A bibliography of important works and further resources in the study of military history.
Recently published secondary print resources are categorized by subject, such as General Studies, Military Theory and Strategy, and type of weapon or technology. Abbreviations are used at the end of each entry, summarizing features of the work as follows: “ill” for illustrations, “M” for maps, “tab” for tables, “chr” for chronology, “app” for appendixes, “glo” for glossary, “B” for bibliography, and “i” for index. These abbreviations are enclosed in brackets, for example: [ill, M, glo, B, i]
Several prominent publishers universally identified with series of works of compilation and collection in military, naval, air, and space matters, often published annually, are not included in the bibliographical listing but may be consulted for their ongoing and more professionally targeted publications. Important examples are Jane’s Fighting Ships, Jane’s Weapons Systems, Jane’s Infantry Weapons, Jane’s All the World’s Fighting Aircraft, Brassey’s Naval Annual, Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets, Naval Institute Guide to World Military Aviation, Conway’s All the World’s Fighting Ships, Royal United Services Institute and Brassey’s Defence Yearbook, Putnam Aviation Series, Guinness Book of Air Warfare, Guinness Book of Decisive Battles, and SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security.
Addington, Larry H. The Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century. 1984. Rev. ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. A synthesis of the massive changes in warfare since the eighteenth century, describing sociopolitical, technological, and organizational patterns and covering the dynastic wars up to the post-World War II period. [ill, M, B, i] _______. Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. A companion to the previous entry, incorporating ancient, medieval, and early modern land and naval warfare, including the age of sailing ship warfare and the expansion of European overseas empires. [ill, M, B, i] Bell, Martin. Through Gates of Fire: a Journey into World Disorder. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003. A veteran war reporter analyzes the evolution of warfare over the 1980’s, 1990’s, and 2000’s, by looking at the integration of the roles of war, journalism, and politics in how modern warfare is presented and justified to the general public. [i] Black, Jeremy. The Age of Total War, 1860-1945. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2006. Defines “total war” in terms of the geographic and chronological scope of warfare, the intensity of the conflict, and the involvement of civilians in the conflict. The author sets aside the period roughly from the American Civil War to the end of World War II as being different from both the eras before and after, in that the wars fought during these periods had immense consequences for large parts of the world and were fought by entire societies, not just their armies. [B, i] Boog, Horst, ed. The Conduct of the Air War in the Second World War: An International Comparison. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992. The proceedings from a conference in Germany in 1988, containing thirty-four essays about various aspects of the air war, including surveys and comparisons of the performance of seven nations, including the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Italy. [B, i] Brodie, Bernard, and Fawn Brodie. From Crossbow to H-Bomb. New York: Dell, 1962, 1973. A useful introduction to weapons development. [ill, B] Clodfelter, Michael D. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991. 2 vols. London: McFarland, 1992. A statistical record of all military casualties of modern warfare, discussing the impact of weapons since the introduction of gunpowder. [tab, B, i] Contamine, Philippe. War in the Middle Ages. Translated by Michael Jones. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1980. A good survey of medieval European warfare, neglecting naval aspects, by a prominent French authority. [ill, B, i] Cordesman, Anthony H., and Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War. 3 vols. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990-1996. A study of the changes that faced military planners at the end of the Cold War. [ill, M, B, i] Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955. A classic study of the enormous influence of the Prussian Army Officer Corps, and of armies that were based on the Prussian military system. [B, i] De Moor, J. A., and H. L. Wesseling, eds. Imperialism and War: Essays on Colonial Wars in Asia and Africa. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1989. A collection of academic essays on the nature of the European colonial powers involving themselves in warfare around the world before the start of World War I. [M, B, i] DeVries, Kelly. Medieval Military Technology. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 1992. An encyclopedic production divided into four sections: arms and armor, artillery, fortifications, and warships. [ill, B, i] Diagram Group. Weapons: An International Encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized reference work featuring all types of weapons developed in all cultures over seven thousand years. [ill, glo, B, i] Echevarris, Antulio J., II. Imagining Future War: The West Technological Revolution and Visions of Wars to Come, 1880-1914. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2007. A short history and analysis of the changes in warfare in the three decades before World War I. [ill, B, i] Elgood, Robert. The Arms and Armour of Arabia in the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Centuries. New York: Scholar, 1994. A folio-sized, profusely illustrated survey of Islamic arms. [ill, app, glo, B, i] Fuller, J. F. C. The Decisive Battles of the Western World. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1954. A detailed account of thirty-four battles from Salamis to D day, by a leading British military authority. [M, B, i] Glete, Jan. Navies and Nations: Warships, Navies, and State Building in Europe and America, 1500-1860. 2 vols. Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist, 1993. A comprehensive and definitive reassessment by a remarkable Swedish scholar of the role of naval warfare in the development of hegemonic expansive powers of Europe and America; a multinational review and comparison in statistical and quantitative detail of twelve major and more than forty minor navies during the period. [ill, tab, B, i] _______. Warfare at Sea, 1500-1650: Maritime Conflicts and the Transformation of Europe. London: Routledge, 2000. A brilliant synthesis incorporating themes of naval technology, tactics, strategy, personnel, administration, logistics, and national states as related to maritime wars during the early modern period. [M, B, i] Hall, Bert S. Weapons and Warfare in Renaissance Europe: Gunpowder, Technology, and Tactics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. A discussion of gunpowder as a catalyst for historical change and related technological developments in gun casting and gun carriages. [ill, M, B, i] Hanson, Victor D., ed. Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience. London: Routledge, 1991. Papers by experts on ancient warfare, covering men and weapons, battlefield environment, and rules of war. [ill, B, i] Harkavy, Robert E., and Stephanie G. Neuman. Warfare and the Third World. New York: Palgrave, 2001. A survey of the nature of warfare in the Third World from the end of the Cold War. [B, i] Haythornthwaite, Philip J. The Colonial Wars Source Book. London: Arms & Armour, 1995. A detailed reference work that includes vast amounts of information on colonial wars, colonial armies, and weapons in use at the time, as well as biographies of the major figures involved. [ill, M, tab, chr, glo, B, i] _______. The Napoleonic Souce Book. London: Arms & Armour, 1990. An important reference work on the Napoleonic Wars, starting with a general survey and then covering (alphabetically) all involved countries, the types of weapons used by them, and biographies of the major commanders, with copious illustrations and quotations from original sources. [ill, M, tab, chr, glo, B, i] _______. The World War I Source Book. London: Arms & Armour, 1992. Like others in this series, this book provides much detail on the armies involved in the conflict, as well as the political background to their involvement and then the nature of the fighting and the weaponry and biographies of the important commanders, as well as a detailed list of contemporary and secondary source material. [ill, M, tab, chr, glo, B, i] Haywood, John. Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of the Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity. London: Routledge, 1991. A look at a neglected subject: the impressive maritime achievements of Germanic seafarers before the Vikings, with coverage of warfare, piracy, migration, and trade. [ill, M, glo, B, i] Headrick, Daniel R. Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. A discussion of nineteenth century imperialism as facilitated by innovations in technology such as steamships, submarine cables, guns, and gunboats. [B] Hedges, Chris. What Every Person Should Know About War. New York: Free Press, 2003. A short overview of warfare in the post-Cold War period. [B, i] Hogg, O. F. G. The Royal Arsenal: Its Background, Origin, and Subsequent History. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963. A comprehensive and heavily documented history of the British ordnance industry since the eleventh century. [ill, app, B] Holsinger, M. Paul, ed. War and American Popular Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. A large and detailed encyclopedia including not only conflicts within the United States but also those overseas involving the U.S. armed forces, such as Korea, Vietnam, and other conflicts after 1975. [ill, B, i] Howard, Howard E., ed. The Theory and Practice of War. New York: Praeger, 1965. A series of fifteen essays dedicated to Basil Liddell Hart, written by noted scholars such as Peter Paret, Gordon Craig, Jay Luvaas, Brian Bond, Norman Gibbs, and Henry Kissinger. [B] Ion, A. Hamish, and Keith Neilson, eds. Elite Military Formations in War and Peace. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996. A series of seven scholarly presentations of the history of special units from ancient times to the present. [B, i] Isby, David C., and Charles Kamps, Jr. Armies of NATO’s Central Front. London: Jane’s Publishing Company Limited, 1985. A detailed survey of the military forces of the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the last part of the Cold War. [ill, i] Jensen, Geoffrey, and Andrew Wiest, eds. War in the Age of Technology: Myriad Faces of Modern Armed Conflict. New York: New York University Press, 2001. An analysis of how warfare has changed from the end of the Cold War and the increasing importance of technology. [B, i] Jones, Archer. The Art of War in the Western World. London: Harrap, 1987. An overview of twenty-five hundred years of land-based warfare in the West from the social-history perspective, with a focus on institutions, comparative analysis, and interactions. [ill, tab, M, B, i] Jordan, Gerald, ed. Naval Warfare in the Twentieth Century, 1900-1945. New York: Russak, 1977. Thirteen essays in honor of Arthur Marder, by noted scholars such as Paul Kennedy, on John Fisher and Alfred von Tirpitz; Robin Higham, on peripheral weapons; Peter Gretton, on U-boats; Sadao Asada, on Japanese admirals; and W. A. B. Douglas, on the Canadian navy. [B] Keegan, John, ed. The Book of War: Twenty-five Centuries of Great War Writing. London: Viking, 1999. A collection of eighty-two contemporary accounts from Thucydides to Desert Storm. [B, i] Keen, Maurice, ed. Medieval Warfare: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Twelve expert historians on methods of warfare from 700 to 1500, including H. B. Clarke on the Vikings, Clifford Rogers on the Hundred Years’ War, and Felipe Fernandez-Armesto on naval warfare. [ill, M, B, i] Kierman, Frank A., and J. K. Fairbank, eds. The Chinese Ways in Warfare. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974. A historical survey focusing on distinctive elements in Chinese warfare. [ill, B] Kightly, Charles. Strongholds of the Realm: Defenses in Britain from Prehistory to the Twentieth Century. New York: Thames, 1979. A history of fortresses from early times to the present. [ill, B, i] Laffin, John. Brassey’s Battles: Thirty-five Hundred Years of Conflicts, Campaigns, and Wars from A-Z. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1995. A substantial alphabetical survey of seven thousand battles, campaigns, and wars. [ill, M, i] Lynn, John A., ed. Feeding Mars: Logistics in Western Warfare from the Middle Ages to the Present. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993. A dozen articles by expert scholars, such as Lynn, on Martin van Creveld’s Supplying War; Bernard Bachrach, on logistics for the Crusades; Jon Sumida, on British industrial logistics and naval war production during World War I; and Timothy Runyan, on naval logistics during the Hundred Years’ War. [B, i] _______, ed. Tools of War: Instruments of Warfare, 1445-1871. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. A series of papers from a conference on how weapons shaped military thought and organization of armed forces, including Simon Adams on the late sixteenth century Habsburg hegemony, William Maltby on sailing ship tactics, Dennis Showalter on the Prussian army, and Hew Strachan on the British army. [B, i] McElwee, William L. The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1974. A general survey. [M, B, i] McInnes, Colin J., and G. D. Sheffield, eds. Warfare in the Twentieth Century: Theory and Practice. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1988. Nine essays by expert scholars, including McInnes, on nuclear strategy; Keith Jeffery, on colonial warfare; and Geoffrey Till, on naval power. [B, i] Macksey, Kenneth. For Want of a Nail: The Impact on War of Logistics and Communications. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1989. A study of technological developments in the fields of logistics and communications and their impact on warfare. [ill, M, B, i] _______. Technology and War: The Impact of Science on Weapon Development and Modern Battle. London: Arms & Armour, 1986. Accounts of how science and scientific developments have influenced weaponry. [ill, i] McNeill, William H. The Age of Gunpowder Empires, 1450-1800. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association, 1989. An informative guide by an outstanding scholar on the role of gunpowder in imperial expansion. [B] _______. The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force, and Society Since 1000. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. One volume in a trilogy by the premier scholar on world history, extending the concept of the military-industrial complex back several centuries to 1000 and presenting its practical and far-reaching impact on world society. [B, i] Mallet, M. E., and J. R. Hale. The Military Organization of a Renaissance State: Venice, 1400-1617. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984. A history of one of the earliest, and most innovative and formative, military states, including coverage of its standing army, the institutionalization of its armed forces, its galley navy, and its famous arsenal. [ill, M, app, B, i] Messenger, Charles. The Century of Warfare: Worldwide Conflict from 1900 to the Present Day. London: HarperCollins, 1995. A detailed overview of changes in warfare during the twentieth century based on the television documentary series of the same name. [ill, M, B, i] Millett, Allan R., and Williamson Murray, eds. Military Effectiveness. 3 vols. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1988. Twenty-four eminent scholars systematically assess twenty-one comparative case studies of military performance in similar categories–political, operational, strategic, and tactical–for three designated periods: World War I, the interwar years, and World War II. [ill, M, B, i] Moulton, James L. A Study of Warfare in Three Dimensions: The Norwegian Campaign of 1940. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1966. A participant’s contention that the Norwegian Campaign of 1940 was the first major campaign with operations on the surface, subsurface, and in the air. [ill, M, B, i] Murray, Williamson, and Allan R. Millett. A War to Be Won: Fighting the Second World War. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000. A substantial survey of World War II, focusing on traditional military operations on the battlefield and assessing commanders such as Douglas MacArthur, Omar N. Bradley, Chester W. Nimitz, and First Viscount Slim, categorized from bad to best. [ill, M, B, i] Nicolle, David. Medieval Warfare Source Book: Christian Europe and Its Neighbours. London: Brockhampton Press, 1996. One of two volumes in an important reference book covering medieval warfare over various time periods, with copious illustrations, and original source material covering Europe and also the Crusades, and Central Asia. [ill, M, tab, chr, glo, B, i] _______. Medieval Warfare Source Book: Warfare in Western Christendom. London: Brockhampton Press, 1999. The second volume of Nicolle’s reference work covering warfare within Europe, arranged chronologically. [ill, M, tab, chr, glo, B, i] Norman, Vesey B., and Don Pottinger. A History of War and Weapons, 449-1660: English Warfare from the Anglo-Saxons to Cromwell. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1966. A survey of medieval warfare, exclusive of naval warfare, aimed at the introductory student. [ill, i] Oakeshott, R. Ewart. European Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution. Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell Press, 2000. A general survey. [ill, B, i] O’Connell, Robert L. Of Arms and Men: A History of War, Weapons, and Aggression. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. A general review of the development of weapons, with the observation that military leaders disliked revolutionary breakthroughs in weaponry. [ill, B, i] Partington, J. R. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1960, 1998. A study of how these pyrotechnics and firearms went from China to the Mediterranean through the Muslim world. [ill, tab, glo, B, i] Payne, Samuel B. The Conduct of War: An Introduction to Modern Warfare. Oxford, England: Blackwell, 1989. A survey of contemporary warfare, including nuclear war; conventional land war, sea, and air actions; and guerrilla warfare. [ill, B, i] Perrett, Bryan. The Battle Book: Crucial Conflicts in History from 1469 B.C. to the Present. New York: Sterling, 1996. An easy-to-use, encyclopedic guide covering 566 battles during more than three thousand years of warfare. [B] Pollington, Stephen. The Warrior’s Way: England in the Viking Age. New York: Sterling, 1990. A nicely illustrated, folio-sized volume covering the period from Alfred the Great to William the Conqueror. [ill, app, M, B, i] Porter, Bruce D. War and the Rise of the State: The Military Foundations of Modern Politics. New York: Free Press, 1994. An important synthesis of the increasingly popular topic of war and state formation, exclusive of the United States, delineating dynastic, national, collectivist, and totalitarian state patterns. [B, i] Porter, Patrick. Military Orientalism: Eastern War Through Western Eyes. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. An account illustrating different techniques of fighting and how this has transformed thinking with different forms of asymmetrical warfare. [B, i] Quick, John. Dictionary of Weapons and Military Terms. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized dictionary defining thousands of terms. [ill, B] Ralston, David B. Importing the European Army: The Introduction of European Military Techniques and Institutions into the Extra-European World, 1600-1914. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. This book covers the transfer of European technology within Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere, and the changes which have resulted. [B, i] Reardon, Carol. Soldiers and Scholars: The U.S. Army and the Uses of Military History, 1865-1920. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1990. A description of the process of professionalization within the U.S. Army, from an author with an outstanding record of historical writing. [B, i] Roth, Jonathan P. War and World History. Chantilly, Va.: The Teaching Company, 2009. Presented by the well-known military historian and director of the University of Calilfornia’s Burdick Military History Project, these forty-eight lectures, captured on individual DVDs, cover such topics as “The Stone Age War,” “The Chariot Revolution,” “Monotheisms and Militaries,” “The Weaponization of Information,” and “The Struggle for Peace and Justice.” Southworth, Samuel A., ed. Great Raids in History: From Drake to Desert One. New York: Sarpedon, 1997. Accounts of nineteen small-unit, irregular warfare actions, both failed and successful, during the last four hundred years, including raids by or identified with Sir Francis Drake, George A. Custer, Jimmy Carter, and Benjamin Netanyahu. [B, i] Stewart, Richard W. The English Ordnance Office, 1585-1625: A Case Study in Bureaucracy. Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell Press, 1996. An outstanding example of the importance of logistics in warfare, a case study of England’s supply of all ordnance facilities to all services during a formative period. [tab, B, i] Stradling, R. A. The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War, 1568-1668. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. A thesis that proposes that Spanish arms at sea in the long war against the Dutch produced a change in the nature of warfare at sea; key factors were the use of Dunkirk as base, the frigate warship, the process of prize taking, and even the wages of seamen. [tab, glo, app, M, B, i] Thompson, Julian. The Lifeblood of War: Logistics in Armed Conflict. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1991. Presents eight case studies to form a comprehensive analysis of this vital aspect of war, including North Africa, Italy, and Burma in World War II; Korea; Vietnam; the Arab-Israeli October War; and the Falkland Islands, the latter reported from firsthand participation. [ill, M, B, i] Thompson, Sir Robert, ed. War in Peace: An Analysis of Warfare from 1945 to the Present Day. London: Orbis, 1985. A detailed study by the British counterinsurgency expert who advised successfully on the Malayan Emergency, and later advised the United States on Vietnam. [ill, M. B, i] Townshend, Charles, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. A beautifully illustrated collection of stimulating essays by prominent authorities, such as Richard Overy, Richard Holmes, and Martin van Creveld. [ill, M, B, i] Toy, Sidney. Castles: Their Construction and History. 1939. Reprint. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1985. A survey of the general characteristics and history of castles, with examples. [ill, B, i] _______. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1700. New York: Macmillan, 1955. A popular history presenting a general overview covering five thousand years. [ill] Unger, Richard W. The Ship in the Medieval Economy, 600-1600. London: Croom Helm, 1980. A comprehensive and highly technical survey based primarily upon extensive discoveries in underwater archaeology, a relatively new discipline that has contributed vastly to knowledge in this field. Stresses the economic, social, and cultural aspects of ship design and how developments stimulated commercial, military, and imperial expansion. [ill, B, i] Unsworth, Michael E., ed. Military Periodicals: United States and Selected International Journals and Newspapers. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990. A comprehensive reference guide to military journals and periodicals such as Armed Forces and Society, Proceedings of the Naval Institute, Royal United Services Institute Journal, Air Power History, Aviation Week, and Space Technology. [chr, app, i] Van Creveld, Martin L. Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977. A provocative early analysis from an innovative and controversial author, an Israeli professor who contends that logistics is nine-tenths of the business of war. [M, B, i] _______. Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present. New York: Free Press, 1989. A survey of dramatic changes in warfare over four thousand years due to advances in technology, concentrating on the systematization of war and its increasing remoteness from reality; divided into chronological sections such as the age of tools, the age of machines, the age of systems, and the age of automation. [ill, B, i] _______. The Transformation of War. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1991. An account of the changes in warfare at the end of the Cold War. [B, i] Verbruggen, J. F. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages from the Eighth Century to 1340. Translated by Sumner Willard and Mrs. R. W. Southern. 2d rev. ed. Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell Press, 1998. A classic by a noted Belgian scholar of land warfare, featuring warfare of knights and foot soldiers and their tactics and strategies. [ill] Warner, Philip. Firepower: From Slings to Star Wars. London: Grafton Books, 1988. A good general history about the invention and use of new weaponry. [ill, B, i] Wright, Quincy. A Study of War: An Analysis of the Causes, Nature, and Control of War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942. An encyclopedic and monumental study, with brilliant observations and analyses, originally formulated in the 1920’s but updated during World War II. [ill, tab, app, B, i] Albion, Robert G. Makers of Naval Policy, 1798-1947. Edited by Rowena Reed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980. An official study of the making of naval administration and policy for the United States up until the time of amalgamation of the armed services. [B, i] Armitage, M. J., and R. A. M. Mason, eds. Air Power in the Nuclear Age: Theory and Practice. London: Macmillan, 1983. Nine essays assessing the role of airpower during the Cold War. [B, i] Asprey, Robert B. War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History. 2 vols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1975. Rev. ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1994. The classic history describing dozens of instances of the employment of irregular forces in conjunction with a larger political-military strategy. [M, B, i] Bacon, Benjamin W. Sinews of War: How Technology, Industry, and Transportation Won the Civil War. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1997. An account of how the Union created and sustained a logistical advantage during the American Civil War. [ill, i] Ball, Desmond, and Jeffrey Richel, eds. Strategic Nuclear Targeting. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986. A description of an essential aspect of nuclear weapons development, covering, for example, the Single Integrated Plan formulated by the United States. [ill, M, B, i] Barker, A. J. Suicide Weapon: Japanese Kamikaze Forces in World War II. New York: Ballantine, 1971. A study of the variety of kamikaze forces, including aircraft, submarines, and entire fleets, used during and especially toward the end of World War II. [ill, B] Bartlett, Merrill L., ed. Assault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1983. Fifty articles describing amphibious campaigns, such as the Norman Conquest, the Mongols against Japan, Gallipoli, Dieppe, and the Falkland Islands. [ill, B] Bartusis, Mark C. The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204-1453. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992. A synthesis describing military institutions of Byzantium from the Fourth Crusade until the empire’s fall to the Ottoman Turks. [ill, M, tab, glo, B, i] Bateman, Robert L., ed. Digital War: A View from the Front Lines. Novato, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1999. Eight essays by experts on the strategy and tactics for the “digital battlefield.” [tab, B] Beaumont, Roger A. Military Elites: Special Fighting Units in the Modern World. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974. A study of several modern elite units, including the French Foreign Legion, the Green Berets, and Combined Operation Headquarters. [ill, B, i] Bellamy, Chris. The Evolution of Modern Land Warfare: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge, 1990. An analysis of land warfare at the very end of the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Bidwell, Shelford, and Dominick Graham. Fire-Power: British Army Weapons and Theories of War, 1904-1945. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1982. A description of the process aimed to link together artillery, infantry, tactical air, and communication, all to create a doctrine leading to effective command and control. [ill, M, B, i] Brodie, Bernard. A Layman’s Guide to Naval Strategy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1943. A classic text on sea power, tools, command of the sea, bases, and the air arm. [ill, M, B, i] _______. Strategy in a Missile Age. 1959. Reprint. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965. An early analysis of the significance of the nuclear age, pointing out the danger of precipitating total war. [B] Chaliand, Gerard, ed. Guerrilla Strategies: An Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. A collection of case studies–for example, Burma, China, Cuba, South Africa, and Yugoslavia. [B] Colomb, Philip H. Naval Warfare: Its Ruling Principles and Practice Historically Treated. 3d ed. London: W. H. Allen, 1891. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990. An early treatise on the strategic implications of the study of naval history to demonstrate certain laws governing naval warfare. [ill, tab, M] Corbett, Julian S. Some Principles of Maritime Strategy. New York: Longmans, Green, 1911. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1988. A treatise seen by some experts as the most appropriate and important of all relating to naval, and even national, strategy. [ill, B, i] Corum, James S. The Luftwaffe: Creating the Operational Air War, 1918-1940. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1997. A German perspective on air warfare. Cox, Sebastian, ed. The Strategic Air War Against Germany, 1939-1945: The Official Report of the British Bombing Survey Unit. London: Cass, 1998. An extensive British investigation, originally withheld, now published, into controversial strategic bombing. [ill, B, i] Douhet, Giulio. The Command of the Air. Translated by Dino Ferrari. New York: Coward, 1921. A treatise by the Italian officer, the original theorist and advocate of airpower. [B] Ellis, John. Brute Force: Allied Strategy and Tactics in the Second World War. New York: Viking, 1990. A revisionist assessment positing that the Allies won the war because of industrial capacity only and that Allied commanders were incapable of effective warfare. [tab, app, M, B, i] Gat, Azar. The Development of Military Thought: The Nineteenth Century. Oxford, England: Clarendon, 1992. A continuation of the author’s The Origins of Military Thought, about strategy and military theory during the nineteenth century, in which the French Revolution introduced a new mode of warfare, Prussia and the mass army developed, and total war began to be anticipated. [B, i] _______. The Origins of Military Thought: From the Enlightenment to Clausewitz. Oxford, England: Clarendon, 1989. An examination of how conceptions of military theory emerged from the Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment. [B, i] Gray, Colin S. Strategy for Chaos: Revolutions in Military Affairs and the Evidence of History. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2002. Conceptually analyzes the idea of “revolutions in military affairs,” the adoption of wholesale changes in military strategies by numerous or important nations, comparing the changes that took place during the Napoleonic Era, World War I, and the nuclear era as context for the revolution taking place in the 1990’s and 2000’s due to the application of information technology to warfare. [B, i] Guilmartin, John F. Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974. A look at how the sixteenth century domination of the galley over the Mediterranean culminated in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and how the development of gunpowder and heavy cannons contributed to the decline of southern, and the rise of northern, Europe. [ill, B, i] Hague, Arnold. The Allied Convoy System, 1939-1945: Its Organization, Defence, and Operation. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2000. An intensive study based on convoy records. [ill, B, i] Handel, Michael I. Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought. 1992. 3d ed. London: Cass, 2000. A detailed textual analysis of the great military strategists, such as Sunzi (Sun Tzu); Niccolò Machiavelli; Carl von Clausewitz; Antoine Henri, baron de Jomini; and Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). [tab, M, B, i] Hanzhang, Tao. Sun Tzu’s “Art of War”: The Modern Chinese Interpretation. Translated by Yuan Sibling. New York: Sterling, 2000. The classical work on military affairs, dealing with war, politics, economics, diplomacy, geography, and astronomy. [ill, M, i] Hawkes, Sonia Chadwick, ed. Weapons and Warfare in Anglo-Saxon England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. A collection of papers by experts from several disciplines, including history, archaeology, anthropology, and metallurgy. [ill, B, i] Honan, William H. Bywater: The Man Who Invented the Pacific War. London: Macdonald, 1990. A detailed account of the Bywater plan, outlined in a number of books, on the strategy Japan would eventually use to fight the Pacific war. [ill, M, B, i] Hughes, B. P. Open Fire: Artillery Tactics from Marlborough to Wellington. London: Bird, 1983. A focused study of artillery in the formative eighteenth century, including the dominance of smoothbore field artillery weapons and the tactics, organization, and operations that were developed along with them. [ill, M, B, i] Hughes, Wayne P. Fleet Tactics: Theory and Practice. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986. A major contribution to naval literature; a comprehensive survey of naval tactics over five distinct periods, such as those of sailing ships, big gunships, and carriers. [ill, tab, app, B, i] Inoguchi, Rikihei, and Nakajima Tadashi. The Divine Wind: Japan’s Kamikaze Force in World War II. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1958. The Japanese perspective and rationale for the unique kamikaze force used on an increasing scale during the war. [ill, i] Jacobsen, Carl G., ed. The Uncertain Course: New Weapons, Strategies and Mind-sets. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. An account of the changing nature in war in the last years of the Cold War. [B, i] Joes, Anthony James. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. A series of case studies and 151 profiles of guerrilla leaders, including those of the American Revolution, Haiti, the Boer War, the Chinese Civil War, and the Vietnam War. [M, B, i] Johnson, David E. Fast Tanks and Heavy Bombers: Innovation in the U.S. Army, 1917-1945. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998. A critical analysis with extensive documentation of how and why the United States was unprepared for World War II. [B, i] Jones, Archer. Civil War Command and Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat. New York: Free Press, 1995. A sophisticated analysis of strategy during the American Civil War, focusing on key decisions. [ill, M, B, i] _______. Elements of Military Strategy: An Historical Approach. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996. A conceptualization supported by extensive statistics, using history as a source of ideas; a series of case studies considering strategy, logistics, tactics, and operations. [ill, M, B, i] Kane, Thomas M. Ancient China on Postmodern War: Enduring Ideas from the Chinese Strategic Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2007. Outlines the social context in which Chinese military philosophers, such as the vaunted Sunzi (Sun Tzu), wrote, noting that it, like the early 2000’s, was a time of social, economic, and military change. Using both Chinese military strategists and later European military thought, the book looks at how such classical military thought can benefit modern debates over military strategy. [B, i] Kemp, Paul. Convoy Protection: The Defence of Seaborne Trade. London: Arms & Armour, 1993. A study of the development and strategy of convoy protection, as used, for example, by France during the early modern period, against German U-boats during World War I, and against American submarines in the Pacific during World War II. [ill, tab, B, i] Kennedy, Paul M., ed. Grand Strategies in War and Peace. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991. Ten essays on national strategies by noted scholars such as Kennedy, on Britain; John Hattendorf, on the War of the Spanish Succession; Michael Howard, on World War I; Dennis Showalter, on Germany; and Douglas Porch, on France. [B, i] Laqueur, Walter. Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976. A general and historical survey of guerrilla warfare, covering partisans against Adolf Hitler, National Liberation movements, and fictional accounts by Honoré de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, and Ernest Hemingway. [chr, B, i] _______. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. An important review and discussion on the history and psychology of terrorists, including animal rights activists, UFO (unidentified flying object) cultists, and religious extremists, linking them to literature and popular culture. [B, i] _______, ed. The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology. New York: New American, 1977. Accounts from forty authors taken from the eighteenth century to the present. [B] _______, ed. The Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978. A series of writings selected by the author. An examination, based on terrorism as it existed in the 1970’s, of the origins of terrorism as a tactic and the military, social, and religious philosophies from which it flows. [B] Leighton, Richard, and Robert W. Coakley. Global Logistics and Strategy. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1955-1968. A study of the intricate and complicated logistical process worldwide and its impact on strategy. [ill, M, B, i] Liddell Hart, Basil H. The Strategy of Indirect Approach. London: Faber and Faber, 1941. A survey, by one of the most influential strategic thinkers of the twentieth century, of the history and making of strategy; later editions include a chapter on unconventional warfare. [M] Luttwak, Edward N. The Political Uses of Sea Power. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974. A study of alternative operations related to diplomacy and international affairs, such as naval “presence,” interposition, and blockade. [B] _______. Strategy and History. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1985. A volume containing essays by Luttwak covering the strategy of military deterrence, and the use of seapower, as well as other topics. [i] McNeilly, Mark. Sun Tzu and the Art of Modern Warfare. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. A treatise on the continued relevance of Sunzi (Sun Tzu), including references to terrorism. [B, i] Mahan, Alfred Thayer. The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793-1812. Boston: Little, Brown, 1892. The second and continuing treatise about the impact of sea power based on Mahan’s understanding of the classic case study, the British success against France. [ill, M, B, i] _______. The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783. Boston: Little, 1890. An enormously influential treatise on the decisive influence of naval battle fleets on national development and expansion, based on Mahan’s perceptions of British history during the early modern period; said to be read and heeded by political and naval officials of all the major powers during the 1890’s and later, and considered the “bible of the Blue Water School” of naval expansionists. [ill, M, B, i] _______. Naval Strategy: Compared and Contrasted with the Principles and Practices of Military Operations on Land. London: Sampson, 1911. A later treatise of Mahan, demonstrating the differences between military and naval strategies. [ill, M, i] Mao Zedong. Six Essays on Military Affairs. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1971. Six essays, written between 1936 and 1948, that were influential in the thinking of the Chinese Communist army. Mao Zedong and Che Guevara. Guerilla Warfare. London: Cassell & Company, 1962. An account of the nature of guerrilla warfare by two of its leading protagonists, involving comments not just on conflicts in which they were involved but on the philosophical underpinnings of their strategies as well. [i] Martin, Laurence W. The Sea in Modern Strategy. New York: Praeger, 1967. A review and critique of notable naval strategists, such as Alfred Thayer Mahan, Julian S. Corbett, and Bernard Brodie, exclusive of important factors such as aircraft, submarines, and missiles. [ill, B] Miller, Edward S. War Plan Orange: The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897-1945. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991. An extensively researched and award-winning study of the famous American war plan, first formulated about 1900, in case of war with Japan and further developed as opposing schools of thought, “thrusting” versus “cautionary,” pressured for decisive influence. [ill, M, B, i] Mitchell, William L. Winged Defense: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power, Economic and Military. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1925. Reprint. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 1988. The classic advocacy of airpower by Billy Mitchell. [ill] Murray, Williamson, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein, eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States, and War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. A study similar to Paret’s Makers of Modern Strategy, with more emphasis on the process and coverage of earlier times, including seventeen case studies on topics such as the Peloponnesian War, Rome versus Carthage, Ming Dynasty China, Philip II of Spain, Winston Churchill, and Israel. [ill, B, i] Murray, Williamson, and Richard Hart Sinnreich, eds. The Past as Prologue: The Importance of History to the Military Profession. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Although the study of history is clearly important to military strategists, the book analyzes the challenges of applying historical events and ideas to modern warfare. Military conflict has long provided fertile ground for historians, and there are problems that have recurred throughout military history for which having a good contextual knowledge is vital. [B, i] Nasution, Abdul Haris. Fundamentals of Guerilla Warfare, and the Indonesian Defence System, Past and Future. Djakarta: Indonesian Army Information Service, 1953. A detailed history of the nature of successful guerrilla warfare during the Dutch-Indonesian War, and also how this can be used in other conflicts. [ill, M] O’Neill, Richard. Suicide Squads: Axis and Allied Special Attack Weapons of World War II, Their Development, and Their Missions. New York: Salamander, 1981. A review of the use, mostly by the Japanese, of torpedoes, midget submarines, and aircraft. [ill, M, B, i] Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986. Based on the 1943 classic edited by Edward Mead Earle, a superb guide to modern strategy; twenty-eight essays by eminent scholars, twenty-two of them new, including Felix Gilbert on Niccolò Machiavelli, R. R. Palmer on Frederick the Great, Paret on Carl von Clausewitz, Hajo Holborn on the Prussian-German school, and David McIsaac on airpower theory. [B, i] Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998. An argument by a noted expert on the early modern European military that Philip II of Spain formulated a grand strategy based on imperialism and expansion, a view contrary to some prominent scholars, such as Fernand Braudel, Paul Kennedy, and Henry Kamen. [ill, B, i] Perla, Peter P. The Art of Wargaming. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1990. An analysis of the techniques of war-gaming as essential to grand strategy. [ill, app, B, i] Reynolds, Clark G. Command of the Sea: The History and Strategy of Maritime Empires. 2 vols. New York: William Morrow, 1974. A substantial historical synthesis by a prominent authority, characterized by depth and balance and an especially impressive bibliography. [M, B, i] Robison, Samuel S., and Mary L. Robison. A History of Naval Tactics from 1530 to 1930: The Evolution of Tactical Maxims. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1942. An old classic, a substantial survey focusing on technical aspects of naval warfare, from King Richard I’s Third Crusade to the Armada and Jutland campaigns. [ill, M] Roskill, Stephen W. The Strategy of Sea Power: Its Development and Application. London: Collins, 1962. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981. A collection of the Lees-Knowles lectures given at Cambridge University, with extensive use of historical analysis as an apology for Julian S. Corbett, who had been ignored during World War I. [B] Ross, Steven T. American War Plans, 1919-1941. 