’s Indian Act 1876 East Asia Japan Pressures Korea to Open Ports to Trade 1876 Europe Britain’s Royal Titles Act Makes Queen Victoria Empress of India 1876 Europe Spanish Constitution of 1876 1876-1877 North America Sioux War 1876-1878 Africa Charles Doughty Lives Two Years Among the Arabian Bedouin 1876-1878 South Asia Famine Leaves More than 5 Million Dead in India Feb. 2, 1876 North America National Baseball League Is Formed Feb. 3, 1876 South America Agreement to Settle the Border Between Argentina and Paraguay May, 1876 Europe Bulgarian Revolt Against the Ottoman Empire May, 1876 Europe Meeting of Verney Lovett Cameron and King Leopold II of Belgium May, 1876 Europe Otto Invents a Practical Internal Combustion Engine May 10-Nov. 10, 1876 North America Philadelphia Hosts the Centennial Exposition June 25, 1876 North America Battle of the Little Bighorn June 25, 1876 North America Bell Demonstrates the Telephone July 1, 1876 North America Intercolonial Railway Links Central Canada with the Maritimes July 4, 1876 North America Declaration of the Rights of Women July 8, 1876 Europe Agreement Between Austria-Hungary and Russia on the Partition of the Balkan Peninsula Aug. 13-17, 1876 Europe First Performance of Wagner’s Ring Cycle Aug. 31, 1876-Apr. 27, 1909 Europe Reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire Sept. 7, 1876 North America The James-Younger Gang Is Decimated in a Bank Robbery Attempt Oct. 4-6, 1876 North America American Library Association Is Founded Oct. 31, 1876 South Asia A Cyclone Strikes India, Killing 200,000 Nov. 29, 1876-Nov. 30, 1880, Dec. 1, 1884-1910 North America Porfirio Díaz Serves as President of Mexico 1877 North America Ex Parte Jackson Enables Congress to Prohibit Information About Lotteries from the U.S. Mail 1877 Europe The Fishing Gazette Is First Published in England Jan.-Sept. 24, 1877 East Asia Former Samurai Rise in Satsuma Rebellion Mar. 5, 1877 North America Hayes Becomes President Apr. 24, 1877-Jan. 31, 1878 Europe Third Russo-Turkish War June 15-Oct. 5, 1877 North America Nez Perce War July 9, 1877 Europe First Wimbledon Tennis Tournament Is Held July 20, 1877 North America Baltimore and Ohio Railway Riots Leave Nine Dead Sept. 10-Dec. 17, 1877 North America Texas’s Salinero Revolt Dec. 24, 1877 North America Edison Patents the Cylinder Phonograph 1878 Europe Austria Gains Control of Bosnia 1878 Europe James Whistler Sues John Ruskin for Libel 1878 North America Muybridge Photographs a Galloping Horse 1878-1879 South Asia Second Afghan War 1878-1899 Europe Irving Manages London’s Lyceum Theatre Feb. 18, 1878 North America Ranchers and Entrepreneurs in New Mexico Clash in the Lincoln County War Feb. 20, 1878-July 20, 1903 Europe Pontificate of Pope Leo XIII Mar. 3, 1878 Europe Treaty of San Stefano Recognizes the Independence of Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania from the Ottoman Empire May 28, 1878 Europe W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan’s Comic Opera H.M.S. Pinafore: Or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor Premiers in London June 13-July 13, 1878 Europe Congress of Berlin Sept., 1878 North America Macdonald Returns as Canada’s Prime Minister Oct. 19, 1878 Europe Germany Passes Anti-Socialist Law Nov. 21, 1878-1881 South Asia Second Afghan War 1879 Arctic Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskjöld Locates the Northeast Passage 1879 Europe A Doll’s House Introduces Modern Realistic Drama 1879 North America Powell Publishes