General Reference

  • Adam, Barry. The Rise of the Gay and Lesbian Movement. 1987. Reprint. New York: Twayne, 1995. Detailed overview of how gays and lesbians organized in the last half of the twentieth century to press for their civil rights.
  • Bagemihl, Bruce. Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Examination of many species in which homosexual behavior is apparent.
  • Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Makings of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940. New York: Basic Books, 1994. Sociological survey of the gay subculture in New York City over a half century.
  • Clendinen, Dudley, and Adam Nagourney. Out for Good: The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999. Account of demands for lesbian and gay rights in protests such as the Stonewall Rebellion of 1969.
  • D’Emilio, John. The World Turned: Essays on Gay History, Politics, and Culture. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002. Exploration of the social, political, and cultural contributions of gays and lesbians.
  • Dynes, Wayne R., ed. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1990. This two-volume encyclopedia, now out-of-print and somewhat dated, is available in many library collections.
  • Ericksen, Julia A., and Sally A. Steffen. Kiss and Tell: Surveying Sex in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999. Brilliant overview of sexual mores in the twentieth century.
  • Herman, Didi. The Antigay Agenda. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. Survey of the arguments leveled against homosexuality by various groups, including politicians and clergymen, many of whom consider homosexuality pathological.
  • Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A., a Documentary History. Rev. ed. New York: Plume, 1992. Publication of these primary documents established gays and lesbians within the country’s history and stimulated the growth of gay and lesbian historical research and the growth of gay and lesbian archives.
  • Marcus, Eric. Making Gay History: The Half Century Fight for Gay and Lesbian Equal Rights. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Overview of the growth of the gay and lesbian movement during the second half of the twentieth century.
  • Roughgarden, Joan. Evolution’s Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Demonstrates the universality of homosexuality in nature.
  • Stein, Marc, ed. Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2004. Three-volume encyclopedia covering LGBT lives, issues, and experiences in the United States.


  • Adelman, Jeanne, et al., eds. Lambda Gray: A Practical, Emotional, and Spiritual Guide for Gays and Lesbians Who Are Growing Older. North Hollywood, Calif.: Newcastle, 1993. Helpful handbook for gays and lesbians approaching old age.
  • Berger, Raymond M. Gay and Gray: The Older Homosexual Man. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982. Considers older gay men from a broad range of socioeconomic backgrounds. Presents detailed case studies.
  • Clunis, D. Merilee, et al. Lives of Lesbian Elders: Looking Back, Looking Forward. New York: Haworth Press, 2005. Oral history of sixty-two lesbian women in the Western United States between the ages of fifty-five and ninety-five.
  • MacDonald, Barbara. Look Me in the Eye: Old Women, Aging, and Ageism. San Francisco, Calif.: Spinsters Ink, 1983. Sensitive consideration of the status of women, many of them lesbians, as they age in American society. Focuses especially on those who face old age without conventional family ties.


  • Clum, John. Acting Gay: Male Homosexuality in Modern Drama. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. Valuable resource on gay sexuality depicted in drama during the last decades of the twentieth century.
  • Laufe, Abe. The Wicked Stage: A History of Theater Censorship and Harassment in the United States. New York: F. Ungar, 1978. Considers many aspects of censorship, including the repression of gay and lesbian themes and allusions by regulators of the entertainment industry.
  • Wallis, Brian, Marianne Weems, and Philip Yenawine, eds. Art Matters: How the Culture Wars Changed America. New York: New York University Press, 1999. Section two deals specifically with HIV-AIDS. In section four, “Homophobia at the N.E.A.” is of special interest.
  • Wolverton, Terry. Insurgent Muse: Life and Art at the Woman’s Building. San Francisco, Calif.: City Lights, 2002. History of the feminist artists and lesbian artists, and their work, at the Woman’s Building, a now-defunct community of artists in Los Angeles.

Citizenship and Immigration

  • Luibheid, Eithne. Entry Denied: Controlling Sexuality at the Border. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Emphasizes attempts to “control” sexuality by stopping gays and lesbians along national borders.
  • Phelan, Shane. Sexual Strangers: Gays, Lesbians, and the Dilemmas of Citizenship. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001. Consideration of inhospitable immigration regulations aimed at discouraging gay and lesbian immigration.