5 vols. New York: Garland, 1992. Almost two thousand pages describing in detail the making of a series of American war plans during the interwar period, the responsibility of the Joint Army-Navy Board; individual volumes cover peacetime war plans, plans for war against the British and Japanese, plans to meet the Axis threats, coalition plans, and plans for global war. [ill, M] _______. American War Plans, 1939-1945. London: Cass, 1996. The story after the making of the various plans as described in the previous entry; a more complicated and challenging process, dealing with problems within the coalition, interservice rivalries, disagreements between field commanders and headquarters, and logistical restraints. [ill, M] Ryan, Alan. Thinking Across Time: Concurrent Historical Analysis on Military Operations. Duntroon, Australia: Land Warfare Studies Centre, 2001. A short working paper on Australian military thinking. Strachan, Hew, and Andreas Herberg-Rothe, eds. Clausewitz in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. A series of articles showing the continued relevance of Clausewitz in the post-Cold War period. [B, i] Van Creveld, Martin. Command in War. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985. A series of loosely connected essays about land warfare, presenting the historical evolution of the function of command, control, and communication in warfare, with an emphasis on the uncertainties. [ill, B, i] Wegener, Wolfgang. The Naval Strategy of the World War. Translated by Holger Herwig. 1929. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1989. A classic treatise written in approximately 1915 by a German vice admiral highly critical of Alfred von Tirpitz’s strategy and “risk fleet theory” and celebrated for his perceptiveness, his appreciation of the importance of geopolitics in naval strategy, and his “Atlantic vision,” which Germany should possibly have followed in World War I. [B, i] Weigley, Russell F. The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991. By a preeminent authority, a look at war from the initiation of conflict to the “the grand-scale battle,” a feature of military and naval professionalism. [M, B, i] _______. The American Way of War: A History of U.S. Military Strategy and Policy. New York: Macmillan, 1973. A study of American military institutions and a survey of American strategy, including coverage of George Washington and attrition, Robert E. Lee and Napoleonic strategy, Ulysses S. Grant and annihilation, Alfred Thayer Mahan and Stephen B. Luce and sea power and empire, Billy Mitchell and airpower, and Douglas MacArthur and the frustrations of limited war in Korea. [M, B, i] Wilt, Alan F. War from the Top: German and British Military Decision Making During World War II. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. A masterful analysis of the only two powers that fought throughout World War II, using a comparative approach to conclude that the overall direction of the war was better handled by the British and that, after 1940, all of Adolf Hitler’s decisions were flawed. [M, B, i] Wintringham, Thomas, and J. N. Blashford-Snell. Weapons and Tactics. London: Faber and Faber, 1943. Reprint. Baltimore: Penguin, 1973. A thought-provoking but dated analysis. [B, i] Batchelor, John, and Bryan Cooper. Fighter: A History of Fighter Aircraft. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974. A general survey. [ill, B] Beaver, Paul. Attack Helicopters. London: Arms & Armour, 1987. A survey of attack helicopters, first used for armed battlefield reconnaissance during the Korean War and later used as “gunships.” [ill] Boyce, Joseph C., ed. New Weapons for Air Warfare: Fire-Control Equipment, Proximity Fuzes, and Guided Missiles. Boston: Little, Brown, 1947. A post-World War II assessment by the Office of Scientific Research and Development of past technological accomplishments and anticipated future successes. [ill] Boyne, Walter J., ed. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2002. A detailed encyclopedia by the former director of the National Air and Space Museum, covering entries alphabetically for aircraft, conflicts, biographies, themes such as air war in the arts, and also the role of women. Covers wars through the initial war in Afghanistan. [ill, M, B] Buckley, John D. Air Power in the Age of Total War. London: University College, London, Press, 1999. An analysis of the changes in airpower after the end of the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Burrows, William E. By Any Means Necessary: America’s Secret Air War in the Cold War. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2001. A detailed account of the use of military and civilian airplanes during the Cold War. [B, i] Constant, Edward W. The Origins of the Turbojet Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. A discussion of the impact of an important technological advance. [ill, B, i] Cross, Wilbur. Zeppelins of World War I: The Dramatic Story of Germany’s Lethal Airships. New York: Paragon, 1991. A collection of accounts of little-publicized aerial warfare, German zeppelins bombing British cities. [ill, B, i] Everett-Heath, John. Helicopters in Combat: The First Fifty Years. London: Arms & Armour, 1992. A survey. Presents a detailed history of military helicopters from their first implementation as evacuation vehicles to the 2000’s, through their evolution during the Korean War, the Vietnam War (when aerial gunships first saw action), to the modern era, where they are one of the most ubiquitous and deadly weapons available on the battlefield. [ill, app, B, i] Godden, John, ed. Harrier: Ski Jump to Victory. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1983. A case study of the success of the Harrier jump-jet during the Falkland Islands campaign. [ill, i] Gooch, John, ed. Airpower: Theory and Practice. London: Cass, 1995. A series of essays about the development of airpower, including the contributions of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell, and Hugh Trenchard and the debate between advocates of precision and area bombing. [ill, M, B, i] Harris, Arthur T. Bomber Offensive. London: Collins, 1947. Reprint. London: Greenhill, 1990. Apologetics by the controversial commander of British strategic bombing. [M] Hastings, Max. Bomber Command: The Myths and Realities of the Strategic Bombing Offensive, 1939-1945. New York: Dial, 1979. An examination of the controversial question about the effectiveness of the Strategic Bombing Offensive. [ill, B, i] Hearn, Chester G. Carriers in Combat: The Air War at Sea. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2005. Covers naval air power, aircraft carriers at war, air admirals, strategies, and tactics in several twentieth century conflicts. [ill, M, B, i] Higham, Robin. Air Power: A Concise History. Rev. 3d ed. Manhattan, Kans.: Sunflower University Press, 1988. A historical survey. [ill, B, i] Homze, Edward L. Arming the Luftwaffe: The Reich Air Ministry and the German Aircraft Industry, 1919-1939. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976. A case study of industry, logistics, politics, and air force officials involved in the making of a major airpower. [ill, B, i] Hone, Thomas C., Norman Friedman, and Mark D. Mandeles. American and British Aircraft Carrier Development, 1919-1941. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999. A study of the extraordinary, fateful, and decisive innovations in the creation of British and American aircraft carriers. [ill, B, i] Kennett, Lee B. A History of Strategic Bombing. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982. A survey of airpower, from the initial fear of bomber aircraft to industrial preparation for massive production and eventual “total war.” [ill, B, i] Kozak, Warren. Lemay: The Life and Wars of General Curtis Lemay. Washington, D.C.: Regnert, 2009. A detailed history of General Curtis LeMay and his belief in the superiority of airpower. [ill, B, i] Marriott, Leo. Royal Navy Aircraft Carriers, 1945-1990. London: Ian Allan, 1985. A detailed history of the developments in aircraft carriers by the Royal Navy from the end of World War II. [ill, B, i] Mason, R. A. Air Power: An Overview of Roles. London: Brassey’s, 1987. A short account of the nature of airpower in the last years of the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Meilinger, Phillip S. Airwar: Theory and Practice. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2003. An analysis of the changes in aerial warfare from the end of the Cold War. [B, i] _______, ed. The Paths of Heaven: The Evolution of Airpower Theory. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University Press, 1997. Essays by teachers and students reviewing the origins and evolution, covering theorists such as Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell, and Hugh Trenchard. [B, i] Mikesh, Robert C. Zero Fighter. New York: Crown, 1980. An exquisite, double-folio publication production with foldout pages, covering the Mitsubishi Type 0 Japanese fighter, the Zero, a completely original aircraft design that achieved notable early success during World War II. [ill] Murphy, James T. Skip Bombing. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993. The story of the development of an effective low-altitude bombing tactic, used against Japanese supply and troop ships in the Pacific war, that increased “hits” from 1 to 72 percent. [ill, i] Nordeen, Lon O. Air Warfare in the Missile Age. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985. A detailed academic account of the changes in air warfare during the last period of the Cold War. [B, i] Rimal, Raymond L. Zeppelin! A Battle for Air Supremacy in World War I. London: Conway, 1984. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized volume telling the story of British and German developments in the use of the zeppelin during World War I and including photographs of bomb damage. [ill, M, B, i] Robinson, Douglas H. Giants of the Sky: A History of the Rigid Airship. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973. A scholarly survey and overview covering about forty years of development of 161 rigid airships in four nations. [B, i] Sherry, Michael S. The Rise of American Air Power: The Creation of Armageddon. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1987. A winner of the Bancroft Prize, the story of the creation and development of the American strategic bombing campaign and a cultural study of attitudes toward bombing. [ill, B, i] Smith, Peter C. Dive-Bomber: An Illustrated History. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1982. A history of the development of the dive-bomber and its impact. [ill, B, i] Winton, John. Air Power at Sea: 1945 to Today. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1987. An account of the nature of airpower during the Cold War. [ill, M, B, i] Alexander, Joseph H. Storm Landings: Epic Amphibious Battles in the Central Pacific. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997. Covers amphibious operations during World War II. [ill, M, glo, B, i] Bartlett, Merrill L., ed. Assault from the Sea: Essays on the History of Amphibious Warfare. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1983. Fifty articles describing amphibious campaigns, such as the Norman Conquest, the Mongols against Japan, Gallipoli, Dieppe, and the Falkland Islands. [ill, B, i] Croizat, Victor J. Across the Reef: The Amphibious Tracked Vehicle at War. New York: Sterling, 1989. An account of an early amphibious vehicle. [ill, M, B, i] Keyes, Lord. Amphibious Warfare and Combined Operations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1943. The chapters of the book, covering military conflicts from the eighteenth century through the mid-twentieth century, consist of lectures delivered by Britain’s first wartime director of combined operations during World War II, at the annual Lees Knowles Lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge University. McGee, William L. Amphibious Operations in the South Pacific in World War II. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif.: BMC, 2000-2002. A detailed history of the U.S. Marine Corps, especially the operations on the Solomons and Bougainville. [ill, M, B, i] Polmar, Norman, and Peter B. Mersky. Amphibious Warfare: The Illustrated History. London: Blandford, 1988. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized volume beginning with early combined operations, moving toward the massive invasions of World War II, and culminating in more recent amphibious operations, such as Suez, Vietnam, and the Falkland Islands. [ill, M, B, i] Croll, Mike. The History of Landmines. London: Cooper, 1998. A short, disjointed survey about the use of land mines, consciousness-raising about their implications, and international efforts to limit their use. [ill, B, i] Dastrup, Boyd L. The Field Artillery: History and Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994. The history, use, and users of field artillery from 1350 to the present. [glos, app, B, i] Duffy, Christopher. Siege Warfare: The Fortress in the Early Modern World, 1494-1660. New York: Routledge, 1979. A comprehensive study of siege warfare by country, including Italy, France, England, the Baltic states, China, and Japan. [ill, M, B, i] Griffith, Paddy. British Fighting Methods in the Great War. London: Cass, 1996. An effort to evaluate and rehabilitate opinion of British military tactical leaders and their methods, which, the author insists, deserve more credit than they have been given. [tab, B, i] Gudmundsson, Bruce I. On Artillery. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993. A short academic account of the use of artillery. [B, i] Hazlett, James C., et al. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War. Newark, N.J.: University of Delaware Press, 1983. An excellent reference work, with a detailed analysis of developments in artillery. [ill, tab, app, B, i] Hogg, O. F. G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday, and Decline. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1970. A history of artillery. [ill, B] Hughes, B. P. Firepower: Weapons Effectiveness on the Battlefield, 1630-1850. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1974. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized assessment of the performance of combined infantry, cavalry, and artillery during the formative seventeenth through nineteenth centuries. [ill, B, i] Macksey, Kenneth. Tank Warfare: A History of Tanks in Battle. New York: Stein, 1971. A history of development with an emphasis on tactics by a veteran armor officer. [ill, chr, B, i] McLean, Donald B., ed. Japanese Tanks, Tactics, and Antitank Weapons. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical, 1973. The story of tank developments and the use of the tank in the Japanese army. [ill] Marsden, Eric W. Greek and Roman Artillery: Technical Treatises. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. A detailed history of artillery used by and against the Greeks and Romans. [ill, B, i] Messenger, Charles. The Art of Blitzkrieg. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976. The story of developments in tank warfare, especially during the interwar period. [ill, B, i] Needham, Joseph. Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987. The story of the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare during the early modern period. [ill, B, i] Perrett, Bryan. A History of Blitzkrieg. New York: Stein, 1983. A popular history describing Germany’s use of the Blitzkrieg from Poland to Kursk, as well as the Blitzkrieg’s use by Americans, Japanese, and Israelis. [ill, B, i] Roland, Paul M. Imperial Japanese Tanks, 1918-1945. New York: Bellona, 1975. A survey of tank developments by the Japanese before and during World War II. [ill] Showalter, Dennis E. Railroads and Rifles: Soldiers, Technology, and the Unification of Germany. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1975. A critical and scholarly analysis by an eminent authority of the military impact of advanced technological developments on politics and international events. [M, B, i] Strachan, Hew. European Armies and the Conduct of War. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983. An outstanding example of the relation of strategic theory to actual practice. [ill, M, B, i] Van Creveld, Martin. Fighting Power: German and U.S. Army Performance, 1939-1945. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982. A comparative analysis of German and American fighting power. [tab, app, B, i] Vuksic, V., and Z. Grbasic. Cavalry: The History of a Fighting Elite, 650 B.C.-A.D. 1914. New York: Sterling, 1993. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized volume including one hundred color plates and a short narrative essay. [ill, i] Watson, Bruce A. Sieges: A Comparative Study. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993. An analysis of five case studies, including Jerusalem in 1099 and Singapore in 1942. [ill, M, B, i] Wright, Patrick. Tank: The Progress of a Monstrous War Machine. London: Faber, 2000. An anecdotal history of the tank, from its beginnings in 1914, when the crisis in trench warfare prompted British analysts to look toward engines and tracked vehicles to break the deadlock, to its evolution for use in Blitzkrieg warfare. [ill] Adams, Valerie. Chemical Warfare, Chemical Disarmament: Beyond Gethsemane. New York: Macmillan, 1989. An analysis of the nature of chemical warfare at the end of the Cold War. [B, i] Barnaby, Wendy. The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare. New York: Continuum, 2002. A detailed account of the possibility of biological warfare, including its potential use by terrorists. [B, i] Gander, Terry. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare. London: Ian Allan, 1987. A survey of different forms of warfare during the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Hammond, James W. Poison Gas: The Myths and Reality. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. Definitions, history, various scientific factors, and “myths” are reviewed. [B, i] Hoenig, Steven L. Handbook of Chemical Warfare and Terrorism. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002. A reference book giving a detailed survey on the nature of chemical warfare and also its possible use by terrorists. [B, i] Mauroni, Albert J. America’s Struggle with Chemical-Biological Warfare. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. A detailed review of the problems, challenges, and technicalities of chemical and biological warfare. [ill, tab, glo, B, i] Solomon, Brian, ed. Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1999. A post-Cold War survey of chemical and biological weaponry and scenarios for their possible deployment. [B, i] Spiers, Edward M. Chemical and Biological Weapons: A Study of Proliferation. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994. A survey of the problems of proliferation, using the Middle East as a focus. [tab, app, B, i] _______. Chemical Warfare. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986. A brilliant analysis presenting the origins and nature of chemical warfare. [app, B, i] _______. Weapons of Mass Destruction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. An overview and analysis, incorporating revelations of 1990’s terrorism proliferation and counterproliferation. Brown, Louis. A Radar History of World War II: Technical and Military Imperatives. Bristol: Institute of Physics, 1999. A detailed history of the radar. [ill, B, i] Buderi, Robert. The Invention That Changed the World: How a Small Group of Radar Pioneers Won the Second World War and Launched a Technological Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. The story of the making of radar. [ill, glo, B, i] De Archangelis, Mario. Electronic Warfare: From the Battle of Tsushima to the Falklands and the Lebanon Conflicts. New York: Sterling, 1985. A survey of the development and use of electronic warfare. [ill, M, B, i] Fisher, David E. A Race on the Edge of Time: Radar, the Decisive Weapon of World War II. New York: Paragon, 1989. A slightly exaggerated, but timely and insightful, account of radar use in World War II. [ill, tab, app, i] Hackmann, Willem D. Seek and Strike: Sonar, Antisubmarine Warfare, and the Royal Navy, 1914-54. London: H.M.S.O., 1984. The story of the development of sonar technology, the science of acoustics, and associated tactics. [ill, app, B, i] Kiely, D. G. Naval Electronic Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1987. A general survey, including coverage of radar and HF/DF, the radio direction-finding technology that was a key process in defeating German U-boats during World War II. [ill, i] Latham, Colin, and Anne Stobbs. Radar: A Wartime Miracle. Dover, N.H.: Sutton, 1996. A historical survey of radar’s use and performance during World War II. [ill, glo, app, B, i] Macksey, Kenneth. Technology in War: The Impact of Science on Weapon Development and Modern Battle. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1986. An important work on the nature of changing technology toward the end of the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Mendelsohn, Everett, Merritt Roe Smith, and Peter Weingart, eds. Science, Technology, and the Military. 2 vols. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1988. A very detailed academic account of the nature of science technology and its effects on military thinking at the end of the Cold War. [ill, B. i] Page, Robert M. The Origins of Radar. 1962. Reprint. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979. The story of the development of radar (an acronym for radio detection and ranging), first used in 1934 by an electronic engineer. [ill, i] Schleher, D. Curtis. Introduction to Electronic Warfare. Dedham, Mass.: Artech House, 1986. A historic account of the nature of electronic warfare during the latter period of the Cold War. [ill, B, i] Williams, Kathleen B. Secret Weapons: U.S. High-Frequency Direction-Finding in the Battle of the Atlantic. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1996. Details of the sophisticated and elaborate system of electronic warfare whereby the origin of the transmission of radio waves is pinpointed by antennas in various locations, a highly effective process that located German U-boats. [ill, M, B, i] Allsop, D. F., and M. A. Toomey. Small Arms. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1999. A useful survey. [ill] Ayalon, David. Gunpowder and Firearms in the Mamlūk Kingdom: A Challenge to a Medieval Society. London: Cass, 1978. A study of the early use of firearms in Egypt. [B, i] Bailey, J. B. Field Artillery and Firepower. New York: Military Press, 1987. A survey of more than 650 years of development in the area of field artillery, looking both at the technical aspects of different weapons systems and at the ways in which they have changed the tactics and strategy of warfare. [ill, B, i] Bradley, Iain. Firearms. Edinburgh: W. Green & Sweet and Maxwell, 1995. An overview of firearms laws and regulations. [il, i] Chase, Kenneth Warren. Firearms: A Global History to 1700. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. A general history of firearms. [ill, B, i] Ford, Roger. The Grim Reaper: Machine Guns and Machine Gunners in Action. New York: Sarpedon, 1997. A history of the invention, development, and use of the machine gun. [ill, B, i] Hobart, F. W. A. Pictorial History of the Machine Gun. London: Ian Allan, 1971. A detailed illustrated history of the development of the machine gun. [ill, i] Kelly, Jack. Gunpowder: A History of the Explosive That Changed the World. London: Atlantic Books, 2004. A history of the development of gunpowder. [ill, B, i] Pope, Dudley. Guns: From the Invention of Gunpowder to the Twentieth Century. New York: Delacorte, 1965. A general survey of military and naval ordnance. [ill] Alvarez, David J. Secret Messages: Codebreaking and American Diplomacy, 1930-1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000. A detailed account of the use of code breaking by the United States in the run-up to the Pacific war and during World War II. [ill, B, i] Andrew, Christopher M., ed. Codebreaking and Signals Intelligence. London: Cass, 1986. A series of essays by experts on signals intelligence (SIGINT), the most important method of intelligence collection in the twentieth century, including coverage of interception, code breaking, and cryptanalysis. [B] Budiansky, Stephen. Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II. New York: Free Press, 2000. A detailed history of the nature of code breaking in World War II, making use of many sources that did not become available until after the end of the Cold War. [ill, M, B, i] Copeland, B. Jack, et al., ed. Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park’s Codebreaking Computers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. A history of Bletchley Park making copious use of British government records that became available only at the end of the twentieth century. [ill, B, i] Hartcup, Guy. Camouflage: A History of Concealment and Deception in War. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1980. A study of camouflage as used in air, land, and naval contexts, with a series of national examples. [ill, B, i] Hesketh, Roger. Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign. London: St. Ermin, 1999. A previously classified report, revealing details about the successful deception campaign for the Normandy invasion in which the focus was on Calais. [ill, app, glo, M, B, i] Hinsley, F. H. British Intelligence in the Second World War. London: H.M.S.O., 1983. An abridged edition of the original five volumes of official history published in the late 1970’s, which revealed for the first time the unprecedented and massive intelligence operation based at Bletchley Park, seventy miles northwest of London, where ten thousand expert Allied operatives broke German, Italian, and Japanese codes and quickly informed pertinent commanders. [M, B, i] Hinsley, F. H., and Alan Stripp, eds. Code Breakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. A personalized and informative presentation of accounts by participants in the massive intelligence operation conducted during World War II. [ill, i] Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing. New York: Scribner, 1996. A detailed history of codes and code breaking from ancient times through to the Cold War, by one of the acknowledge experts in the field. [ill, B, i] Neilson, Keith, and B. J. C. McKercher. Go Spy the Land: Military Intelligence in History. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. A survey of the history of military intelligence. [B, i] Stripp, Alan. Codebreaker in the Far East. London: Frank Cass, 1989. An account of code breaking in East Asia and the Pacific war, including a detailed account of how the Japanese devised their own codes. [ill, B, i] Welchman, Gordon. The Hut Six Story: Breaking the Enigma Code. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. The extraordinary story by a major participant of Bletchley Park and the breaking of the German codes, describing the Bletchley Park environment and the process of decryption in an understandable manner. [ill, app, B, i] Baxter, James P. The Introduction of the Ironclad Warship. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2001. The best account of the nineteenth century transition to ironclad warships, describing five innovations: steam power, shell guns, the screw propeller, rifled guns, and armor. [ill, B] Boudriot, Jean. The Seventy-four Gun Ship: A Practical Treatise on the Art of Naval Architecture. Translated by David Roberts. 4 vols. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986-1988. An exquisitely comprehensive description of the standard ship of the line, with volumes on hull construction, fittings, rigging, and manning and ship handling. [ill] Breyer, Siegfried. Battleships and Battle Cruisers, 1905-1970. Translated by Alfred Kurti. New York: Doubleday, 1970, 1973. A short history of the battleship, followed by descriptions and more than nine hundred illustrations of every battleship of every country during the period from 1905 to 1970. [ill, tab, B] Brogger, A. W., and Haakon Shetelig. The Viking Ships: Their Ancestry and Evolution. Translated by Katherine John. Oslo: Dreyersforlag, 1951. An account not just of Viking longboats but also the orgin of their design and how they were later adapted in medieval Europe. [ill, M, i] Busk, Hans. The Navies of the World. London: Routledge, Warnes and Routledge, 1859. Facsimile. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1973. When originally published, this book provided a survey of the navies around the world just before the start of the American Civil War. Republished, this is an important contemporary source about naval power during the mid-nineteenth century. [ill, M] Campbell, N. J. M. Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1986. An extraordinarily detailed study and analysis of the performance of all guns of all calibers on both the British and German sides, with statistics on ammunition expended, the disposition of each round, the damage sustained, and the resulting damage-control measures. [ill, tab, B, i] _______. Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1985. An extensive, folio-sized, country-by-country survey of all naval weapons, with 750 illustrations. [ill, tab, i] Cipolla, Carlo M. Guns, Sails, and Empires: Technological Innovation and the Early Phases of European Expansion, 1400-1700. London: Collins, 1965. Reprint. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1996. A substantial survey of the crucial, much-debated question of whether naval armaments and related technological advances made European expansion and hegemony inevitable during the early modern period. [ill, B] Clancy, Tom. Submarine: A Guided Tour Inside a Nuclear Warship. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1993. An extraordinarily detailed report on an official tour of a nuclear submarine. [ill] Friedman, Norman. U.S. Naval Weapons: Every Gun, Missile, Mine, and Torpedo Used by the U.S. Navy from 1883 to the Present Day. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1982. A comprehensive review of naval weaponry. [ill, B, i] Gardiner, Robert, ed. Cogs, Caravels, and Galleons, 1000-1650. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1994. A large-folio-format survey of warships during the transition from medieval to modern times, from the Vikings to the Dutch. [ill, glo, B, i] Garzke, William H., Jr., and Robert O. Dulin, Jr. Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1985. An account of battleships operated by the Axis Powers as well as neutral countries in the early 1940’s. [ill, M, B, i] Gray, Edwyn. The Devil’s Device: Robert Whitehead and the History of the Torpedo. Rev. ed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1991. The story of how an English engineer working in Austria invented and developed the torpedo. [ill, B, i] Griffiths, Maurice. The Hidden Menace: Mine Warfare, Past, Present, and Future. London: Conway, 1981. A review of the numerous types of naval mines in language understandable by the layperson. [ill, i] Hobson, Rolf, and Tom Kristiansen. Navies in Northern Waters 1721-2000. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2004. An account of navies in northern Europe, with heavy emphasis on the Baltic. [B, i] Howarth, Stephen. The Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895-1945. New York: Atheneum, 1983. The story of the Imperial Japanese Navy, a massive and innovative naval force that achieved spectacular victories and equally devastating defeats, from its origin in 1894 until its demise in 1945. [ill, B, i] Kaufmann, Robert Y., et al. Submarine. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1993. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized volume supporting a televised documentary about submarines during and after World War II. [ill, B] Lane, Frederic C. Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance. 1934. Reprint. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. The history of one of the earliest and most important naval powers and its associated features, such as galleys, shipwrights, craft guilds, the construction process, timber supplies, and the famous Venice Arsenal. [ill, B, i] Lavery, Brian, ed. The Line of Battle: The Sailing Warship, 1650-1840. London: Conway, 1992. Part of an important series, The History of the Ship, this volume includes essays on types of ships and fittings. [ill, B, i] Lawliss, Chuck. The Submarine Book: A Portrait of Nuclear Submarines and the Men Who Sailed Them. New York: Thames, 1991. A short history of submarines and more details on modern nuclear-powered submarines. [ill] Macintyre, Donald G. F. W. Aircraft Carrier: The Majestic Weapon. New York: Ballantine, 1968. A popular account of the development of the aircraft carrier, seen especially as the decisive factor in the Pacific campaign of World War II. [ill, B] _______. Wings of Neptune: The Story of Naval Aviation. New York: Norton, 1964. A historical survey. [ill, B, i] Macintyre, Donald G. F. W., and Basil W. Bathe. The Man-of-War: A History of the Combat Vessel. London: Methuen, 1969. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized historical survey. [ill, B, i] Manson, Janet M. Diplomatic Ramifications of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 1939-1941. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990. A survey of international law and its implications, including case studies of U-boats during World War I, World War II, and American submarines in the Pacific, which all resorted to the same rationale. [M, B, i] Massie, Robert K. Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War. New York: Random House, 1991. A history of the political impetus by the European navies to build the dreadnoughts in an arms race before the outbreak of World War I. [ill, M, B, i] Neilson, Keith, and Elizabeth Jane Errington, eds. Navies and Global Defense: Theories and Strategy. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1995. Papers from a symposium held at the Royal Military College of Canada in 1994. [B, i] O’Connell, Robert L. Sacred Vessels: The Cult of the Battleship and the Rise of the U.S. Navy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. A virtual indictment, critical of the U.S. Navy’s excessive emphasis and reliance on the battleship, which, the author contends, was never an effective weapon. [ill, tab, B, i] Padfield, Peter. Guns at Sea. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized historical survey from the time of projecting stones to the present, with an emphasis on the technical and tactical aspects of guns at sea. [ill, B] Pivka, Otto von. Navies of the Napoleonic Era. New York: Hippocrene, 1980. A general overview that fills a void in a neglected area with accounts of spectacular Napoleonic battles, such as those of St. Vincent, Camperdown, Nile, Copenhagen, and Trafalgar. [ill, app, M, B] Polmar, Norman, et al. Aircraft Carriers: A Graphic History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events. New York: Doubleday, 1969. A full, detailed, scholarly, and engaging presentation. [ill, app, B, i] Reynolds, Clark G. The Fast Carriers: The Forging of an Air Navy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968. Reprint. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1992. A contribution to a controversial debate, arguing that fast carriers were the most significant naval development of World War II and especially decisive in the Pacific war. [ill, M, B, i] Robertson, Frederic L. The Evolution of Naval Armament. London: Constable, 1921. Reprint. London: Storey, 1968. A classic, comprehensive survey featuring progressive developments in gunnery, gun carriages, propelling machinery, and armor. [ill, B, i] Rodgers, William L. Naval Warfare Under Oars: Fourth to Sixteenth Centuries: A Study of Strategy, Tactics, and Ship Design. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1939. Reprint. Norwalk, Conn.: Easton Press, 1991. A narrative history of events related to the use of galleys in the Mediterranean, by the Vikings, and during naval wars of England, France, and Italy. [ill, M, B] Sondhaus, Lawrence. Navies of Europe: 1815-2002. Harlow: Longman, 2002. An overview of the changes in the nature of navies from the end of the Napoleonic Wars through to the end of the twentieth century. [ill, M, B, i] Unger, Richard W., ed. Cogs, Caravels, and Galleons: The Sailing Ship, 1000-1650. London: Conway, 1994. A profusely illustrated, folio-sized volume focused on the technological advances of the sailing ship and its navigation. [ill, glo, B, i] Whitley, M. J. Battleships of World War II: An International Encyclopedia. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1988. A detailed encyclopedia covering battleships by all countries during World War II. [ill, M, glo, B, i] Alexander, John B. Future War: Nonlethal Weapons in Modern Warfare. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. An argument that innovative electromagnetic, acoustical, and psychological weapons are called for in the post-Cold War era of peacekeeping, humanitarian, and antiterrorist military missions. [ill, B, i] Morehouse, David A. Nonlethal Weapons: War Without Death. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996. The story of the development of nonlethal weapons in the twentieth century, associated with the search for alternative methods of combat. [ill, tab, B, i] Rappert, Brian. Non-lethal Weapons as Legitimizing Forces? Technology, Politics, and the Management of Conflict. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 2003. Addresses state-of-the-art nonlethal weapons such as acoustic weapons, electromagnetic pulse beams, and calmative chemical agents. [ill, B, i] Bernstein, Barton J., ed. The Atom Bomb: The Critical Issues. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976. A comprehensive assessment, featuring arguments both for and against the development and use of the atomic bomb. [B] Caldicott, Helen. The New Nuclear Danger: George W. Bush Military-Industrial Complex. New York: New Press, 2004. An account of the increased importance of the military-industrial complex by one of the leading Australian antinuclear campaigners. [ill, B, i] Cimbala, Stephen J. Nuclear Weapons and Strategy: U.S. Nuclear Policy for the Twenty-first Century. New York: Routledge, 2005. An important survey of the nature of nuclear weapons. [B, i] Gerson, Joseph. Empire and the Bomb: How the U.S. Uses Nuclear Weapons to Dominate the World. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Pluto Press, 2007. A detailed account of the use and the threat of use of nuclear weapons, especially in Asia, including scenarios in China, during the Korean War, during the Vietnam War, and in the Middle East. [B, i] Gray, Colin S. The Second Nuclear Age. Boulder, Colo.: Rienner, 1999. A discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in the post-Cold War era, concluding that nuclear arms control is not working and that China is a future potential antagonist. [B, i] Groueff, Stephane. Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967. A report by a French journalist about the extraordinary and massive endeavor, with much interesting information from interviews of participants. [ill, B] Groves, Leslie R. Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Harper, 1962. A firsthand account by the project’s nonscientist director, an American general. [ill, i] Harris, John B., and Eric Markusen, eds. Nuclear Weapons and the Threat of Nuclear War. New York: Harcourt, 1986. A presentation based on Cold War situations. [B] Herf, Jeffrey. War by Other Means: Soviet Power, West German Resistance, and the Battle of the Euromissiles. New York: Free Press, 1991. A detailed account, from a political viewpoint, of the introduction of nuclear missiles into Western Europe during the 1980’s. [B, i] Hilsman, Roger. From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World Without War: A History and a Proposal. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999. An account of U.S. nuclear strategy by an adviser to President John F. Kennedy. [B, i] Irving, David J. C. The German Atomic Bomb: The History of Nuclear Research in Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967. By a controversial author, the definitive history of the attempt by Germany to develop the atomic bomb; based on extensive primary research. [ill, M, B] Kahn, Herman. On Thermonuclear War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1960. Three lectures on the nature and feasibility, plans and objectives, and analysis of thermonuclear war. [ill, tab, i] Maddox, Robert James. Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision Fifty Years Later. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995. An assessment of the controversial decision to drop the atomic bomb at the end of World War II. [B, i] Paul, T. V., and James J. Wirtz, eds. The Absolute Weapon Revisited: Nuclear Arms and Emerging International Order. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998. An essential and timely study, reevaluating nuclear weapons policies in the post-Cold War environment and analyzing their problems and potential. [i] Perkovich, George. India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. A report on a particularly crucial issue: India and the proliferation of nuclear weapons in one of the most dangerous hot spots in the world. [M, B, i] Quester, George H. Nuclear First Strike: Consequences of a Broken Taboo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. An account of the problems with nuclear escalation and likely scenarios in which the United States could resort to nuclear warfare. [B, i] Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. A clear and understandable narrative about the hydrogen bomb, with expert analysis and informative detail. [ill, glos, B, i] _______. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. Awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award, a comprehensive account focusing on developments in nuclear physics and the scientific aspects and technical complexities of the atomic bomb. [ill, B, i] Wainstock, Dennis. The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996. A history of the thinking that went behind the decision by President Harry S. Truman to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, written on the fortieth anniversary of the bombing. [B, i] Walker, J. Samuel. Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs Against Japan. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Analyzes President Harry S. Truman’s decision to use atomic weapons against Japan in 1945, looking not only at what was and was not known by Truman himself but also at Japanese attitudes toward surrender. Provides the context in which the decision was made to use atomic weapons and examines an array of factors that eventually convinced Japan to end the war. [B, i] Annis, P. G. W. Naval Swords: British and American Naval Edged Weapons, 1600-1815. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole, 1970. A general survey. [B, i] Bartlett, Clive. English Longbowman, 1530-1515. London: Osprey, 1997. Explains how the success of the English military during the Late Middle Ages was built on the effective use of the longbow. A characteristically English weapon, it was not overcome in its ability to pierce armor or in its rate of fire until the early twentieth century. [ill, B] Bishop, M. C., and J. C. N. Coulston. Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome. London: Batsford, 1993. An important history showing the changes in Roman military hardware. [ill, M, B, i] Bradbury, Jim. The Medieval Archer. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985. An important and useful, if somewhat dated, survey. [ill, B, i] De Souza, Philip. The Ancient World at War. London: Thames & Hudson, 2008. This study includes chapters on warfare in various regions around the world. [ill, M, B, i] Drews, Robert. The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993. Gives a military explanation for the fall of the Levantine, Hittite, Mycenaean, and Trojan kingdoms and the “dark age” that followed the end of the Bronze Age in the early twelfth century b.c.e.[ill, M, B, i] Featherstone, Donald. Bowmen of England. London: Jarrolds, 1967. An account of how English archers were to change the nature of warfare in western Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, by one of the leading British authors on war gaming. Hamblin, William J., ed. Warfare in the Ancient Near East c.1600 B.C. New York: Routledge, 2005. A detailed account of the nature of fighting in the Eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia. [ill, M, B, i] Kern, Paul Bentley. Ancient Siege Warfare. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999. This book covers various different parts of the ancient world and is based on the premise that siege warfare was responsible for unleashing violence throughout the ancient world. [ill, M, glo, B, i] Malone, Patrick M. The Skulking Way of War: Technology and Tactics Among the Indians of New England. Lanham, Md.: Madison Books, 1991. A survey of the ways of war among North American indigenous peoples. [ill, M, B, i] Osgood, Richard. Warfare in the Late Bronze Age of North Europe. Oxford: Archaeopress, 1998. An account of the nature of warfare among the Germanic tribes from Roman sources. Makes heavy use of archaeological evidence. [ill, M, B, i] Osgood, Richard, and Sarah Monks, with Judith Toms. Bronze Age Warfare. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Sutton, 2000. Using contemporary written sources, mainly Roman, this history makes extensive use of the latest archaeological finds. [ill, M, B, i] Sidebottom, Harry. Ancient Warfare. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. An account of warfare in the ancient world, including descriptions on ancient military philosophy. [M, glo, B, i] Snodgrass, Anthony. Early Greek Armour and Weapons: From the End of the Bronze Age to 600 B.C. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1964. With profuse illustrations and literary sources such as Homer, a collection of descriptions of helmets, shields, armor, swords, spears, bows and arrows, and chariots. [ill, B, i] Underwood, Richard. Anglo-Saxon Weapons and Warfare. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Tempus, 1999. A study based on an extensive and informative survey from the artifacts, such as helmets, shields, mail coats, swords, spears, and knives, recovered from the famous Sutton Hoo ship burial in East Anglia. [ill, B, i]