His Report on the American West Jan. 22-23, 1879 Africa Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift Jan. 22-Aug., 1879 Africa Zulu War Mar. 3, 1879 North America U.S. Geological Survey Is Instituted Mar. 12, 1879 North America John A. Macdonald Introduces His National Policy for Canada Apr. 5, 1879-Oct. 20, 1883 South America War of the Pacific Oct. 7, 1879 Europe Dual Alliance Signed Between Germany and Austria-Hungary Oct. 8, 1879 South America Chilean Victory at the Battle of Angamos Enables Ground Forces to Invade Peru and Bolivia (War of the Pacific) Oct. 21, 1879 North America Edison Demonstrates the Incandescent Lamp Dec. 30, 1879 Europe W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan’s Comic Opera The Pirates of Penzance: Or, The Slave of Duty Premiers 1880’s North America Brahmin School of American Literature Flourishes 1880’s Central America The Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique Attempts to Build a Canal Across the Isthmus of Panama 1880’s Europe Roux Develops the Theory of Mitosis 1880’s-1890’s North America Rise of Yellow Journalism 1880 North America Mary H. Myers Becomes First American Woman to Pilot Her Own Balloon 1880 Europe The Statutes (Definition of Time) Act Establishes Greenwich Mean Time as the British Standard June 29, 1880 Pacific Islands France Annexes Tahiti July, 1880-Jan.. 1881 South America The Submarine Toro Is Used in War of the Pacific July 7, 1880 South America A Heroic Charge Leads to Chilean Victory in the Battle of Arica (War of the Pacific) Sept.-Nov., 1880 Europe Irish Tenant Farmers Stage First “Boycott” Sept. 5, 1880 Europe An Electric Tram Is Successfully Tested in St. Petersburg, Russia Oct., 1880 South America The United States Unsuccessfully Attempts to Negotiate a Diplomatic End to the War of the Pacific Oct. 15, 1880 North America Apache Leader Victorio Is Killed by the Mexican Army Dec. 16, 1880-Mar. 6, 1881 Africa First Boer War Dec. 30, 1880 Africa The Transvaal Becomes a Republic 1881 South America Argentina and Chile Agree on Chilean Sovereignty over the Straits of Magellan 1881-1884 North America Nineteenth Century Immigration to the United States Peaks, Averaging 620,000 Per Year 1881-1889 Europe Bismarck Introduces Social Security Programs in Germany Jan. 16-24, 1881 Central Asia Russians Conquer the Turcoman Stronghold at Geok-Tepe Mar. 4, 1881-Sept. 19, 1881 North America U.S. Presidency of James Garfield Mar. 13, 1881-Nov. 1, 1894 Europe Reign of Czar Alexander III of Russia May 12, 1881 Africa France Makes Tunisia a Protectorate May 21, 1881 North America Clara Barton Founds the American Red Cross July, 1881-1883 Europe Stevenson Publishes Treasure Island Sept. 19, 1881-Mar. 3, 1885 North America U.S. Presidency of Chester A. Arthur Oct. 10, 1881 Europe London’s Savoy Theatre Opens Oct. 26, 1881 North America The Earp Brothers and Doc Holliday Confront and Kill Three Outlaws in a Gunfight at the O.K. Corral 1882 Europe First Birth Control Clinic Opens in Amsterdam 1882 Europe Founding of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra 1882-1884 North America Nineteenth Century Immigration Peaks in Canada, Averaging More than 116,000 Per Year 1882-1900 Europe Nikola Tesla Develops the Rotating Magnetic Field Principle, Helping Improve Alternating Current Motors 1882-1901 Europe Metchnikoff Advances the Cellular Theory of Immunity Jan. 2, 1882 North America Standard Oil Trust Is Organized Mar. 22, 1882 North America Polygamy Is Outlawed in the