  • Bernbach, Jeffrey M. Job Discrimination II: How to Fight, How to Win. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Voir Dire Press, 1998. Outlines how gays and lesbians can ensure and protect their rights in the workplace.
  • Friedman, Mack. Strapped for Cash: A History of
    American Hustler Culture. Los Angeles: Alyson, 2003. Deals forthrightly with the motivations, largely economic, that lead young men, many of them heterosexual, into offering sex for money.
  • Gluckman, Amy, and Betsy Reed, eds. Homo Economics: Capitalism, Community, and Lesbian and Gay Life. New York: Routledge, 1997. Detailed study of lesbians and gays as consumers and a look at how GLBT culture is used as a model for marketing.
  • McNaught, Brian. Gay Issues in the Workplace. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Assesses difficulties facing gays and lesbians in the workplace.
  • Penelope, Julia, ed. Out of the Class Closet: Lesbians Speak. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1994. A collection of writings examining the personal effects of lesbian sexuality, class, and economics.
  • Raeburn, Nicole C. Changing Corporate America from Inside Out: Lesbian and Gay Workplace Rights. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Considers how American corporations have become more accepting of gays and lesbians and of what rights lesbians and gays have won in corporate America.


  • Drucker, Jane. Lesbian and Gay Families Speak Out: Understanding the Joys and Challenges of Diverse Family Life. Oxford, England: Perseus, 2001. Suggests ways to overcome the pitfalls society often imposes on lesbian and gay families.
  • Fairchild, Betty. Now That You Know: A Parents’ Guide to Understanding Their Gay and Lesbian Children. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. Suggests how parents of gay and lesbian children can address their own feelings and prejudices regarding sexual orientation.
  • Griffin, Carolyn W., and Marian J. Wirth. Beyond Acceptance: Parents of Lesbians and Gays Talk About Their Experiences. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Largely an account from parents of gays and lesbians who reveal how they have faced their children’s sexuality.


  • Berry, Mary Frances. Why ERA Failed: Politics, Women’s Rights , and the Amending Process of the Constitution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. Survey of the dynamics of attempting to pass the Equal Rights Amendment.
  • Crow, Barbara A., ed. Radical Feminism: A Documentary Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2000. Comprehensive collection of classic primary source documents examining the history of radical feminism.
  • Edwards, Tim. Erotics and Politics: Gay Male Sexuality, Masculinity, and Feminism. New York: Routledge, 1994. A study of the collaborative but also antagonistic relationship between feminism and gay male sexuality and masculinity.
  • Faderman, Lillian. Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship Between Women from the Renaissance to the Present. New York: William Morrow, 1981. History of “romantic friendships” between women during a four hundred year period.
  • _____. To Believe in Women: What Lesbians Have Done for America—A History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. Considers the suffrage movement and how lesbians helped women win the vote, make gains in education, and helped women enter the professions. Includes a fine chapter on how Emily Blackwell became the first female physician.
  • Jay, Karla. Tales of the Lavender Menace: A Memoir of Liberation. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Personal exploration of the critical import of lesbians—the “lavender menace”—to the women’s movement of the late 1960’s and the 1970’s.
  • Reinfelder, Monika, ed. Amazon to Zami: Towards a Global Lesbian Feminism. New York: Cassell, 1996. Examines lesbian feminism from a global perspective.
  • Thompson, Becky. “Multiracial Feminism: Recasting the Chronology of Second Wave Feminism.” Feminist Studies 28, no. 2 (2002). Oft-cited journal article on the contributions of “multiracial feminism” within the feminist movement in general.

Government and Politics

  • Heger, Heinz. The Men with the Pink Triangle: The True, Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps. Translated by David Fernbach. Rev. ed. Boston: Alyson, 1994. Chilling account of the internment of gays in Nazi Germany from 1933 until the end of World War II in 1945.
  • Hertzog, Mark. The Lavender Vote: Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals in American Electoral Politics. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Argues that America’s gay and lesbian population is a potent political force that can, when organized, tilt the electoral balance in close political races.
  • Johnson, David K. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Thorough assessment of the witch-hunts of the Cold War period, a time when many gays and lesbians were dismissed from their jobs and blacklisted in part because they were considered subject to blackmail and because many people mistakenly associated being gay or lesbian with being communist.
  • Rayside, David Morton. On the Fringe: Gays and Lesbians in Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998. Assessment of the potential for lesbians and gays to exercise considerable political clout.