United States Mar. 24, 1882 Europe Koch Announces His Discovery of the Tuberculosis Bacillus Apr., 1882-1885 Southeast Asia French Indochina War Apr. 3, 1882 North America Outlaw Jesse James Is Shot to Death May 2, 1882 Europe Kilmainham Treaty Makes Concessions to Irish Nationalists May 9, 1882 North America Arthur Signs the Chinese Exclusion Act May 20, 1882 Europe Triple Alliance Is Formed June 6, 1882 South Asia Cyclone in the Arabian Sea Leaves 100,000 Dead in India July 11, 1882 Africa Bombardment of Alexandria by the British Fleet July 23, 1882-Jan. 9, 1885 East Asia Korean Military Mutinies Against Japanese Rule Aug. 20, 1882 Europe Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture Debuts in Moscow Sept. 13, 1882 Africa Battle of Tel el Kebir Nov. 12, 1882 North America San Francisco’s Chinese Six Companies Association Forms 1883 Europe Galton Defines “Eugenics” 1883-1885 North America World’s First Skyscraper Is Built Jan. 16, 1883 North America Pendleton Act Reforms the Federal Civil Service Feb.-Apr., 1883 Africa Germany Establishes Itself in Southwest Africa at Angra Pequena (Lüderitz) May 24, 1883 North America Brooklyn Bridge Opens Aug. 12, 1883 Europe Death of the Last Quagga Aug. 27, 1883 Southeast Asia Krakatoa Volcano Erupts Oct. 4, 1883 Europe The Orient Express Train Departs Paris on Its Inaugural Run Oct. 15, 1883 North America Civil Rights Cases Oct. 22, 1883 North America Metropolitan Opera House Opens in New York Nov. 3, 1883 Europe Gaudí Begins Barcelona’s Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Família 1884 Europe Horatio Phillips Invents the Airfoil 1884 Europe Maxim Patents His Machine Gun 1884 Europe New Guilds Promote the Arts and Crafts Movement c. 1884-1924 Europe Decadent Movement Flourishes Jan., 1884 Europe Fabian Society Is Founded Jan. 25, 1884 South Asia Indian Legislative Council Enacts the Ilbert Bill Mar. 13, 1884-Jan. 26, 1885 Africa Siege of Khartoum June 21, 1884 Africa Gold Is Discovered in the Transvaal July 5, 1884 Africa Germany Annexes Cameroon in West Africa Oct., 1884 World International Meridian Conference Creates Twenty-Four Time Zones Worldwide Nov. 4, 1884 North America U.S. Election of 1884 Nov. 15, 1884-Feb. 26, 1885 Europe Berlin Conference Lays Groundwork for the Partition of Africa Dec., 1884-Feb., 1885 North America Twain Publishes Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Dec. 6, 1884 Europe British Parliament Passes the Franchise Act of 1884 1885 South Asia Indian National Congress Is Founded 1885-1886 Southeast Asia Third Burmese War Jan. 20, 1885 North America L. A. Thompson Patents the Roller Coaster Feb. 9, 1885 Pacific Islands Japanese Workers Begin Arriving in the Hawaiian Islands Mar., 1885 Central Asia Panjdeh Crisis in Afghanistan Nearly Leads to War Between Britain and Russia Mar. 4, 1885-Mar. 3, 1889; Mar. 4, 1893-Mar. 3, 1897 North America U.S. Presidency of Grover Cleveland Mar. 19, 1885 North America Second Riel Rebellion Begins Mar. 31, 1885 Africa British Establish a Protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana) Sept. 2, 1885 North America Rock Springs Massacre Leaves Twenty-Eight Chinese Dead Sept. 6, 1885 Europe Unification of Bulgaria 1886 Southeast Asia Britain Annexes Burma 1886 Europe Rise of the Symbolist Movement Jan., 1886-1889 Europe French Right Wing Revives During Boulanger Crisis Jan. 29, 1886 Europe Benz Patents the First Practical Automobile May 4, 1886 North America Haymarket Riot Leaves Eleven Dead in Chicago, Illinois May 8, 1886 North America Pemberton Introduces Coca-Cola June, 1886-Sept. 9, 1893 Europe Irish Home Rule Debate Dominates British Politics Oct. 7, 1886 Caribbean/West Indies Spain Abolishes Slavery in Cuba Oct. 28, 1886 North America Statue of Liberty Is Dedicated Dec. 8, 1886 North America American Federation of Labor Is Founded 1887 Europe Halford Mackinder, Future Author of the Theory of Eurasia as the Center of Geopolitical Power, Is Appointed a Reader in Geography at Oxford University 1887 East Asia Japan Annexes Iwo Jima 1887 Europe Ottomar Anschütz Demonstrates His Electrotachyscope 1887 North America Samuel Pierpont Langley Constructs a Manned Flying Apparatus 1887 East Asia Yellow River Floods in China Leave More than 900,000 Dead Feb. 2, 1887 North American First Groundhog Day Is Observed in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania Feb. 4, 1887 North America Interstate Commerce Act Feb. 5, 1887 Europe Giuseppe Verdi’s Opera Otello Premiers at La Scala in Milan Feb. 8, 1887 North America General Allotment Act Erodes Indian Tribal Unity Mar., 1887-Dec., 1889 Africa The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, to Assist British Equatoria Against a Mahdist Threat, Is the Century’s Last Major European Expedition into the African Interior Mar. 3, 1887 North America Anne Sullivan Begins to Teach Helen Keller Mar. 13, 1887 North America American Protective Association Is Formed May, 1887 North America Goodwin Develops Celluloid Film May 9, 1887 Europe Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show Plays in London Oct. 1, 1887 South Asia Britain Annexes Baluchistan Dec., 1887 Europe Conan Doyle Introduces Sherlock Holmes 1888 Southeast Asia Brunei Becomes a Protectorate of Great Britain 1888 North America George Eastman Markets the First Kodak Camera 1888 Europe Rodin Exhibits The Thinker 1888-1906 Europe Ramón y Cajal Shows How Neurons Work in the Nervous System Mar., 1888 Africa Samuel Teleki Reaches and Names Lake Rudolf (now Lake Turkana) Mar. 13, 1888 Africa Rhodes Amalgamates Kimberley Diamond Fields Apr. 11, 1888 Europe Concertgebouw Opens in Amersterdam June 15, 1888-Nov. 9, 1918 Europe Reign of Kaiser William II of Germany Aug.-Nov., 1888 Europe Jack the Ripper Commits Serial Killings in London Oct., 1888 Europe Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince Shoots His Roundhay Garden Scene, Believed to Be The First Motion Picture Dec. 7, 1888 Europe Dunlop Patents the Pneumatic Tire 1889 Pacific Islands Britain, the United States, and Germany Agree to Joint Supervision of the Samoan Islands 1889 North America Eastman Kodak Begins to Manufacture Roll Film on Celluloid 1889 Europe Great Britain Strengthens Its Royal Navy 1889-1916 Europe The Second International Coordinates the Work of Socialist Parties and Organizations Feb. 11, 1889 East Asia Japan Adopts a New Constitution Mar. 4, 1889-Mar. 3, 1893 North America U.S. Presidency of Benjamin Harrison Mar. 31, 1889 Europe Eiffel Tower Is Dedicated Apr. 22, 1889 North America Fifty Thousand Settlers Join the Oklahoma Land Run May 31, 1889 North America Johnstown Flood Aug. 14, 1889 Europe The Great London Dock Strike Strengthens the Dockers’ Union Sept. 18, 1889 North America Addams Opens Chicago’s Hull-House Oct., 1889-Apr., 1890 Western Hemisphere First Pan-American Congress Nov., 1889-Jan., 1894 Africa Dahomey-French Wars Nov. 14, 1889-Jan. 25, 1890 World Muckraking Journalist Elizabeth Seaman (known as Nellie Bly) Travels Around the World in a