  • Andriote, John-Manuel. Victory Deferred: How AIDS Changed Gay Life in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Sociological consideration of the effects of the HIV-AIDS epidemic on the gay community.
  • Crimp, Douglas, ed. Melancholia and Moralism: Essays on AIDS and Queer Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002. Valuable account of how questions of morality and religious prohibitions against gay sex affect how society has addressed HIV-AIDS.
  • Gostin, Lawrence O., and Michael Kirby. The AIDS Pandemic: Complacency, Injustice, and Unfulfilled Expectations. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Overall assessment of the treatment of HIV-AIDS in the United States and of a discouraging public indifference to the disease.
  • Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987. Excellent account of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980’s.

Laws, Acts, and Legal History

  • Ball, Howard. The Supreme Court in the Intimate Lives of Americans: Birth, Sex, Marriage, Childbearing, and Death. New York: New York University Press, 2002. Review of U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning issues of sexuality.
  • D’Emilio, John, William B. Turner, and Urvashi Vaid, eds. Creating Change: Sexuality, Public Policy, and Civil Rights. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002. Discusses public policy regarding matters of sexuality in the last half of the twentieth century.
  • Koppleman, Andrew. The Gay Rights Question in Contemporary American Law. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Thorough investigation of the legal rights of gays and lesbians and how constitutional provisions guarantee their civil liberties.
  • Murdoch, Joyce, and Deb Price. Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians v. the Supreme Court. New York: Basic Books, 2001. Examines the history of the U.S. Supreme Court on issues concerning lesbians and gays.
  • Pinello, Daniel R. Gay Rights and American Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Extensive overview of the legal status of lesbians and gays in U.S. society.


  • Faderman, Lillian, ed. and comp. Chloe Plus Olivia: An Anthology of Lesbian Literature from the Seventeenth Century to the Present. New York: Penguin Books, 1995. Huge collection on all aspects of lesbian literature, including romantic friendships, coded works, lesbian feminism, gender, and more.
  • Levin, James. The Gay Novel in America. New York: Garland, 1991. Considers gay novels in the United States from the mid-1950’s until the late 1970’s.
  • Miller, Meredith. Historical Dictionary of Lesbian Literature. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2006. Includes several hundred cross-referenced articles on lesbian and woman-identified writers, with entries on literary movements, styles, themes, and more.
  • Pernal, Mary. Explorations in Contemporary Feminist Literature: The Battle Against Oppression for Writers of Color, Lesbian, and Transgender Communities. New York: P. Lang, 2002. Examines the state of lesbian, transgender, and racial and ethnic minority writers within feminist literature.
  • Robinson, Paul. Gay Lives: Homosexual Autobiography
    from John Addington Symonds to Paul Monette. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Survey of notable gay literary figures writing about their own sexual orientation.
  • Summers, Claude J., ed. Gay Fictions, Wilde to Stonewall: Studies in a Male Homosexual Literary Tradition. New York: Continuum, 1990. Overview of gay literature that addresses homosexuality over nearly a century.

Marches, Protests, and Riots

  • Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004. Detailed presentation of how the 1969 Stonewall Rebellion marked a turning point in GLBT activism.
  • Duberman, Martin. Stonewall. New York: Dutton, 1991. Thorough study of the 1969 Stonewall Rebellion and its social, cultural, and political implications.
  • Pope, Lisa, et al. One Million Strong: The 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay, and Bi Equal Rights. New York: Alyson, 1993. Most-detailed account of the 1993 March on Washington.
  • Shepard, Benjamin, and Ronald Hayduk, eds. From ACT UP to the WTO: Urban Protest and Community Building in the Era of Globalization. New York: Verso, 2002. Anthology on the history of ACT UP, exploring the group’s “innovative use of civil rights era non-violent disobedience, media work and race and community building.”


  • Baird, Robert M., and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, eds. Same-sex Marriage: The Moral and Legal Debate. 2d ed. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2004. Comprehensive collection examining same-gender marriage from the perspectives of morality, law, legislation, and ethics. Includes personal stories, legal excerpts and analysis, and the U.S. government’s position on the issue.
  • Bourassa, Kevin, and Joe Varnell. Just Married: Gay Marriage and the Expansion of Human Rights. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002. Written from a Canadian point of view, this study focuses on human rights and gays and lesbians.
  • Graff, E. J. What Is Marriage For? The Strange Social History of Our Most Intimate Institution. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999. Deals with all aspects of marriage and considers such matters as money, procreation, kinship, babies, and sex.
  • Hull, Kathleen E. Same-sex Marriage: The Cultural Politics of Love and Law. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Examines same-gender marriage rights from the perspective of cultural politics.
  • Mello, Michael. Legalizing Gay Marriage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. Assesses arguments in favor of and in opposition to same-gender marriage.
  • Moats, David. Civil Wars: A Battle for Gay Marriage. Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, 2004. Examines recent developments in the move toward same-gender marriage.
  • Rauch, Jonathan. Gay Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America. New York: Times Books, 2004. Argues persuasively for same-gender marriage.
  • “Same-Sex Marriage: A Selective Bibliography of the Legal Literature.” Law Library, Rutgers School of Law. .html. A comprehensive collection on the issue of same-gender marriage around the world.
  • Wolfson, Evan. Why Marriage Matters: America, Equality, and Gay People’s Right to Marry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Presents the argument for same-gender marriage under the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution.