Record Seventy-Two Days 1890’s North America Rise of Tin Pan Alley Music 1890 Europe Germany Regains Helgoland from Britain 1890 Europe Luxembourg Breaks with the Netherlands 1890 North America Mississippi Constitution Disfranchises Black Voters 1890 North America U.S. Census Bureau Announces Closing of the Frontier Jan. 5, 1890 North America United Mine Workers of America Is Founded Feb. 17-18, 1890 North America Women’s Rights Associations Unite Mar. 4, 1890 Europe Cantilevered Railway Bridge Is Completed Across Scotland’s Firth of Forth July 10, 1890 North America Wyoming Enters the Union as the First State with Full Female Suffrage July 20, 1890 North America Harrison Signs the Sherman Antitrust Act Dec. 11, 1890 Europe Behring Discovers the Diphtheria Antitoxin Dec. 29, 1890 North America Wounded Knee Massacre 1891 North America Thomas Edison Applies for a Patent on the Kinetoscope 1891 Pacific Islands French Painter Paul Gauguin Settles in Tahiti 1891 North America Naismith Invents Basketball 1891 Europe Otto Lilienthal Develops and Popularizes the Hang Glider 1891 Africa Portugal Agrees to British Control of Rhodesia 1891-1904 Europe/East Asia Building of the Trans-Siberian Railway Jan. 6-Aug. 28, 1891 South America Chilean Civil War Mar. 11, 1891 North America Strowger Patents Automatic Dial Telephone System May 5, 1891 North America Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky Conducts the Opening Performance at the Music Hall (Later Carnegie Hall) in New York City May 15, 1891 Europe Papal Encyclical on Labor Aug. 28, 1891 South America Battle of La Placilla Is a Turning Point in the Chilean Civil War 1892 North America America’s “New” Immigration Era Begins 1892 North America Gasoline Tractor Is First Used for Farming 1892 North America Stanley Cup Is Donated as a Hockey Trophy 1892-1895 Europe Toulouse-Lautrec Paints At the Moulin Rouge Jan. 1, 1892 North America Ellis Island Immigration Depot Opens Feb., 1892 Europe Diesel Patents the Diesel Engine May 4, 1892 North America Anti-Japanese Yellow Peril Campaign Begins May 28, 1892 North America John Muir Establishes the Sierra Club July 4-5, 1892 North America Birth of the People’s Party July 6, 1892 North America Pinkerton Detectives Put Down the Homestead Strike, Leaving Ten Dead Aug. 3, 1892 Europe Hardie Becomes Parliament’s First Labour Member 1893 South Asia Indian Football Association Is Founded 1893 Europe Munch Paints The Scream 1893-1896 Arctic Nansen Attempts to Reach the North Pole Jan. 17, 1893 Pacific Islands U.S. Marines Assist in Overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani May 1-Oct. 30, 1893 North America Chicago World’s Fair Sept. 19, 1893 Pacific Islands New Zealand Women Win Voting Rights Oct., 1893-Oct., 1897 Africa British Subdue African Resistance in Rhodesia Oct. 27, 1893 North America National Council of Women of Canada Is Founded 1894 Africa France Establishes a Protectorate in Dahomey 1894 Europe Paul Vidal de La Blache Publishes Atlas général Vidal-Lablache: Histoire et géographie 1894-1895 North America Kellogg’s Corn Flakes Launch the Dry Cereal Industry 1894-1896 Europe Ottomans Attempt to Exterminate Armenians Jan. 4, 1894 Europe Franco-Russian Alliance May 11-July 11, 1894 North America Pullman Strike July 8, 1894-Jan. 1, 1896 East Asia Kabo Reforms Begin Modernization of Korean Government Aug., 1894-June, 1897 Europe Ottomans Massacre Armenians Aug. 1, 1894-Apr. 17, 1895 East Asia Sino-Japanese War Oct., 1894-July, 1906 Europe Dreyfus