  • Barrios, Richard. Screened Out: Playing Gay in Hollywood, From Edison to Stonewall. New York: Routledge, 2002. History of how overt gay elements were excluded from Hollywood films for the first six decades of the twentieth century.
  • Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. Classic account of how subtle homosexual allusions were smuggled into Hollywood films.
  • Tropiano, Stephen. The Prime Time Closet: A History of Gays and Lesbians on TV. New York: Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, 2002. Comprehensive account of the exclusion of lesbian and gay topics from television.


  • Bérubé, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two. New York: Free Press, 1990. Explores the lives of gays and lesbians who served in the U.S. military during World War II.
  • Halley, Janet E. Don’t: A Reader’s Guide to the Military’s Anti-Gay Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1999. Discusses the roles President Bill Clinton and Congress played in dealing with the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell legislation of the 1990’s.
  • Shilts, Randy. Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Thorough account of the hazards gays and lesbians faced, and still face, in the military. Gays and lesbians, even long-term military personnel, often receive dishonorable discharges.


  • Bayer, Ronald. Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. New York: Basic Books, 1981. Classic on the politics of homosexuality and psychiatric practice and diagnosis in the United States.
  • Ellis, Havelock. Sexual Inversion. London: Wilson, 1897. A landmark study of homosexuality that considers it pathological. Important work for the discussion and further investigation that it sparked, most of which proved Ellis misguided in his conclusions.
  • Hegarty, Peter, and Cheryl Chase. “Intersex Activism, Feminism, and Psychology.” In Queer Theory, edited by Iain Morland and Annabelle Willox. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Study of the political partnership between intersex activists and feminists, and their social influence on the field of psychology.
  • Kinsey, Alfred C., Wardell B. Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Martin. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Oxford, England: Saunders, 1953. Monumental study of sex practices among a broad and representative range of women.
  • _______. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Oxford, England: Saunders, 1948. Landmark study that helped spark the sexual revolution of future decades. Based on thousands of interviews with men from all walks of life. Chapter 21, “The Homosexual Outlet,” is especially relevant.

Race and Ethnicity

  • Eng, David L., and Alice Y. Hom, eds. Q & A: Queer in Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Assessment of the generational and familial issues faced by queer Asian Americans.
  • Fenno, Richard F. Going Home: Black Representatives and Their Constituents. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Examines the responsibilities of African American legislators in dealing with questions that are often at odds with their constituents’ beliefs.
  • Lorde, Audre. I Am Your Sister: Black Women Organizing Across Sexualities. Freedom Organizing Pamphlet Series 3. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1985. Examines lesbian sexuality and political movement in the black community.
  • Moraga, Cherríe L., and Gloria E. Anzaldúa, eds. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings By Radical Women of Color. 3d rev. and expanded ed. Berkeley, Calif.: Third Woman Press, 2002. Classic anthology of work by women and lesbians of color. Oft-used text in literature, women’s studies, American studies, lesbian and gay studies, and in courses on race and ethnicity.
  • Wat, Eric C. The Making of a Gay Asian Community: An Oral History of Pre-AIDS Los Angeles. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Sociological examination of the development of a gay Asian community in Los Angeles.


  • Bull, Chris, and John Gallagher. Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and Militant Homosexuality. New York: Crown, 1996. An assessment of the prejudices the Religious Right harbors against homosexuality and of the clash of values.
  • Harding, Susan Friend. The Book of Jerry Falwell: Fundamentalist Language and Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. Of special interest is chapter 6, “The Moral Majority Jeremiad.”
  • McNeill, John J. The Church and the Homosexual. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993. Considers how mainstream religion often shunned homosexuality, leading to the formation of such gay- and lesbian-friendly churches as the Metropolitan Community Church.
  • Perry, Troy D. Don’t Be Afraid Anymore: The Story of the Rev. Troy Perry and the Metropolitan Community Churches. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990. First-person account of how MCC founder, the Reverend Troy Perry, dealt with his own homosexuality, how he ministered to other gays and lesbians, and how he established gay-friendly churches throughout the United States.
  • Richards, David A. J. Identity and the Case for Gay Rights: Race, Gender, Religion as Analogies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Examines sexual orientation as an aspect of human existence that, like race and gender, is protected as a civil right.
  • Righter, Walter C. A Pilgrim’s Way: The Personal Story of the Episcopal Bishop Charged with Heresy for Ordaining a Gay Man Who Was in a Committed Relationship. New York: Random House, 1998. An account of the fallout caused by Righter’s decision to ordain a gay man.
  • Schmitt, Arno, and Johoeda Safer. Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies. New York: Haworth Press, 1991. Despite the sexual restrictions in Islamic societies—and in many cases because of them—homosexuality, while condemned in the Islamic world, is not absent from it.
  • Shneer, David, and Caryn Aviv, eds. Queer Jews. New York: Routledge, 2002. Collection of accounts of how practicing Jews deal with their own homosexuality.
  • Spong, Shelby S. Why Christianity Must Change or Die: A Bishop Speaks to Believers in Exile. San Francisco, Calif.: HarperCollins, 1998. A rational argument for the church’s need to accept gays and lesbians both as members and as clergy.


  • Griffin, Pat. Strong Women, Deep Closets: Lesbians and Homophobia in Sport. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics, 1998. Comprehensive analysis— with oral interviews of lesbian athletes, coaches, and sports administrators—of lesbians, sports, and the prevailing issue of homophobia and Stereotyping.
  • Kopay, David, and Perry Deane Young. The David Kopay Story: An Extraordinary Self-Revelation. New York: Arbor House, 1977. After a ten-year NFL career, Kopay became the first prominent male professional athlete to come out publically.
  • Louganis, Greg, and Eric Marcus. Breaking the Surface. New York: Random House, 1995. Self-portrait of the Olympic gold-medal-winning diver who achieved happiness after coming out as HIV-positive and gay.
  • Navratilova, Martina, with George Vecsey. Martina. New York: Knopf, 1985. Account of how tennis champion Martina Navratilova came out as a lesbian and a lesbian athlete.
  • Richards, Renee, with John Ames. Second Serve: The Renee Richards Story. New York: Stein & Day, 1983. Biography of Renee Richards, who continued to play championship tennis and practice medicine following gender-reassignment surgery in 1975.
  • Tuaola, Esera, and John Rosengren. Alone in the Trenches: My Life as a Gay Man in the NFL. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks, 2006. First-person account of Tuaola’s nine-year NFL career and his fear of being outed as gay.
  • Young, Perry Deane, and Martin Duberman, general ed. Lesbians and Gays and Sports. New York: Chelsea House, 1995. Concise study of gays and lesbians in the world of sports, including tennis, football, baseball, and the Olympics.


  • Benjamin, Harry. The Transsexual Phenomenon. New York: Julian Press, 1966. Also available online at benjamin/. A groundbreaking and now-classic work in the field of transgender and transsexual studies.
  • Califia, Patrick. Sex Changes: The Politics of Transgenderism. 2d ed. San Francisco, Calif.: Cleis Press, 2003. A politically radical perspective on transgender life, written by a female-to-male transgender activist.
  • Devor, Holly. FTM: Female to Male Transsexuals in Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997. Particularly useful are chapter 4, “Family Scenes,” chapter 10, “Crisis at Puberty,” and chapter 20, for its coming-out stories.
  • Ekins, Richard, and David King, eds. Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing. New York: Routledge, 1996. Fifteen selections by thirteen contributors on cross-dressing and transsexuality. Of particular interest is chapter 15, a controversial work called “The Politics of Transgenderism,” by Janice Raymond.
  • Feinberg, Leslie. Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to RuPaul. Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. Two especially interesting chapters examine the “holy war” against trans people and the transgender movement “From Germany to Stonewall.”
  • Halberstam, Judith. Female Masculinity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998. Readable and imaginative academic account of female masculinity, with chapters on “Looking Butch,” “Drag Kings,” and “Raging Bull (Dykes).”
  • Meyerwitz, Joanne. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002. Chapter 2 explores Christine Jorgensen’s gender-reassignment. Chapter 5, on the sexual revolution, is especially relevant.