Affair Nov. 1, 1894-Mar. 2, 1917 Europe Reign of Czar Nicholas II of Russia Dec. 22, 1894 Europe Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Premieres 1895 South America Liberal Revolution in Ecuador 1895 South America Non-Native Population of Argentina Exceeds Twenty-Five Percent 1895 World Sixth International Geophysical Conference Encourages Antarctic Exploration 1895-1898 North America Hearst-Pulitzer Circulation War Jan. 24, 1895 Pacific Islands Hawaii’s Last Monarch Abdicates Jan. 27, 1895 Europe Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake Is Staged in St. Petersburg Feb. 24, 1895-1898 Caribbean/West Indies Cuban War of Independence Apr. 6, 1895-May 25, 1895 Europe Oscar Wilde Is Arrested and Convicted of Gross Indecency Apr. 17, 1895 East Asia Treaty of Shimonoseki Ends the Sino-Japanese War May 10, 1895 North America Chinese Californians Form Native Sons of the Golden State June 20, 1895 Europe Germany’s Kiel Canal Opens Sept. 18, 1895 North America Washington’s Atlanta Compromise Speech Oct. 2, 1895 North America Canada’s Yukon Territory Separate from the Northwest Territories Nov. 9, 1895 Europe Röntgen Discovers X Rays Nov. 27, 1895 Europe Nobel Bequeaths Funds for the Nobel Prizes Dec. 28, 1895 North America First Commercial Projection of Motion Pictures Dec. 28, 1895 Europe Lumière Brothers Open Le Cinématographe in Paris Dec. 29, 1895-Jan. 2, 1896 Africa Jameson Raid 1896 North America Brooks Brothers Introduces Button-Down Shirts 1896 Europe Charles and Émile Pathé Found the Pathé Frères, Producing and Distributing Motion Pictures Worldwide 1896 Africa France Conquers Madagascar 1896 South Asia Great Stone Pillar of A{sacute}oka Discovered at Lubini 1896 North America Immigrant Farmers Begin Settling Western Canada 1896 Southeast Asia Malay States Form a Federation Under British Influence Feb., 1896-Aug., 1897 Europe Herzl Founds the Zionist Movement Feb. 11, 1896 Europe Oscar Wilde’s Play Salomé Debuts in Paris Mar., 1896-Nov., 1899 Africa Sudanese War Mar. 1, 1896 Africa Ethiopia Repels Italian Invasion Apr., 1896 Europe The Soldier’s Courtship, Britain’s First Story Film, Is Released Apr. 6, 1896 Europe Modern Olympic Games Are Inaugurated May 1, 1896 Middle East Assassination of Shah N{amacr}sir al-Din of Persia May 6, 1896 North America Samuel Pierpont Langley Makes the First Successful Unmanned Heavier-than-Air Flight May 18, 1896 North America Plessy v. Ferguson June, 1896 Europe Marconi Patents the Wireless Telegraph June 9, 1896 East Asia Lobanov-Yamagata Agreement on Russo-Japanese Cooperation in Korea July 11, 1896 North America Laurier Becomes the First French Canadian Prime Minister Aug. 17, 1896 North America Klondike Gold Rush Begins Nov. 3, 1896 North America McKinley Is Elected President Nov. 16, 1896 North America First U.S. Hydroelectric Plant Opens at Niagara Falls Dec. 30, 1896 Southeast Asia Poet José Rizal Is Executed in the Philippines for Rebellion 1897 Europe Ellis Publishes Sexual Inversion 1897 Europe Friedrich Ratzel Publishes Politische Geographie 1897 Africa Slavery Is Banned in Zanzibar 1897-1901 North America Abel and Takamine Isolate Adrenaline Jan. 21-May 20, 1897 Europe Greco-Turkish War Jan. 23, 1897 Europe "Aspirin” Is Registered as a Trade Name Mar. 4, 1897-Sept. 14, 1901 North America U.S. Presidency of William McKinley July, 1897-July, 1904 Europe Bjerknes Founds Scientific Weather Forecasting July 24, 1897 North America Congress Passes Dingley Tariff Act Aug. 20, 1897 Europe Ross Establishes Malaria’s Transmission Vector Nov. 1, 1897 North America New Library of Congress Building Opens Nov. 14, 1897 East Asia Scramble for Chinese Concessions Begins 1898 Europe Beijerinck Discovers Viruses 1898 Caribbean/West Indies Cameramen Film War in Cuba 1898 North America Doukhobors Begin to Settle in Saskatchewan 1898 Europe George Albert Smith Uses Double Exposure for Special Effects in the Film Cinderella and the Fairy Godmother Jan. 13, 1898 Europe Émile Zola Publishes “J’accuse,” His Protest of the Anti-Semitic Conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for Treason, in the Parisian Newspaper L’Aurore Mar., 1898 Europe Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party Is Formed Mar. 28, 1898 North America United States v. Wong Kim Ark Apr., 1898-1903 Europe Stratosphere and Troposphere Are Discovered Apr. 24-Dec. 10, 1898 Caribbean/West Indies/Southeast Asia Spanish-American War June 11-Sept. 21, 1898 East Asia Hundred Days Reform Movement July 10-Nov. 3, 1898 Africa Fashoda Incident Pits France vs. Britain Oct. 14, 1898 Europe Moscow Art Theater Is Founded 1899 Europe Auguste Blaise Baron Perfects His System of Sound Cinema 1899 Africa Britain and France Exchange African Territories 1899 Southeast Asia France Establishes a Protectorate in Laos 1899 Europe Hilbert Publishes The Foundations of Geometry 1899 North America Joplin Popularizes Ragtime Music and Dance 1899 Central America/Caribbean United Fruit Company Forms, Consolidating Holdings in Central America and the Caribbean 1899 Central America Vaccaro Brothers Begin Importing Bananas from Honduras to New Orleans 1899-1900 Europe Rediscovery of Mendel’s Hereditary Theory 1899-1902 Europe Britain Uses Balloons and Kites for Observation During the Boer War Feb. 4, 1899-July 4, 1902 Southeast Asia Philippine Insurrection May 18-July, 1899 Europe First Hague Peace Conference Sept. 6, 1899-July 3, 1900 East Asia Hay Articulates “Open Door” Policy Toward China Oct. 11, 1899-May 31, 1902 Africa South African War Oct. 13, 1899-May 17, 1900 Africa Siege of Mafeking Nov. 25, 1899 Middle East Baghdad Railway Concession Is Granted to Germany Winter, 1899-1900 Antarctica An Expedition Led by Carsten Borchgrevink Is First to Winter in the Antarctic 1900 Europe Freud Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams 1900 Europe Lebesgue Develops New Integration Theory 1900 Europe Léon Gaumont Demonstrates Synchronized Sound and Pictures 1900 North America Railroad Engineer Octave Chanute Advises Orville and Wilbur Wright, Alexander Graham Bell, and Samuel Langley on Aviation Projects 1900 Europe Wiechert Invents the Inverted Pendulum Seismograph Jan. 14, 1900 Europe Puccini’s Tosca Premieres in Rome Feb., 1900 North America Kodak Introduces Brownie Cameras Feb. 27, 1900 Europe British Labour Party Is Formed Mar. 23, 1900 Europe Evans Discovers Crete’s Minoan Civilization May, 1900-Sept. 7, 1901 East Asia Boxer Rebellion June, 1900-1904 Central America Suppression of Yellow Fever July 2, 1900 Europe Zeppelin Completes the First Flying Dirigible Sept. 8, 1900 North America Galveston Hurricane Nov. 8, 1900 North America Dreiser Publishes Sister Carrie Dec. 14, 1900 Europe Articulation of Quantum Theory Dec. 14, 1900 Africa Franco-Italian Agreement Establishes Division of Power in North Africa Dec. 15, 1900 North America General Electric Opens Research Laboratory Dec. 23, 1900 North America First Wireless Radio Broadcast

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